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Parts of Speech- Usage and Rules

Rules for each part of speech with examples:


Rule: Nouns can function as subjects or objects in a sentence.

  • Example: Mountain climbing requires physical strength.

Rule: Abstract nouns represent ideas or concepts.

  • Example: Freedom is a cherished value in society.

Rule: Proper nouns refer to specific names and are capitalized.

  • Example: My friend visited Paris last summer.

Rule: Collective nouns represent groups of people or things.

  • Example: The jury reached a unanimous decision.

Rule: Nouns can be countable or uncountable.

  • Example: I have two books (countable) to read and some information (uncountable) to share.

Rule: Nouns can possessive forms to show ownership.

  • Example: John's car is in the garage.

Rule: Compound nouns combine two or more words to create a single noun.

  • Example: She bought a toothbrush.

Rule: Gerunds are verbs used as nouns, ending in "-ing."

  • Example: Swimming is her favorite hobby.

Rule: Nouns can be singular or plural.

  • Example: The cat (singular) is playful. The cats (plural) are playful.

Rule: Concrete nouns represent physical objects.

  • Example: The table is made of wood.


Rule: Pronouns replace nouns to avoid repetition.

  • Example: She went to the store, and I stayed at home.

Rule: Reflexive pronouns indicate that the subject and object are the same.

  • Example: She cut herself while cooking.

Rule: Demonstrative pronouns point to specific things.

  • Example: I prefer this book over that one.

Rule: Relative pronouns introduce relative clauses.

  • Example: The person who called is waiting outside.

Rule: Interrogative pronouns are used to ask questions.

  • Example: What are you doing?

Rule: Indefinite pronouns refer to nonspecific people or things.

  • Example: Everyone is invited to the party.

Rule: Reciprocal pronouns indicate a mutual action.

  • Example: They hugged each other.

Rule: Possessive pronouns show ownership.

  • Example: The book is mine.

Rule: Intensive pronouns emphasize a preceding noun.

  • Example: I made the cake myself.

Rule: Personal pronouns change form based on their role in the sentence.

  • Example: She sees him every day.


Rule: Verbs express actions or states of being.

  • Example: She runs every morning.

Rule: Modal verbs indicate possibility, necessity, or ability.

  • Example: You should complete the assignment.

Rule: Transitive verbs require a direct object; intransitive verbs do not.

  • Example: He ate (transitive) a sandwich. She slept (intransitive).

Rule: Regular verbs form past tense by adding "-ed."

  • Example: She walked to school yesterday.

Rule: Irregular verbs have unique past tense forms.

  • Example: I ate dinner an hour ago.

Rule: Action verbs describe activities.

  • Example: He jogged in the park.

Rule: Stative verbs express states of being.

  • Example: She knows the answer.

Rule: Auxiliary verbs help form tenses and moods.

  • Example: They are playing soccer.

Rule: Phrasal verbs consist of a verb and one or more particles.

  • Example: He looked up the word.

Rule: Verbs can be infinitives, gerunds, or participles.

  • Example: She likes to sing (infinitive). She enjoys singing (gerund).


Rule: Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns.

  • Example: The blue sky is clear today.

Rule: Comparative adjectives compare two things.

  • Example: This book is more interesting than the last one.

Rule: Superlative adjectives compare three or more things.

  • Example: Mount Everest is the tallest mountain.

Rule: Adjectives can be predicative or attributive.

  • Example: The cake is delicious (attributive). The taste is delicious (predicative).

Rule: Adjectives answer questions like "which," "what kind of," or "how many."

  • Example: Whose car is parked outside?


Rule: Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs.

  • Example: She spoke loudly.

Rule: Adverbs often end in "-ly" but not always.

  • Example: He ran quickly; she solved it fast.

Rule: Adverbs of frequency describe how often an action occurs.

  • Example: I always enjoy reading.

Rule: Adverbs of manner explain how an action is performed.

  • Example: The car moved gracefully down the road.

Rule: Adverbs can express time, place, or degree.

  • Example: She will come soon.


Rule: Prepositions show relationships between words in a sentence.

  • Example: The cat is sitting on the table.

Rule: Prepositions can indicate time, place, direction, or manner.

  • Example: He walked through the park.

  1. Rule: Some prepositions form idiomatic expressions.

    • Example: They are interested in learning.

Rule: Prepositions are not used to end sentences with.

  • Example: This is the book I was looking for.

Rule: The object of a preposition is the noun or pronoun following it.

  • Example: She is fond of chocolate.


Rule: Coordinating conjunctions connect similar elements.

  • Example: I like both tea and coffee.

Rule: Subordinating conjunctions introduce dependent clauses.

  • Example: I'll go if you come with me.

Rule: Correlative conjunctions come in pairs.

  • Example: Either you finish the project, or I will.

Rule: Conjunctions are used to express relationships between ideas.

  • Example: He studied hard yet didn't pass.

Rule: Some conjunctions are used in pairs to balance ideas.

  • Example: She is not only a great singer but also a talented dancer.

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