Rules for each part of speech with examples:
Rule: Nouns can function as subjects or objects in a sentence.
Example: Mountain climbing requires physical strength.
Rule: Abstract nouns represent ideas or concepts.
Example: Freedom is a cherished value in society.
Rule: Proper nouns refer to specific names and are capitalized.
Example: My friend visited Paris last summer.
Rule: Collective nouns represent groups of people or things.
Example: The jury reached a unanimous decision.
Rule: Nouns can be countable or uncountable.
Example: I have two books (countable) to read and some information (uncountable) to share.
Rule: Nouns can possessive forms to show ownership.
Example: John's car is in the garage.
Rule: Compound nouns combine two or more words to create a single noun.
Example: She bought a toothbrush.
Rule: Gerunds are verbs used as nouns, ending in "-ing."
Example: Swimming is her favorite hobby.
Rule: Nouns can be singular or plural.
Example: The cat (singular) is playful. The cats (plural) are playful.
Rule: Concrete nouns represent physical objects.
Example: The table is made of wood.
Rule: Pronouns replace nouns to avoid repetition.
Example: She went to the store, and I stayed at home.
Rule: Reflexive pronouns indicate that the subject and object are the same.
Example: She cut herself while cooking.
Rule: Demonstrative pronouns point to specific things.
Example: I prefer this book over that one.
Rule: Relative pronouns introduce relative clauses.
Example: The person who called is waiting outside.
Rule: Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions.
Example: What are you doing?
Rule: Indefinite pronouns refer to nonspecific people or things.
Example: Everyone is invited to the party.
Rule: Reciprocal pronouns indicate a mutual action.
Example: They hugged each other.
Rule: Possessive pronouns show ownership.
Example: The book is mine.
Rule: Intensive pronouns emphasize a preceding noun.
Example: I made the cake myself.
Rule: Personal pronouns change form based on their role in the sentence.
Example: She sees him every day.
Rule: Verbs express actions or states of being.
Example: She runs every morning.
Rule: Modal verbs indicate possibility, necessity, or ability.
Example: You should complete the assignment.
Rule: Transitive verbs require a direct object; intransitive verbs do not.
Example: He ate (transitive) a sandwich. She slept (intransitive).
Rule: Regular verbs form past tense by adding "-ed."
Example: She walked to school yesterday.
Rule: Irregular verbs have unique past tense forms.
Example: I ate dinner an hour ago.
Rule: Action verbs describe activities.
Example: He jogged in the park.
Rule: Stative verbs express states of being.
Example: She knows the answer.
Rule: Auxiliary verbs help form tenses and moods.
Example: They are playing soccer.
Rule: Phrasal verbs consist of a verb and one or more particles.
Example: He looked up the word.
Rule: Verbs can be infinitives, gerunds, or participles.
Example: She likes to sing (infinitive). She enjoys singing (gerund).
Rule: Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns.
Example: The blue sky is clear today.
Rule: Comparative adjectives compare two things.
Example: This book is more interesting than the last one.
Rule: Superlative adjectives compare three or more things.
Example: Mount Everest is the tallest mountain.
Rule: Adjectives can be predicative or attributive.
Example: The cake is delicious (attributive). The taste is delicious (predicative).
Rule: Adjectives answer questions like "which," "what kind of," or "how many."
Example: Whose car is parked outside?
Rule: Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.
Example: She spoke loudly.
Rule: Adverbs often end in "-ly" but not always.
Example: He ran quickly; she solved it fast.
Rule: Adverbs of frequency describe how often an action occurs.
Example: I always enjoy reading.
Rule: Adverbs of manner explain how an action is performed.
Example: The car moved gracefully down the road.
Rule: Adverbs can express time, place, or degree.
Example: She will come soon.
Rule: Prepositions show relationships between words in a sentence.
Example: The cat is sitting on the table.
Rule: Prepositions can indicate time, place, direction, or manner.
Example: He walked through the park.
Rule: Some prepositions form idiomatic expressions.
Example: They are interested in learning.
Rule: Prepositions are not used to end sentences with.
Example: This is the book I was looking for.
Rule: The object of a preposition is the noun or pronoun following it.
Example: She is fond of chocolate.
Rule: Coordinating conjunctions connect similar elements.
Example: I like both tea and coffee.
Rule: Subordinating conjunctions introduce dependent clauses.
Example: I'll go if you come with me.
Rule: Correlative conjunctions come in pairs.
Example: Either you finish the project, or I will.
Rule: Conjunctions are used to express relationships between ideas.
Example: He studied hard yet didn't pass.
Rule: Some conjunctions are used in pairs to balance ideas.
Example: She is not only a great singer but also a talented dancer.