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1. ‘Some people think that changing people’s attitudes to other countries, and culture is an important factor in reducing world poverty. Others, however, feel that the most important method is trade.’

View: Changing Attitudes as a Key Factor in Reducing World Poverty:

· Fostering empathy and cooperation: By promoting understanding and positive attitudes towards other countries and cultures, there is a greater likelihood of cooperation and collaboration in poverty reduction efforts.

· Encouraging aid and support: Improved attitudes may lead to increased foreign aid and support from developed countries to those in need, addressing poverty through assistance.

· Cultural exchange and learning: Embracing diverse cultures can lead to knowledge sharing and innovative solutions to poverty-related challenges.

· Reducing conflict: Improved attitudes may help mitigate conflicts and tensions between nations, creating a more stable environment for poverty reduction initiatives.

View: Trade as the Most Important Method in Reducing World Poverty:

· Economic growth and development: Trade can stimulate economic growth, create job opportunities, and uplift communities out of poverty through increased commerce and investment.

· Market access and competitiveness: Trade opens up access to global markets, allowing developing countries to compete and benefit from the international economy.

· Technology and knowledge transfer: Trade facilitates the transfer of technologies, expertise, and best practices, enabling poorer nations to improve their productivity and infrastructure.

· Sustainable development: Trade can support sustainable development by promoting industries that utilize local resources and foster environmentally friendly practices.

Balanced Perspective:

· Combining both approaches: A comprehensive strategy involving changing attitudes and promoting trade is likely to have the most significant impact on reducing world poverty.

· Synergy of efforts: Improving attitudes can facilitate more cooperative and equitable trade agreements, creating win-win situations for nations involved.

· Addressing root causes: While trade can drive economic growth, addressing deeper issues such as corruption, inequality, and lack of education is essential to effectively reduce poverty.

· Long-term sustainability: Sustainable development practices should be integrated into trade agreements, ensuring that economic growth benefits all segments of society.


Both changing attitudes towards other countries and promoting trade are crucial elements in reducing world poverty. They complement each other and should be pursued together to create a more comprehensive and effective approach. Emphasizing positive attitudes can foster cooperation and empathy, while trade can provide the economic impetus for long-term poverty reduction and sustainable development. To combat poverty successfully, a multi-faceted strategy that combines these two approaches is essential for achieving lasting global progress.

2. Some people think that they should spend money they earn now enjoying life, while others think that the money should be put into savings for future.

Discuss both views and give your opinion.

View: Spending Money to Enjoy Life Now:

· Living in the present: Some argue that life is unpredictable, and it's essential to enjoy the money they earn now, rather than waiting for an uncertain future.

· Quality of life: Spending on experiences and enjoyable activities can enhance one's quality of life, providing lasting memories and happiness.

· Reward for hard work: People may feel entitled to enjoy the fruits of their labor and see spending as a well-deserved reward.

· Economic impact: Immediate spending can boost consumer demand, supporting the economy and creating job opportunities.

View: Putting Money into Savings for the Future:

· Financial security: Saving money provides a safety net for unexpected emergencies, ensuring one is prepared for challenging times.

· Retirement planning: Putting money into savings allows for a comfortable retirement and financial independence later in life.

· Investment opportunities: Savings can be used for investments that generate additional income and long-term financial growth.

· Peace of mind: Having savings can reduce stress and anxiety about financial uncertainties in the future.

Opinion (Balanced):

While enjoying life in the present is essential for personal well-being and happiness, it is also crucial to strike a balance and plan for the future. Here are some key points:

· Financial discipline: Practicing financial discipline allows for both spending on enjoyable experiences and saving for the future.

· Budgeting: Creating a budget that allocates funds for present enjoyment and savings ensures a responsible approach to managing money.

· Emergency fund: Having an emergency savings fund provides security and peace of mind during unforeseen circumstances.

· Long-term goals: Planning for the future, such as retirement or major life events, requires consistent savings and investment.

· Enjoyment within means: It is possible to find joy and fulfillment in life without excessive spending, focusing on experiences that align with personal values and financial capabilities.


In conclusion, a balanced approach is the most prudent way to manage money. Enjoying life now while saving for the future allows for present happiness and financial security in the long term. Personal financial goals, risk tolerance, and individual circumstances should guide the allocation of money between spending and savings. By maintaining this balance, individuals can lead fulfilling lives today while ensuring a stable and secure future.

3. Some people think that it is best to save money, for example in a bank or savings scheme. Other people feel that money should be spent whenever it is available. Discuss these views and reach an opinion on this debate.

Give reasons for your answer, and support your essay with ideas and examples from your own experience.

View: Saving Money for the Future:

  • Financial security: Saving money provides a safety net during emergencies, unexpected expenses, or times of economic uncertainty.

  • Long-term goals: Saving allows individuals to work towards important life goals, such as buying a home, funding education, or planning for retirement.

  • Interest and growth: Keeping money in a bank or investment scheme can lead to interest earnings and potential growth over time.

  • Peace of mind: Having savings brings peace of mind, reducing financial stress and providing a sense of control over one's financial future.

View: Spending Money When Available:

  • Enjoying the present: Some argue that life is short, and money should be spent to enjoy experiences, travel, and make the most of the present moment.

  • Economic stimulation: Spending money can stimulate the economy by increasing consumer demand and supporting businesses.

  • Opportunity costs: Some feel that saving excessively might lead to missed opportunities for enjoyment and personal growth.

  • Quality of life: Spending money on experiences and items that bring joy and fulfillment can lead to a higher quality of life.

Opinion (Balanced):

A balanced approach to managing money is the most prudent choice. Here are the reasons:

  • Emergency fund: Having savings for emergencies and unexpected expenses is crucial for financial security and peace of mind.

  • Budgeting and priorities: Creating a budget that allocates funds for both savings and enjoyable experiences allows for responsible financial management.

  • Long-term planning: Saving money for important life goals, such as education, home ownership, or retirement, ensures a stable financial future.

  • Enjoyment within means: It is essential to find a balance between spending on enjoyable experiences and saving for the future, ensuring financial stability without sacrificing present enjoyment.

Personal Experience:

In my own life, I have found that maintaining a balance between saving and spending is essential for financial well-being. Having an emergency fund has provided security during unexpected events, while saving for long-term goals has allowed me to make significant life investments. At the same time, I have learned the importance of enjoying life in the present and allocating funds for experiences that bring joy and fulfillment. By budgeting wisely and setting clear financial goals, I have been able to strike a balance that ensures financial stability while making the most of life's opportunities.


In conclusion, a balanced approach to managing money is the most practical and beneficial choice. Saving money for the future provides financial security and enables long-term planning, while spending money wisely on enjoyable experiences enriches the quality of life. By striking a balance between saving and spending, individuals can achieve financial stability, fulfill life goals, and find happiness in both the present and the future.

1. Economic progress is often used to measure a country's success. However, some people believe that other factors are more important. What other factors should also be considered when measuring a country's success? Do you think one factor is more important than others?

Other Factors to Consider When Measuring a Country's Success:

  1. Human Development Index (HDI): HDI considers factors like life expectancy, education level, and per capita income, providing a more comprehensive view of a country's well-being and quality of life.

  2. Income Inequality: Evaluating the distribution of wealth within a country is crucial. High income inequality can indicate social disparities and hinder overall progress.

  3. Environmental Sustainability: Assessing a country's efforts in environmental conservation, renewable energy adoption, and carbon footprint reduction is vital for long-term prosperity.

  4. Healthcare and Education Access: The accessibility and quality of healthcare and education services directly impact a country's human capital and future prospects.

  5. Political Stability and Governance: A stable political environment, effective governance, and the rule of law contribute to a conducive atmosphere for economic growth and societal progress.

  6. Social Cohesion and Inclusivity: Harmonious societal relations, inclusivity of marginalized groups, and social cohesion play a critical role in a nation's overall well-being.

  7. Happiness Index: Measuring citizens' happiness and life satisfaction offers insights into the effectiveness of a country's policies and overall societal contentment.


While economic progress is undeniably crucial, it should not be the sole determinant of a country's success. Instead, a holistic approach that considers a combination of factors, such as HDI, income inequality, environmental sustainability, healthcare, education, political stability, social cohesion, and happiness, should be used to measure a country's success.

2. "Some people prefer to help by making donations to local charities while some prefer to donate to national & international organizations. Discuss both measures and give your opinion."

Donating to Local Charities:

  • Direct local impact

  • Supports immediate community needs

  • Better understanding of where the money goes

  • Fosters a sense of connection and responsibility

Donating to National & International Organizations:

  • Addresses broader and systemic issues

  • Can reach a larger scale of beneficiaries

  • Tackles global challenges and emergencies

  • Utilizes specialized expertise and resources

Opinion (Balanced Approach):

  • Both local charities and national/international organizations play crucial roles in addressing various societal issues.

  • Consider donating to local charities for immediate and tangible impacts in your community.

  • Allocate a portion of donations to national/international organizations to address broader and global challenges.

  • Strive for a balanced approach to make a meaningful difference at different levels.

3. As well as making money, businesses also have social responsibilities. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

Opinion (Agree):

· Businesses do have social responsibilities beyond solely making money.

· Corporations impact society, the environment, and stakeholders, and should address their role responsibly.

· Ethical practices and social responsibility can enhance a company's reputation and long-term sustainability.

· Embracing social responsibilities fosters positive relationships with the community and customers.

· Businesses can contribute to societal well-being by supporting social causes and environmental initiatives.

· Adopting responsible practices can help address pressing global challenges and contribute to a more sustainable future.

Opinion (Disagree):

· The primary objective of businesses is to make money and provide value to shareholders.

· Expecting businesses to bear extensive social responsibilities can hamper their competitiveness and growth.

· Governments and non-profit organizations are better suited for addressing social issues, not businesses.

· Excessive social responsibilities may divert resources from core business activities.

· Balancing social and financial objectives is challenging and may lead to conflicts of interest.

· While businesses should follow ethical practices, imposing extensive social responsibilities can hinder economic development and job creation.

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