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                                                                                    Pronoun

What is a Pronoun?

For a complete list of pronouns, 
Pronouns are the stunt doubles of the English language. They keep communication going with or without the nouns. Pronouns come in to keep nouns from getting repetitive or when nouns are not clearly known. They do more work than you think, so read on to learn about them.
Subject and object pronouns are used in everyday language. However, it can be tricky to remember which is which. The subject always takes action. The object is part of the activity, but it does not do any acting. Here is an example:
Shelby likes talking to Marvin.

Shelby is the subject; she is liking and talking. Marvin is the object; all the liking and talking is done to Marvin but not by Marvin.

Subject and object pronouns function in the same way.
Subject pronouns include I, you, he, she, it, they, we. 
Object pronouns include me, you, him, her, it, us, them. See the following examples:

Subject
I might see you later.
You have to come now.
She lives in Nebraska.
He makes me angry
It just might work.
They caught the last train.
We can’t see the end.

Object
Sarah hit me on the arm.
I need to tell you something.
Larry took him aside.
The message wasn’t for her.
Take it to the store.
Summer is fun for us.
Margaret took them downstairs.

Possessive pronouns show who owns something described in a sentence. They include mine, his, hers, its, ours, yours, their, and theirs. Possessive adjectives are similar to possessive pronouns. However, the possessive adjective comes before the object of the sentence; the possessive pronoun is the object of the sentence. See the difference here:

That is my dog. (possessive adjective, before the object “dog”)
The dog is mine. (possessive pronoun, which is the object)

Intensive pronouns and reflexive pronouns look the same. However, they act differently in a sentence. Intensive pronouns put an emphasis on other pronouns or nouns. Reflexive pronouns rename the subject in a sentence. Look at the following examples:

Intensive pronoun – She herself will go to the bank. (herself emphasizes the pronoun she)
Reflexive pronoun – She cut herself on the arm. (herself renames the pronoun she)

Intensive and reflexive pronouns include:
myself, yourself, himself, herself, itself, ourselves, yourselves, and themselves.
Demonstrative pronouns refer to things in relation to distance. 
This and these refer to things that are close by. That and those refer to things farther away.

This is your shirt.
That is my house on the corner.
These good friends are sitting next to me.
Those roads in the next town are bumpy.

Indefinite pronouns replace nouns that are not specified. They include the following: all, another, any, anybody, anyone, anything, both, each, either, everybody, everyone, everything, few, many, neither, nobody, none, no one, nothing, one, several, some, somebody, someone, and something. Read the example sentences for a better understanding.

We gave everything to the homeless shelter
All were sad to see the children go.
Give a present to each as they come in.

Interrogative pronouns are used to ask a question. They include who, whom, what, which, whose, whoever, whomever, whatever, and whichever. Consider the example sentences below:

Which of these do you like best?
Who was just in this room?
Whatever happens next, I am prepared.

Relative pronouns connect (relate) noun or pronoun clauses with other parts of a sentence. They include who, whom, what, which, whose, whoever, whomever, whatever, whichever, and that. See how these are used in the sentences below.

The paper that she just wrote is due tomorrow.
Learning is easier for people who have a good teacher.
Whoever leaves the room needs to turn off the light

.

Advanced Rules

                                  Pronoun Reference 5.0

 

1.  Autism is a physical disorder of the brain who causes a lifelong developmental disability. Unfortunately, a number of boys and girls become victim of it after their birth. Children with autism vary widely in their activities, abilities, behaviors etc. and the symptoms may appear differently in him. The sorrows and sufferings of the parents of those know no bounds. Though the autistic children are quite different in activities from the normal children, they should not be neglected. Rather, we have a great responsibility towards them.

(DB ’19]

 

 

 2.  Salam and Salma are siblings. They read in a local primary school. Salam is in class five whereas her sister, Salma reads in class three. They go to school together. Sometimes they take rickshaw because it is five kilometers away from his home. Today, she is going to school with her father because her brother, Salam is sick. He is taking medicine and bed rest.

[RB ’19, ’16;]

 

 

3.  Both educated and uneducated women are at present as important as men in our society. She constitutes nearly half of our total population. No country can make real progress keeping half of it in darkness. Without the upliftment of our women, it is not at all possible. Again, without education, women cannot be uplifted. So proper education should be given to her in order that they can work hand in hand with them in all development programmes.

(JB ’19)

 

 

 4.  Women are now-a-days as important as men in society. She constitutes nearly half of the total population. No nation can make real progress keeping half of it in the dark. Without the improvement of the women’s status, it is not at all possible. Again, without education, women cannot be uplifted. So, proper education should be given to her so that they can work hand in hand with them in all development programmes.

(CB ’19; CB’16; BB ’16;]

 

 

5.  Do you know the importance of trees? They are our best friends. Our existence on earth will be at stake without it. We inhale oxygen which trees produce. Again, we exhale carbon dioxide which it absorb. Besides, we get food from trees and firewood to cook it. But some irresponsible people cut down trees indiscriminately. It should be brought to light. Furthermore, one should take keen interest to plant more trees so that we can live comfortably on earth.

(CtgB ’19;]

 

 

 6.  Robin hates people who are mean to animals. Last afternoon, as he was walking home from work, he saw some boys throwing stones at an old lame dog. Immediately, he rushed to help the animal. “Stop it”! he shouted as he ran towards the unruly boys, “Leave him alone!” Startled by the big man’s shouts, they ran away. One of them jeered at him while running away. Robin, however, was totally unmoved by the jeering. He was happy that he could save it. Robin has always felt some affection for animals. Once he even went to the police station to complain about a neighbour who threw a cat out of the window. Instead of taking any action, they laughed at him and advised him not to worry about such ‘petty’ matters.

[SB ’19]

 

 

 7.  Honesty is the best policy. It is honesty which brings happiness in life. Without it, none can dream of a great life. These who were great in their lifetime were honest. They worked with sincerity, lived earnestly and died with honour. His contributions to this world are unforgettable. So if you want themselves to be in their league, be honest. Remember, there is no shortcut way to a great life.

(BB ’19;]

 

 

 8.  The Liberation War of Bangladesh is a memorable event in our national life. She achieved her independence through sacrifice and bloodshed. It is the birthright of a man. On the night of March 25, 1971, the Pakistan army fell upon the unarmed sleeping Bangalees. But we were not cowards. They built up strong resistance against them. They fought with courage for long nine months. After nine months’ bloody war and sacrifice of the freedom fighters, the red sun of independence rose in our soil on the 16th December 1971. Now we remember them with great respect.

(DjB ’19]

 

 

 9.  There lived a man in a village which had a great attraction to English. He went to a teacher in order to learn English well though he was dull-headed. He tried his best to teach him but the man learnt only three English words-yes, no and very good. Though the man did not know the meaning of it, he used them frequently in his conversation. He did not understand that a little learning is a dangerous thing and very soon he would be a victim of it.

[Combined Board ’18]

 

 

10.  The Egyptians believed that after death, people would go to another world. One thought that in that world, people still would need many things he had on earth. Their kings had many wonderful treasures. They loved and respected them very much. So, they buried them with dead kings.

(Combined Board ’18 (Code-185)

 

 

11.  Travelling is a part of education. These means going from place to place. One can enhance knowledge by going from place to place. Thus gives one the opportunity to see the unseen and know the unknown. Some people are averse to travelling. This limits his vision. However, by travelling different parts of the world, my knowledge may be enriched.

[DB’17; CB’17; DJB’16]

 

 

12.  Education is the birthright of every man. But even then many people in our country are deprived of this for many reasons. They are unconscious and unskilled for want of it. For this, they are unable not only to develop their own fate or their family, but also unable to play any role for the development of society or the state. If the people are not properly educated, that is not possible. So, the more we can educate our people, the more the country will be developed. With a view to developing human resource, the government has given many benefits in the field of expanding the primary and secondary education. We must ensure these for every child of the country.

 [RB’17]

 

 

 13.  Mandela left public life in June 2004 telling his adoring countrymen not to call them. Regarding it, Nadine Gordimer said, “He is at the epicenter of his time, our in South Africa and your, wherever you are.”

{JB ’17)

 

 

 14.  A rich man went to a farmer with one thousand taka in a bag. He said to him, “Look, my friend, I have brought one thousand taka for you. Keep this money and remove your distress.” He was surprised. He took the bag from the rich man and thanked him. He said to himself, “One thousand taka is a lot of money.” He could not think where to keep the money. He did not find any safe place. He dug a hole in his hut and kept it there.

(CtgB’17)

 

 

15.  Books are the medium through which human beings talk with enlightened minds, the great men of the world. They are our best friends. They introduce them to the life and the world. Books are the mirrors of past, present and even future. These are having an active voice. We know about the thoughts and deeds of our ancestors through it. They make the noble men alive in the world for ever.

[SB’17)

 

 

16.  Teaching is a profession who is full of challenge. I want to be a teacher because you like working withchildren. But my father argues that one cannot make much money from it. He wants me to look after their farms instead. But this does not inspire me much.

[BB’17]

 

 

17.  Sunlight is the source of all energy of the earth. All the living beings are dependent upon this. Greenplants are the producers of the ecosystem. All plants and animals of it are interconnected serially. Consequently, there develops a food chain among these. The transfer of food energy takes place from producers through a series of food levels. This is called the food chain in the ecosystem. There are numerous food chains in an ecosystem. Food chain does not work in isolation. These are linked together to form a food web.

(DjB ’17]

 

 

18.  A cook once roasted a duck for its master. He looked so delicious that he could not resist the temptation and ate up one of drumsticks. When he sat down to eat the meal, he quickly noticed the missing leg. He asked him what had happened to the other leg. The cook told him that it had one leg only. The master said that there was no such thing as a one-legged duck but the cook insisted that every duck had only one leg.

[DB ’16]

 

 

19.  On a summer day, becoming very thirsty, a lion and a boar came at the same moment to a small well to drink. Those fiercely quarrelled which of them should drink first, and were soon engaged in a mortal fighting. On his stopping on a sudden to take breath for renewal of the fighting, it saw some vultures waiting in the distance to feast on the one which should fall first. They at once stopped the quarrel, saying: “That is better for us to make friends than to become the food of crows or vultures, as will certainly happen if ourselves are disabled.”

(JB ’16]

 

 

 20.  Life is full of struggles. These are quite normal in any one’s life as it is not a bed of roses. Certainly, it has ups and downs. A man has to face innumerable barriers in his life. Sometimes he can overcome those but sometimes he fails to combat them. He may be born with silver spoon without any trouble. But even then he has to overcome a lot of such to be successful in life. In other words, life is full of challenges. If he cannot fight them successfully, his life becomes full of sorrows. Though the scholars differ in giving the definition of life, they are unanimous that obstacles are the ways of life. Infact, a man has to undergo many in his life.

[CtgB’16)

 

 

21.  A stormy night is fearful and horrible. They causes untold sufferings to the people. In a stormy night;the whole sky is totally overcast with dark cloud. Only the roaring of violent wind can be heard. The wind begins to blow with fearful sound from no directions. People get frightened with sound of storm. In addition to it, there is thundering and lightning. The frequent thundering and lighting causes much terror and fear in the mind of the people whom always think that this night may be the end of our lives and the terrible and destructive storm will never come to an end. Storm causes harm to them. The house roofs are blown away. Many trees are uprooted. A large number of houses and shelters are damaged within a very short time. Standing crops are badly damaged. That is thus a dreadful night to the people.

[SB’16]

 

 

22. Once two women came to King Solomon’s court with a baby and each of them claimed that they were mother of that baby. He thought for a while and got a brilliant idea. He ordered one of his men to cut the baby into two equal halves and give one half to them. The real mother of the baby became very nervous by this, but the other woman was totally untouched by the event. The king noticed the “; change in the face of her and handed over the baby to her and punished the other woman.

 

 

 23. Boiled egg is very nutritious and tasty as well. Besides, it is not a difficult task at all. If one wants to boil eggs, he has to pour some water into a pot at first. Then the pot should be kept on a burner. After that the eggs should be put into a pot. Then it should be let to boil for about five minutes. Afterwards they should be taken out with a spoon. After cooling them they should be separated from them to be prepared for eating.

 

 

 24. The Taj Mahal is surrounded by a beautiful garden and there is a long pool that stretches out in front of the building. He can see the beauty of the Taj Mahal in this reflection in the pool water. Visitors come to see these wonderful building at different times of the day since it assume a different look at different times. Most people like this best on moonlit nights.

 

 

25. At the writing centre, you can receive help on any writing assignment. It can make your writing stronger by discussing it with someone else. This will lead to a greater understanding of the proper mechanics and style expected in academic writing. This is an important part of the writing process, and they spend a good deal of time making sure you understand the expectations of written assignments. Using it will definitely make your writing skills stronger, and that will give you greater confidence for your next assignment. (Rajshahi Cadet College, Rajshahi-2018: Safiuddin Sarker Academy & College,

 

 

 

                                                               Pronoun References 5.1

Identify the unclear pronoun references in the following paragraph. Where necessary, rewrite the sentences so that all pronoun references are clear.

  1. Teaching is a profession what is full of challenge. I want to be a teacher because you like working with children. But my father argues that one cannot make much money from it. He wants me to look after their farms instead. Actually, I want to own a farm in future. I think it is a good idea to have farm experience before buying it.

  2. Reading comprehension questions test develops your ability to understand a passage and answer questions on the basis of what is stated and implied in it. One needs to read the passage first so that you can identify the main idea of the passage. If the learners are not clear of the main idea of the passage, it will be really hard for them to answer the questions. It is because most of them are done based on it.

  3. The Liberation War of Bangladesh is a memorable event in our national life. She achieved her independence through sacrifice and bloodshed. It is the birth right of a man. On the night of March 25, 1971, the Pakistan army fell upon the unarmed sleeping Bengalese. But they were not cowards. They built up strong resistance against them. They fought with courage for nine months. After nine months’ bloody war and the sacrifice of the freedom fighters, the red sun of independence rose in our soil on the 16th December 1971. Now we remember them with great respect.

  4. Character is the most valuable thing in our life. It is called the crown of human life. There are some noble qualities that distinguish a good man from a bad man. A man who cherishes these can be successful in his life. A man of character is respected everywhere. Many people do not know how much valuable it is. A man will be loser if he loses his character. A man without it is like a beast. He has no moral scruple and is capable of doing any evil thing. Nobody likes an unscrupulous person. Everybody likes a man who has good character. He is like a beacon-light and one of the moral forces of the world.

  5. Women are nowadays as important as men in society. She constitutes nearly half of our total population. No nation can make real progress keeping half of it in the dark. Without the uplift of women, it is not at all possible. Again without education, women cannot be uplifted. Proper education should be given to her so that they can work hand in hand with them in all development programmers.

  6. Once a king ordered his cook to prepare a delicious duck roast. When it was cooked, he could not resist his temptation and ate one of the legs of a roasted duck. When he sat down to eat, he found one of the legs of the duck was missing and so, he asked the cook about it. But the cook said that it had only one leg. At this, the king got furious and said that there was no such thing as a one legged duck.

  7. Tension means mental, emotional and nervous strain. When a man feels tension, it becomes unfriendly towards others and which may develop into conflict. According to the physicians, tension is the source of disease. There is no man in the world without her. But over tension is harmful for health. If a man wants to be free from tension, it has to remain busy in various activities. An active man always avoids him by remaining busy in his works.

  8. The countries of the world have their own histories. They are recorded through the researches of scholars in various ages. They are called historians. It is done very carefully with proof of diverse ways conforming the truth. As clouds cannot hide the sun forever, lies cannot envelope it for a long time. Today or tomorrow, it must flee away and truth will reign the ages.

  9. Capital punishment is a controversial matter of the present time. It is a matter of debate whether capital punishment should be allowed in modern societies. Many countries have already withdrawn capital punishment from its legal systems. Still capital punishment is considered an essential part of justice in many countries. People against it argue that capital punishment is something irrevocable. They can devoid a man of their life but cannot give it to a man. So, it is not right to take away something that we cannot return.

  10. Life is full of struggles. These are quite normal in any one’s life as it is not a bed of roses. Certainly, it has ups and downs. A man has to face innumerable barriers in his life. Sometimes, he can overcome those but sometimes he fails to combat them. He may be born with silver spoon without any trouble. But even then he has to overcome a lot of such to be successful in life. In other words, life is full of challenges. If he cannot fight them successfully, his life becomes full of sorrows. Though the scholars differ in giving the definition of life, they are unanimous that obstacles are the ways of life. In fact, a man has to undergo many in his life.

  11. Man is naturally very inquisitive, and so, they want to know the unknown and see the unseen. It is the driving force for all the inventions throughout the human civilization. But, we should keep it in mind that nothing is invented overnight and scientists work for days together to invent what we wish for. They have worked for years and invented the computer. It has brought out a radical change in the field of communication and entertainment.

  12. In our country, people have different views about woman. The majority cannot consider men and women on equal terms. They are treated either with a feeling of compassion or they are deprived of their rights. Ignorance and very frequently illiteracy, among us are the main reasons behind this type of attitude. It is true that as general rule girls whether from poor or rich families are much loved and cared for by the father and brothers. We also need to remember that these are often denied by another woman. We first have to make them aware of the great harm they are doing. In the matter of attitude women need to face men folk with the expectation of being treated rightly as women.

  13. Once there were two friends, a grocer and a fruit-seller. The grocer was intelligent, the later was dishonest. One day he borrowed a balance and weights from him. After a few days, he told his friend to return his balance and weights. The fruit-seller showed a lame excuse and said that a rat had eaten away its balance and weights. It made the fruit-seller very angry.

  14. In small village, a little boy lived with its father and mother. He was the only son for him. The parents of the little boy were very depressed due to its bad temper. The boy used to get angry very soon and taunt others with his bad words. He scolded kids, neighbours and even his friends due to anger. He invited all worries for its parents through it. As a result, his friends and neighbours avoided it.

  15. Childhood seems to be the golden period of one’s life when he becomes adult and recollects the memory of being a child. It is very sweet to call up them. If you often look back on one’s boyhood days, they will surely turn you back to that. There is hardly any man he does not feel passionate while thinking about their childhood day. These are an excellent asset to any passionate person.

  16. In the old days, when men were allowed to have many wives, a middle-aged man had one wife what was old and one that was young; each loved them very much, and desired to see it like herself. Now the man’s hair was turning grey, which the young wife did not like, as he made him look too old for her husband. So every night she used to comb his hair and pick out the white ones. But the elder wife saw her husband growing grey with great pleasure, for she did not like to be mistaken for his mother. So, every morning she used to arrange their hair and pick out as many of the black ones as she could. The consequence was the man soon found itself entirely bald.

  17. Othello was a brave soldier whom had risen to become a General. He had shown it bravery in many bloody battles against the Truks. Someone praised him and the senate trusted him. Brabantio, a rich senator of Venice, had only one child, a daughter named Desdimona. Brabantio often invited Othello to his house where he and her daughter listened in wonder to Othello as she spoke about his adventures.

  18. Once upon a time, there lived a poor widow. She had a son. He was foolish. One day, the widow told him to sell the calf. It was their only asset. The boy took the calf to the market. But he could not sell them. An old man took the calf for three pea-nuts. In the evening the boy returned home with those pea-nuts. She got furious to see it. She threw away the peanuts out of the window. Next morning, he saw a big nut tree beside their house. He climbed up the tree. He saw a big palace on the top of the tree.

  19. Once upon a time an old lady lost his eyesight. Then she called in a doctor and said to them, “I will give you a rich reward if he can cure my eye sight.” The doctor started the treatment. But she was very greedy. He was attracted by the valuable things in the lady’s house. The doctor used to steal the things away every day. The lady got back her eyesight by this time. When the doctor demanded it the old lady said that she did not get back her eyesight as she could not see any valuable thing in her house.

  20. A beggar is person that begs from door to door. There are some beggars who beg on streets. He is called street beggars. It is not a profession. It is a social problem. They are the ignoble persons in the society. Though they earn money by begging, they do not contribute to it.

              Pronoun Reference Worksheet- 5.2 
1.    Salam and Salma are siblings. They read in a local primary school. Salam is in class five whereas her sister, Salma, reads in class three. They go to school together. Sometimes they take rickshaw because it is five kilometers away from his home. Today, she is going to school with her father because her brother, Salam is sick. He is taking medicine and bed rest.


2.    On a summer day, becoming very thirsty, a lion and a boar came at the same moment to a small well to drink. Those fiercely quarreled which of them should drink first and were soon engaged in a mortal fighting. On his stopping on a sudden to take breath for renewal of the fighting, it saw some vultures waiting in the distance to feast on the one which should fall first. They at once stopped the quarrel, saying: “That is better for us to make friends then to become the food of crows or vultures, as will certainly happen if ourselves are disabled.


3.    Women are nowadays as important as men in society. She constitute nearly half of our total population. No notion can make real progress keeping half of it in darkness. Without the uplift of women, it is not at all possible. Again, without education, women cannot be uplifted. So proper education should be given to her so that they can work hand in hand with them in all development programs.

4.    Life is full of struggles. These are quite normal in any one’s life as it is not a bed of roses. Certainly, it has ups and downs. A man has to face innumerable barriers in his life. Sometimes he can overcome those but sometimes he fails to combat them. He may be born with silver spoon without any trouble. But even then he has to overcome a lot of such to be successful in life. In other words, life is full of challenges. If he cannot fight them successful, his life becomes full of sorrows. Though the scholars differ in giving the definition of life, they are unanimous that obstacles are the wys of life. In fact, a man has to undergo many in his life.


5.    A stormy night is fearful and horrible. They causes untold sufferings to the people. In a stormy night, the whole sky is totally overcast with dark cloud. Only the roaring of violent wind can be heard. The wind begins to blow with fearful sound from no directions. People get frightened with sound of storm. In addition to it, there is thundering and lightning. The frequent thundering and lighting causes much terror and fear in the mind of the people whom always think that this night may be the end of our lives and the terrible and destructive storm will never come to an end. Storm causes harm to them. The house roofs are blown away. Many trees are uprooted. A large number of houses and shelters are damaged within a very short time. Standing crops are badly damaged. That is thus a dreadful night to the people.

6.    Once upon a time there lived a young man named Androcles. He was caught by a slave merchant who sold him to a rich man in another country. He was very bed and tortured him. One day he fled from his master’s house and took shelter in a cave. In the evening a lion entered the cave. He seemed wounded. It was so severe that he was groaning. He came near Androcles and lifted his paw. He took his paw in his hand and saw a sharp piece of stone stuck to his paw. He pulled the stone out. The lion was relieved of his pain.


7.    Street accidents have become a matter of daily occurrence nowadays in our country. In the morning when we open the newspaper, we have to see the news of street accidents. They, of course, happen mostly due to rash driving. They are being killed and hundreds are being wounded every year. At present it has become almost impossible to predict which vehicle will reach the destination safely. One cannot say that he will reach home without being injured by accident. It seems that they are made only for the drivers of the automobiles and they are given license to do what they like.

8.    The Taj Mahal is surrounded by a beautiful garden and there is a long pool that stretches out in front of the building. He can see the beauty of the Taj Mahal in this reflection in the pool water. Visitors come to see these wonderful building at different times of the day since it assume a different look at different time. Most people like this best on moonlit nights.


9.    Honesty is the best policy. It is honesty which brings happiness in life. Without it, none can dream of a great life. These who were great in their lifetime were honest. They worked with sincerity, lived earnestly and died with honour. His contributions to this world are unforgettable. So, if you want to be in their league, be honest. Remember, there is no short-cut to a great life.

10.    Human beings have invented many important things so far and he have brought a great civilization to the world through this inventions. But the greatest invention is the invention of a wheel which is a circular object and can rotate around their axis and help easy movement of things across a surface. They are, in fact, everywhere; that are on our cars, trains, planes, wagons and so on. They cannot imagine modern life without wheels. But we do not know exactly which made the first wheel.


11.    Teachers are the guardians of the civilization. In fact, they are like the candles. It is because they burn themselves to give light to their students like those. They are really worthy of getting respect. They do not consider the caste and creed of the student. They treat all equally and spare no pains to teach them. They not only teach in the classroom but also mould their character to be a complete human being. They consider it a mission. They take care of the students very sincerely to make this a success. They are social reformers too. They lead the society to the right direction. So, the society needs those. Though they do their duty round the clock, most of them are economically insolvent because they do not work for achieving their selfish end.

12.    Many people think that poverty is great evil who makes life a hell. On the other hand money can make him feel happy. But it is not true. If we investigate a poor man, we may find happiness in him, but if we do the same for the rich, we may find unhappiness in her. For this, we often say that they are not always happy. Actually it consists in contentment.


13.    Children must pass through several stages in his lives to become adults. For most people, there are four or five such stages of growth where it learns certain things. Persons 18 and over are considered adults in our society. Of course, there are some which will try to act older then her years.

14.    The Liberation war of Bangladesh is a memorable event on our national life. She achieved her independence through sacrifice and blood-shed. It is the birth right of a man. On the night of March 25, 1971, the Pakistan army fell upon the unarmed sleeping Bangalees. But we are not cowards. They built up strong resistance against them. They fought with courage for long nine months. After nine months’ war and the sacrifice of the freedom fighters, the red sun of independence rose in our soil on the 16th December 1971. Now we remember them with great respect.


15.    Long ago there lived a hare in a forest. He was always proud of his speed. A tortoise also lived nearby. He always teased him for his slow speed. This made the tortoise very angry and he said, "You can run fast, no doubt. But I think you can talk even faster than you can run." Then the tortoise proposed to run a race with the hare. The hare gladly accepted it. They both went to a fox and asked him to be the judge of their race. The fox agreed. Other beasts of the forest were also invited. On the appointed day they met a cross road. He read out some rules to be followed by both of them. The destination of the race was also marked. Finally, the race began.


16.    Liberty does not descend upon a people. A people must raise itself to it. It is a fruit that must be earned before it can be enjoyed. That freedom means freedom only from foreign domination is an outworn idea. It is not merely the government who should be free, but people themselves should be free and no freedom has any real value for the common man of woman unless she is free from want, free from disease and free from ignorance. This is the main task which confronts us if we are to take our rightful place in the modern world. We can’t hold the clock back and therefore, it is we who must go forward at a double pace bending all our resources and all our energies to the purpose.

17.    King Lear, a father of three daughters:Goneril, Regan and Cordelia, ruled his kingdom for many years and arrived almost at the end of their days. He was very much tired of it and decided to divide the kingdom among three daughters. That would be materialized only after his daughters had expressed her love for him in words. Their expression made him both happy and angry; the sweet but false words of Goneril and Regan made him happy whereas the practical but genuine words from Cordelia made him angry. Therefore, he divided his kingdom between the first two daughters giving Cordelia noting which he thought a good decision but by the later activities of the first two daughters proved that it was wrong.


18.    There have been significant changes in the types of entertainment over time. Many of that no longer exist. Even if that do, people keep looking for newer forms of entertainment. Thus snake charming, puppet shows, jatra, jarigan, sharigan and kabigan, who were common forms of entertainment in the past, have almost lost them appeal. Radio, who used to be a good source of entertainment in the past, is now giving place to television and to satellite channels in particular.

19.    Lear, the aging king of Britain, decides to step from the throne and divide its kingdom evenly among his three daughters. First, however, he puts his daughters through a test, asking each to tell him how much they love him. Goneril and Regan, Lear’s old daughters, give her father flattering answers. She also befools the old king. But Cordeliar, Lear’s youngest and favourite daughter, remains silent, saying that she has no words who will describe her earnest love to her father. Lear flies into a rage and disowns them.


20.    Poetry in every language celebrates beauty and truth. It is also celebrated in art. In the test book there are two poems. They present some enduring ideas about beauty and truth. One is written by Lord Byron (1788-1824), and one is written by Emily Dickonson (1830-1886). The former is an English poet of Romantic tradition, but the other is an American poet. They have celebrated it very well in their poems.
 

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