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COMPOSITIONS FOR HSC, SSC, JSC & OTHER EXAMS (P-2)

Updated: Oct 24, 2023

Price Hike of Essential Commodities in Bangladesh Introduction: Bangladesh is a small and developing country. But she is beset with/troubled with various acute problems. Nowadays price hike is one of the most common, and frightful problems in our small country. It has become a great panic here. Price hike means the sky-touching price of essential commodities (goods). In. other words, the price which is the beyond of the common people is called price hike or price spiral. Present condition: Now in Bangladesh price hike has become very severe/acute, Even the price of every essential daily goods/articles is Increasing by leaps and bounds. Now one kg soyabean oil is sold taka 190, one kg rice is sold taka 70, one kg mutton is sold taka 750 or one kg beef is sold taka 700.

Price is really a great panic and alarming. On the other hand, it is well-known to all that most of the people of Bangladesh live low extreme poverty line. So price hike has increased their poverty tremendously. As a result, the condition of the poor section is very miserable and sorrowful. Hundreds of people especially in the rural area have been passing their days within starvation. The study of their children has already been disturbed. The future of the children is dark. Because of price hike the poor, the landless, the shelterless the helpless cannot afford medicine when they fall ill. Their sorrows and sufferings cannot be described in words. Now the condition of their life is not better than that of a shelterless beast. They are now like dead soul. The condition middle class people is more painful. As a result of price hike, the poor section are becoming poorer and the rich section is becoming richer. So, the gap between the poor and the rich is increasing day by day.

The bad effect (the adverse effect) of price-spiral is really dangerous. National life has already been paralyzed owing to extreme price-hike. It severely hampers our social and national development programmes, plans and efforts. It slows down our education as well as the dignity of our nation. It honesty and the sincerity of the businessmen and the traders.

Causes Corruption, smuggling and black marketing are the main causes of price-hike in our country. Dishonesty and unpatriotic are also the root causes of this problem. Inflammation is another root cause. of this problem. Illiteracy and public unawareness also cause price hike.

Conclusion : In order to stamp out/root out price-hike from our country, corruption, smuggling and black-marketing must be driven away with an iron hand. The businessmen and e traders should be taught the value of morality. Our government should enforce law and order in order to control this alarming problem. Public awareness must be created to solve price hike, otherwise our all hopes and inspiration will be fruitless and hopeless. Price Hike in Bangladesh

Price hike, which refers to the significant increase in the prices of everyday essential items, has become a common issue in Bangladesh nowadays. This problem is escalating steadily, and it's hitting consumers hard, particularly those in the low-income bracket and the working class.


Price hikes have hit various sectors, with food being the most severely affected. Food prices have surged by over 70% in the last year. Additionally, prices of clothing, fuel, oil, and nearly all other essential goods have seen abnormal increases.


Several factors contribute to these price hikes. Natural disasters, such as floods, cyclones, tidal bores, and droughts, have dealt a severe blow to food production. This, in turn, has led to rising food grain prices and increased costs for other essential items. In fact, global climate change has been identified as the primary cause of rising food grain prices worldwide, as reported by The New York Times.


Hoarding is another significant reason behind price hikes in Bangladesh. It has become widespread among producers, distributors, and even consumers. This disrupts the regular supply of goods, and middlemen take advantage of the situation to manipulate supplies and make hefty profits, exacerbating the problem.


Market syndicates play a major role in price hikes by unscrupulous businesses or companies banding together to increase commodity prices for profit. Such market syndicates are prevalent in nearly every sector, from vegetables to electronics.


Smuggling and black marketing have been persistent issues in Bangladesh, as dishonest individuals smuggle essential goods across borders, while some engage in black marketing for profit. These activities reduce the supply of goods and contribute to price increases.

Population growth, often referred to as a "population boom," is a significant problem in Bangladesh. With approximately 3 million people added to the population each year, demand for essential goods increases, but the supply hardly keeps pace, leading to price hikes.


Political instability in Bangladesh, resulting from strikes, hartals, and political clashes, disrupts production and transportation of goods, ultimately leading to price increases.

Lack of proper management, especially at the government level, is another contributing factor to price hikes. Importers often sell items at prices much higher than their original costs, with distributors and retailers adding their desired profits, which results in higher prices for consumers.


The effects of price hikes are dire, with essential commodity prices exceeding the means of the poor and those with fixed incomes. Almost everyone, across various socioeconomic classes, is suffering from this issue.


The government has taken several measures to control price hikes, such as reducing or eliminating taxes on imported goods, combating hoarding, monitoring markets, and establishing fair-price shops. However, these efforts have not been entirely successful in curbing price hikes.


To prevent price hikes, the government must take immediate and long-term measures. This includes cracking down on syndicate activities, increasing agricultural production, and addressing population growth. Additionally, efforts to combat climate change should be a priority. These actions are essential for mitigating the issue of price hikes in Bangladesh, but it won't be a quick fix.


In light of the hardships experienced by the impoverished and the working-class segments of society, it is imperative that the government takes decisive action against unscrupulous businesspeople who inflate prices solely to maximize their profits.


Furthermore, there is a pressing need to raise public awareness about the malevolent intentions of these unscrupulous individuals within our nation. The escalating prices of essential food items often leave consumers with limited choices, as deeply ingrained consumption patterns are not easily altered.


To address this issue comprehensively, it is vital for the populace to actively collaborate with the government in regulating markets and ensuring fair and equitable pricing. Severe punitive measures should be taken against those who engage in black market activities, setting a strong example for potential wrongdoers.


Collectively, we must endeavor to bring down the prices of essential commodities through any available means, as failure to do so will perpetuate the suffering experienced by the populace. Business figures also hold a role in this effort, ensuring the fair and efficient distribution of essential goods.


In conclusion, the onus is on all of us to come together and collectively address this problem. Effectively controlling the prices of essential commodities is an imperative endeavor to alleviate the hardships faced by our fellow citizens. Price Rise Price rise is the bane of the modern world. Prices of essential commodities go on rising every day despite the professed and genuine efforts of the government. The main reason for sky-rocketing of prices is the unabated rise in population at an alarming rate. As compared to China, India has failed miserably in controlling her population. Another reason for price-rise is the huge loss of man-days as a result of frequent strikes and lock-outs in the industrial units. This leads to short fall in production. Then India is still a developing country. A huge capital expenditure is still going on in the form of construction activities and in the form of establishment of new units. An average Indian has considerably awakened to the reality of raising his living standard in the matter of eating, housing, medical aid and providing education to his children. He is also fond of recreation through T.V., V.C.R cinema, transistor etc. All this expenditure pushes up the rate of living. Those who can afford, also purchase luxurious items like the refrigerator, air conditioner, desert cooler, geyser and other such gadgets. There is also a lot of wastage on parties, dinners, inauguration and other functions and on canvassing, publicity and propaganda during elections. The hoarders, stockiest and black marketers also push up prices by causing artificial scarcity in the market. Wars and arms race also lead to shortage and price rise. It is a pity that even more than forty-five years after independence, most of the Indians are still leading a dog’s life. Only some lucky ones roll in luxury. The government should take some drastic steps to keep prices under control. PRIVATE COACHING Education is a continuous process. In our country, there are two types of education which are prevailing. They are formal education and informal education. Private coaching is one type of informal education. It is held all over the country. People think that no private coaching means no education. Private coaching means individual teaching to any individual student at home or at any coaching centre. A student learns here how to avoid school activities. He can't give proper attention to school study. He is indirectly encouraged to avoid teachers and his lessons to be done in school. He thus neglects his class and sometimes keeps himself absent from school. He thinks that he need not go to school and do his homework given by his class teachers. As a result, he does not fare well in the normal examinations. A student who goes to a private coaching loses his interest in school duties. He fails to comply with his teacher's advice. He gets accustomed to carrying out his private tutor's advice in studies. He does not learn anything deeply and elaborately. He develops a habit of selected reading. This will spoil his educational career. So. I think. private coaching is of no use to a student who wants to be a good student. However. all private coachings are not bad. Some are good. Any student who fails to make out the meaning of any lesson can get a chance to understand it under a private tutor. A private tutor can help him understand the lesson or thing or topic that is not clear to him in the classroom. A good house tutor is a good guide and helping instrument to him. He can develop his private student the habit of critical study. But in our society good house tutors are very rare. Most of the house tutors are needy. So, they coach their students all the subjects at a time. This type of coaching brings no result at all. Rather it spoils the student's own potentiality and interest in study. But if they coach a particular subject that he knows well, he can impart good and effective coaching to their respective students. PRIVATE TUTORSHIP Nowadays private tutorship is a common affair and the guardians are interested to employ private tutors for their children's education at home so that they can achieve good results. It becomes a belief that children do well with the help of the private tutors. Private tutorship has become a disadvantage in respect of rendering sincere services in the institutions where the teachers are employed, because it has become a commercial profession. The teachers engaged in private tuition have found it more profitable than rendering painstaking services in their institutions. On the other hand, most educated men have found that private tuition is lucrative. Because of the selective suggestions of the private tutor, the students are blessed with good results though they learn a little and that little learning becomes a dangerous thing in their practical life. Elimination of private tutorship is not possible overnight. First, it needs a great awareness on the part of the guardians to make their wards become careful about future prospects. The school teachers should be paid a handsome salary so that they may concentrate on teaching the students in the classes. Extra classes should be taken to make up the deficiency of the students who are indifferent to studies. The school teachers should be given extra-incentives for extra-classes. Private tutorship should be discouraged. The students should be compelled to attend classes regularly and punctually. They should be given home tasks regularly. Private tutorship is a sharp threat to the traditional classroom teaching. In developed countries class room teaching is systematically stressed. To speak of a tutor, he loses his personality and his profession becomes a disreputable begging profession. Proper management can remove all problems regarding private tutorship. Prize Giving Ceremony of Your School The prize giving day is the most remarkable and happiest day for us in our school life. We pass the day very happily. This year the prize giving ceremony was held on the 15th of March. In the morning of that day we were very busy to decorate the school building. The main gate was decorated with green leaves, garlands and flags. The school hall was well decorated with green leaves, coloured papers, flags, and flowers. The stage of the hall was decorated with beautiful screens. Some seats were kept reserved for the invited guests. We, the students had to take our seats in the hall half an hour before the time. The Headmaster and the Secretary were waiting at the gate to receive the chief guest. In the mean time, many guar­dians and respectable gentlemen attended the meeting. We invited the Education Minister as the chief guest of the occasion. He came in time. The Secretary and the Headmaster of the school received him cordially. Then he was taken to his seat. He was garlanded by two fair-looking girls of class VI. The meeting started at 3 p.m. A verse from the holy Ouran was recited by a girl of class VII. Then the Headmaster read-out the annual report of the school. After this, some boys and girls recited selected poems, both in English and in Bengali. Some students sang songs. The chief guest was glad to hear all these. Then the distribution of prizes began. The Headmaster called out the names of prize-winners one by one. The students took the prizes from the chief guest and saluted him. I got one prize for my good result. After this, the chief guest delivered a short but significant speech. Then the Headmaster ended the meeting with a vote of thanks to the chief guest and all other guests. A prize giving ceremony is a source of great pleasure and joy. It broadens our outlook. It should be observed in all schools for the interest of the students. PROBLEMS OF CITY LIFE Bangladesh has only a few towns and most of them are small. Only fifteen to twenty percent of the people of Bangladesh live in towns. People in the city lead a most unpleasant life. The noise and bustle, the smokes and the dust make city life unpleasant. A man born and bred in the city has different feelings all together. All this crowd and busy hum of men is to him a perpetual tonic. They bring him in touch with the human beings and fill his mind with a sense of human fellowship. City life has its own particular pattern. The day breaks with the street cries of hawkers, the horn of vehicles. As the day advances, noises and movement of the vehicles increase until mid-day comes. City life, as we know it in our country, is unattractive. Cities grow in a small area with a large population. Houses are for the most part crowded to suffocation, want of fresh air and light makes the congested localities, extremely unhealthy. Streets are infested with unsightly beggars, unwanted dogs and cattle let loose to wander at will. Life in a city is complex and difficult. It makes people more or less selfish. People in a city are always busy with their own affairs and have no time to turn to others. City life is rather nasty with its dust, filth and bad smell. Vehicles ply constantly in city. Accidents occur here every now and then. Cheats and pick-pockets also abound in cities. In spite of all there ugly features, cities have their importance and usefulness. So long as business and industry form the economy of a country, cities will not lose their importance. There are big and beautiful buildings, motor cars, buses and cinema halls with all their


charms to attract people. Besides, there are comforts, fashions and luxuries in a city. Above all, a city is a veritable university for men who like to acquire wisdom from observation and experience.

PROBLEMS OF MY CITY LIFE

A city is a veritable university for men who like to acquire wisdom from observation and experience. Bangladesh has only a few towns and most of them are small. Only fifteen to twenty percent of the people of Bangladesh live in towns. People in the city lead a most unpleasant life. The noise and bustle, the smokes and the dust make city life unpleasant. A man born and bred in the city has different feelings all together. All this crowd and busy hum of men is to him a perpetual tonic. They bring him in touch with the human beings and fill his mind with a sense of human fellowship. I also live in a city. The name of our city is We cannot but live in city for its importance and usefulness. So long as business and industry form the economy of a country, our city has a lot of importance. There are big and beautiful buildings, motor cars, buses and cinema halls in our city with all their charms to attract people. Besides, there are comforts, fashions and luxuries in the city. In spite of many facilities, our city is full of problems.


Our city life has its own particular pattern. Here the day breaks with the street cries of hawkers, the horn of vehicles. As the day advances, noises and movement of the vehicles increase until mid­day comes. Here city life is unattractive. Our city grows in a small area with a large population. Houses are for the most part crowded to suffocation, want of fresh air and light makes the congested localities, extremely unhealthy. Streets are infested with unsightly beggars, unwanted dogs and cattle let loose to wander at will. Life in a city is complex and difficult. It makes people more or less selfish. People here are always busy with their own affairs and have no time to turn to others. The environment in our city is rather nasty with its dust, filth and bad smell. Vehicles ply constantly in our city. Accidents occur here every now and then. Cheats and pick-pockets also abound in cities. If this situation continues, it will be baneful to us and our next generation. So it is our concerted efforts that are needed to make the city healthy and favourable for better living.



PROBLEMS OF ROADS IN BANGLADESH

The roads in Bangladesh are an important point of discussion nowadays. Often people are heard to be saying that the streets in Bangladesh are various roads to go to the hell. These informal comments of people, however, lead us to think about the conditions of roads in Bangladesh, although what they say is not fully true.

Every day millions of people, cars, buses, trucks, rickshaws, and other pull carts ply on the roads in Bangladesh. The real business of the city is seen in the roads. These roads play the most important role in the transportation of the city. But as ill luck would have it, the physical conditions of the roads in our country are not at all satisfactory. Only a few streets can be named which are in good condition. But others are in a dilapidated condition. In some places the cover of manholes are missing, threatening the public who walk their way. Some roads can be found where the pavement has been miserably destroyed. It goes without saying that these roads are not suitable for cars to ply through. And it needs no mentioning that during the rainy season their condition goes worse. In some places the width of the roads are so narrow that two rickshaws can hardly find enough room to pass by to the opposite directions. In some places it can be observed that the street sides are used as open dustbins. These places are very obnoxious, boring and unhygienic.

To one’s great surprise, one often finds that in some places the roadsides are used as markets. Unlicensed shops and stalls huddle up there. Sometimes most of the passage of the road is occupied by these shops and the customers. A similar problem is seen in a greater intensity when various political and non-political, even religious groups use the roads as their frequent meeting place. At present people’s sufferings know no bound owing to these imprudent decisions of the groups.

Hence it is important to identify effective ways or plans to solve the most critical of these problems and then to execute the plans properly to remove the problems of road in our country.


PUNCTUALITY

Punctuality means the habit of doing a thing at the right time. A punctual man gets up at the right time in the morning. He takes has breakfast in time. He is never late in rising from bed and in attending to his duties.

A punctual man gets ample time in his life. He can do many things. A punctual student learns his lessons in time and finds no difficulty in the examination. He never lags behind in the class. He can follow his lessons from beginning to end. It saves his time. He has not to labour so much. He need not work hard at the time of examination. He makes a better performance with a minimum amount of labour. Punctuality crowns him with brilliant success in life.

Punctuality is of utmost importance in professional life. A doctor’s unpunctuality might mean the loss of a life and a lawyer’s unpunctuality might mean the ruin of his client and so on. To a businessman, punctuality is equally important. If he fails to be punctual in his appointments, his business might be paralysed and might suffer serious financial loss. On the other hand, a shop-keeper who opens his shops his shop punctually, has a regular supply of customers. As a result, his business prospers day by day. Lives of great men show that they were all punctual and their success in life was due to punctuality.

An unpunctual man is an enemy to himself. He is a nuisance to everyone. He is disliked by all. He suffers for that. If he gives word to his friends and cannot keep it he may lose his friends. An unpunctual clerk loses his job. An unpunctual man cannot even say his prayers in time.

The habit of punctuality requires long careful training. So the habit should be practised quite early in life. Once the habit is formed its utility will be apparent in every sphere of life. So let us develop the habit of punctuality so that we can do the maximum work within the span of life.

PUNCTUALITY

Introduction: Punctuality means to perform anything in the proper time. It is a virtue by dint of which one can succeed in life. The person who does a thing exactly at the proper time is said to be punctual. Punctuality is a good habit. It prompts us to do a thing at the proper time . It is the root of all success in life.

Necessity: Our life is short and work is long. We should have to do a good deal of work in our short span of life. Time once gone is gone forever. So, it is only being punctual that we can do much work in our life. If anybody puts off his work for some other time, he cannot do it later because he will have to do some other work afterwards. He may store up work but he cannot store up time for future.


Punctuality in Student life: Every student should be punctual to follow his daily routine strictly. He should rise early in time, takes his breakfast, go to school and return home in time. He then must take his bath and meal in time, take rest and play while it is time to play and again sit to study while it is time to study. He should leave nothing undone for tomorrow because tomorrow is always tomorrow.

Punctuality in professional life: Punctuality is of utmost importance in professional life. A doctor’s impunctuality might mean the loss of a life and a lawyer’s impunctuality might mean the ruin of his client and

so on . If a postman delivers letters late, the people may miss many important appointment of interviews or a dying relative . Punctuality is the soul of business. If a businessman fails to be punctual in his appointments his business might be paralysed and might suffer serious financial loss. On the other hand a shop – keeper who opens his shop punctually has a regular supply of customers. As a result, his business prospers day by day.

Habit of punctuality: Punctuality is a habit. But it is not an inborn quality. It is an acquired virtue. It is a great necessary in every walk of life. So it should be practised quite early in life. If this habit is acquired and developed at the early age, it remains everlasting.

Absence of punctuality: Absence of punctuality can cause a lot of troubles. It brings worries and failures. If a person does not do his professional duty on time, he cannot achieve anything in his mission. For example, Napoleon Bonaparte lost the Battle of Waterloo because one of his generals failed to come to his help in time. An unpunctual student interrupts the class by his late arrival. An unpunctual chief guest keeps hundreds of the guests and hosts waiting. So, impunctuality is disturbing and harmful. If an unpunctual person gives word to his friends and cannot keep it, he may lose his friends. An unpunctual clerk may lose his job. In a word, he is a nuisance to everyone.

Conclusion: Punctuality is the best means of saving us from overwork all an a sudden. We can enjoy a lot by being regular at work. So, we should strive towards perfection with perseverance and punctuality.

PUNCTUALITY : AN ESSENTIAL QUALITY OF LIFE

Punctuality means keeping exact time in respect of all work and appointment. In a wider sense it denotes the habit of doing a thing in its exact time. It is a virtue by which one can make proper use of time and rise to eminence.

Punctuality is the process for proper utilisation of time. If a man is punctual he does every work at the appropriate hour. He does not miss an appointment. he is not late in office, he does not put off things for tomorrow. Thus he utilizes every minute of his time and enjoys joys a pride of performance. If a man, on the other hand. is not punctual he gets up late in the morning. He misses to do many things at the right time. If a student is not punctual, he puts off his lessons, he goes to school late, he does not get any room on the front benches, he fails to follow the teacher from behind the class, he is held in disrepute. When the examination comes he crams things and fares very ill in the examination. An unpunctual man cannot complete his day's work. For not being punctual he is fated to be doomed. Thus the utility of punctuality cannot be overstated.

Punctuality is a habit. If a man is habituated in keeping time he never becomes unpunctual. We can do things at the exact hours if we want to. In this respect we can get lessons. from the lives of great men. They were punctual in their round of work and that was the secret of their rising to greatness.

One should form the habit of being punctual from one's childhood. We can learn it at home from our parents, at school from our teachers and in society from our superiors. Everybody should take care to become punctual in life.

PUNCTUALITY

What punctuality means: Punctuality means the habit of doing a thing at the right time. A punctual man gets up at the right time in the morning. He takes his breakfast in time. He is never late in rising from bed and in attending to his duties.


Punctuality, a habit: Punctuality is a habit. We can do things at the right time if we want to. But it is not an easy matter. It is easier to loiter and kill time. It is much easier to put things off and say, “We will do it tomorrow.” In these way we get into bed habits easily. It is easy to form a habit but difficult to get out of it. We must be careful to do a thing at the right moment. The best motto to keep before us is: Do it now. We must try to learn the habit of observing punctuality from the very beginning of our lives.


Punctuality brings success: A punctual man gets ample time in his life. He can do many things. A punctual student learns his lessons in time and finds no difficulty in the examination. He never legs behind in the class. He can follow his lessons from beginning to end. It saves his time. He has not to labour so much. He need not work hard at the time of examination. He makes a better performance with a minimum amount of labour. Punctuality crowns him with brilliant success in life. Importance of punctuality in professional life: Punctuality is of utmost importance in professional life. A doctor’s unpunctuality might mean the loss of a life and a lawyer’s unpunctuality might mean the ruin of his client and so on. To a businessman, punctuality is equally important. If he fails to be punctual in his appointments, his business might be paralysed and might suffer serious financial loss. On the other hand, a shop-keeper who opens his shop punctually, has a regular supply of customers. As a result, his business prospers day by day. Lives of great men show that they were all punctual and their success in life was due to punctuality.

An unpunctual man suffers: An unpunctual man is an enemy of himself. He is a nuisance to everyone. He is disliked by all. He suffers for that. If he gives word to his friends and cannot keep it he may lose his friends. An unpunctual clerk loses his job. An unpunctual man cannot even say his prayers in time.


Conclusion: The habit of punctuality requires long and careful training. So the habit should be practised quite early in life. Once the habit is forms its utility will be apparent in every sphere of life. So let us develop the habit of punctuality so that we can do the maximum work within the short span of life.



THE NECESSITY OF PHYSICAL EXERCISE

Physical exercise means the systematic movement of the limbs of the body to keep them mobile and strong. Without it none can enjoy a sound health. It keeps us free from diseases, makes us physically strong and healthy. There is a close connection between the body and the mind. It is physical exercise which enables us to have a sound mind in a sound body.

There are various forms of physical exercise. The common items of physical exercise include walking, swimming, cycling, rowing, riding, wrestling, gymnastics etc. Walking is an excellent physical exercise. It is suitable for the people of all ages. Swimming is another good exercise. All the limbs of the body are moved by it. All kinds of sports can be regarded as physical exercise. Games like football, cricket, hockey, tennis, badminton, ha-du-du, etc. are good forms of physical exercise. We should take any of these exercises if we want to make the body and the mind healthy and strong.

Some people think that physical exercise is a mere waste of time..But they are mistaken. It is physical exercise that keeps the limbs of our body in a perfect condition. It makes our muscles strong and body active. Physical exercise improves digestion of food. It helps the proper circulation of blood and removes extra fat from the body. Therefore, a man who takes regular physical exercise is sure to enjoy a sound health all through his life. In our country very little attention is given to physical exercise. People above thirty hardly take any physical exercise. These people are engaged in brain work. There are many students who do not appreciate the utility of physical exercise. They think, it is simply a waste of their time. But they do not know that they can work hard if they have a sound health.

So all of us should take any sort of physical exercise everyday. However all sorts of physical exercise are not suitable for all men. We should take physical exercise on the recommendation of a doctor.



THE POSTMAN

Introduction - A familiar figure: The postman is to us the most eagerly awaited person who brings news from our dear ones living in distant places. He with his khaki dress and a turban on his head is a very familiar figure. Everyday at a particular time he is seen passing through the streets. Sometimes he walks wearily with a bag weighing heavy under his arms. Sometimes he looks energetic and trips lightly the long distance with a light bag and a light heart.


His importance in our life: our hearts are full of expectations as soon as we see the familiar figure of the postman approaching our house. He comes to our houses to deliver letters, money orders, telegrams, parcels, etc. He plays an important part in our daily life. Sometimes he brings letters containing good news and sometimes he causes us sorrow and grief by delivering bad news. But we thank his for all that and he is always welcome to us. When we live far away from home we are anxious for the news of our relatives. Sometimes we are much more anxious for money from our parents and guardians. The postman comes to us with the postal money order and thus relieves us of our anxiety. He also brings us important books or other articles which are sent to us by postal parcels. Sometimes he fills our heart with joy by carrying to us valuable presents or gifts from friends and relatives who live far away from us.


Nature of his duties: The postman has various duties to perform. His daily duty begins in the post office. He sorts letters, parcels and makes separate bundles out of them for different localities of his beat. Then he goes out on his beat. Whenever he delivers money orders, parcels, registered letters, he takes signatures of the persons concerned and of witness. Those who are illiterate give their thumb impression. He realises postal dues from the addressees of bearing letters. All these mean heavy labour for him. Moreover, his daily round of duty covers a wide area and he has to walk a long distance laboriously to finish his duty without complaint.

Dutiful and friendly, though ill-paid: The postman is an ill-paid Government employee. Yet he is responsible, punctual and dutiful. His failure in duties may cause great loss or harm to people. He is, therefore, required to be very prompt and punctual in his duty. Very strict rules have been laid down to regulate his conduct and he is severely dealt with for any breach of discipline. In spite of all these, he is friendly with all in the rural areas and shares the joys and sorrows of the villagers. In urban areas, he is no less friendly but he keeps something of an official air and mixes with people with some reservations.

Conclusion: Though the postman has to do a heavy duty, his pay is very low. He always remains in want and poverty. In consideration of the responsibilities and the arduous nature of the work of the postman, he should be given a good salary. In recent days steps have been taken by the Government to improve his fate and it is hoped that these measures will enable him to get, at least, what is necessary to maintain himself and his family and to live a decent life.


THE POSTMAN

The postman is a humble employee of the Government. The department to which he belongs is the postal department. He is a familiar figure in every nook and corner whether it is a town or a village. He brings news from our dear ones living in distant places. He is the courier of happy and sad news.


The postman is easily recognised by the people. He wears a “khaki” dress with a turban on his head and carries a letter bag on his shoulders. Now-a-days he is seen in ordinary dress. It is his bag or the letters in his hand that reveal his identity.


The daily duty of the postman begins in the post-office. He opens the mail-bag and sorts letters, money-orders, registered or insured letters, parcels etc and makes separate bundles for different localities. He also makes the out-going mail ready for despatch. Then he goes on his round. The postman in the town usually carries more letters than a postman in the country. He has, however generally fewer miles to walk than a village postman because he can ride a bicycle. The postman in the country has often to walk many miles a day. He delivers letters, parcels and other postal articles to the addressees. If there is any letter -box in front of the house, he drops the letter into the box or he lets down the letter through some openings of the doors. He has to call out and get in touch with those for whom he brings parcels, registered letters and money-orders. This done, he passes on. He has no time to wait and gossip. He has to take great care to avoid mis-delivery of letters and parcels.


The postman plays an important role in our life. He is the part and parcel of the society. He is an ill-paid government employee but he does a responsible job. His holidays are limited. When other people are enjoying their holidays, he is busy in delivering letters to the people and is more hard pressed. He is punctual and dutiful. He always wears a smile on his face. Sometimes we are anxious for news of our relatives. Bringing us letters and news, he relieves us of our anxiety. Sometimes he brings news of joys and sometimes of grief. But he is always welcome to us for this important service.


The postman links the world through letters. In consideration of the responsibilities and the laborious nature of his job, he should be given a good salary so that he can lead a better life. Besides, he should never be neglected and at least he should be greeted with a name.



THE PRIZE GIVING CEREMONY OF YOUR SCHOOL

Every year the students and teachers of our school and many respectable ladies and gentlemen including the guardians of the students assemble in the central hall / auditorium of the school building to witness the distribution of the prizes among the deserving students. It is a grand occasion for all of the students and teachers as well. This year we had such an occasion celebrating the prize giving ceremony.


It was in the month of February. A day was fixed for the award of these to the happy winners. We who did not win any of these were no less happy, for anything that contributed to the glory of our institution was matter of rejoicing for all us. The Inspector of the Schools himself had consented to preside out the occasion. So we set about decorating the premises, and the artists among us were soon busy mapping out the designs to be followed. Not only the winners of prizes but all students were busily engaged in decorating the building. Green leaves with numerous garlands of various colours were set all round. Gates were erected to welcome the visitors. The hall was decorated with evergreens, flags and festoons. Flower pots with bouquets of roses were placed on the table just in front of the President’s chair. The flowers and festoons artistically laid out gave a gala appearance to the whole scene. The ceremony was fixed to start at 4 P. M. By then everything was spick and span.


Attendance: By there-thirty the invited guests began to come in. The volunteers with their distinctive badges were all attention. They guided the distinguished guests to the seats specially reserved for them. The guardians of the students were seated in the rows allotted to them. The back seats and the side spaces were crowded by the students, who were in their merriest mood. As the seats filled up, there was a hubbub of subdued voice; men and woman talked with each other and exchanged greeting and comments.

Punctually at four the President came in. The students provided the guard of honour, and made a brave show of it. The Headmaster and the teachers conducted him to the seat of honour. A loud burst of cheering welcomed him as he took his seat, and he bowed his acknowledgments. We could see his face wreathed in smiles as he spoke to those around him.


The proceeding began with the singing of the national anthem. All of us standing as the solemn music rose. The Headmaster then read his report. He recounted the developments that had been carried through during the past year, the achievements of our ex-students in various fields of activity, and of our present students in their studies as well as in games and athletics. He also spoke earnestly about many difficulties which faced the institution-lack of funds, lack of building space, undesirable over-crowding in the classes, absence of opportunities to bring out the best that was in each one of us. He made a moving appeal to the Government and the public not to treat education as a subject of lesser importance than any other, for on it depended the fate of the future generations and the welfare of the country s a whole. There was a burning sincerity in his speech which went straight into the heart of the audience.


Then the main ceremony began. The Headmaster called each recipient by name, announced the subject in which the award was made and the place of honour occupied. The winners of the topmost award were vigorously cheered by all, while their friends shouted words of good-humoured encouragement, not unmixed with some of chaff. The sportsmen, I could see, were by far the most popular. When the colours were awarded, the cheering was loud enough to be heard for miles. It was obvious that those who cheered were no less happy than those who received the prizes and medals, for the winners were somewhat shy and ill-at-ease with the burden of new distinction, but the cheers were entirely uninhibited.


The distribution of prizes and medals over, the President rose to speak. He congratulated the Institution, the teachers, the students, and in fact every body on the good work done in the past year. In a very simple and impressive language he encouraged the winners of success, but at the same time warned them not to be overjoyed. He appreciated that the best was always achieved by mutual co-operation. He spoke a few words of consolation to those who could not win prizes. He advised them not to lose heart, but to make greater efforts to win them next year. He hopped that the Headmaster’s appeal for help from the people and the State would not go unheeded. He gave the students valuable advice which certainly did not fall on deaf ears. And then came the most welcome announcement: the least that he could to express his appreciation was to grant us all a day’s holiday, which we received with great joy and loud cheers. With the customary vote of thanks proposed by the senior-most teacher and seconded by the most brilliant student, and with a concluding song suited to the occasion the ceremony drew to a close. All the students of the school as well as the invited guests were treated to a light refreshment when the function was over. The cheering were tumultuous; and slowly, the evening faded into darkness, the gathering broke up and dispersed. It was quite an enjoyable evening. It will remain an unforgettable event in my life.


THE PRIZE GIVING CEREMONY OF YOUR SCHOOL

Every year the students and teachers of our school and many respectable ladies and gentlemen including the guardians of the students assemble in the central hall / auditorium of the school building to witness the distribution of the prizes among the deserving students. It is a grand occasion for all of the students and teachers as well. This year we had such an occasion celebrating the prize giving ceremony.


It was in the month of February. A day was fixed for giving award to the happy winners in different activities. The Inspector of the Schools himself had consented to preside over the occasion. So we set about decorating the premises. Green leaves with numerous garlands of various colours were set all round. Gates were erected to welcome the visitors. The hall was decorated with evergreens, flags and festoons. Flower pots with bouquets of roses were placed on the table just in front of the President’s chair. The flowers and festoons artistically laid out gave a gala appearance to the whole scene. The ceremony was fixed to start at 4 P. M. By then everything was spick and span.


By three-thirty the invited guests began to come in. The volunteers with their distinctive badges were all attention. As the seats filled up, there was a hubbub of subdued voice; men and women talked with each other and exchanged greeting and comments. Punctually at four the President came in. The students provided the guard of honour, and made a brave show of it. The Headmaster and the teachers conducted him to the seat of honour. A loud burst of cheering welcomed him as he took his seat, and he bowed his acknowledgments. We could see his face wreathed in smiles as he spoke to those around him.


The proceeding began with the singing of the national anthem. All of us standing as the solemn music rose. The Headmaster then read his report. He recounted the developments that had been carried through during the past year, the achievements of our ex-students in various fields of activity, and of our present students in their studies as well as in games and athletics. He also spoke earnestly about many difficulties which faced the institution. There was a burning sincerity in his speech which went straight into the heart of the audience.


Then the main ceremony began. The Headmaster called each recipient by name, announced the subject in which the award was made and the place of honour occupied. The winners of the topmost award were vigorously cheered by all. It was obvious that those who cheered were no less happy than those who received the prizes and medals.

The distribution of prizes and medals over, the President rose to speak. He congratulated the Institution, the teachers, the students, and in fact every body on the good work. In a very simple and impressive language he encouraged the winners of success, but at the same time warned them not to be overjoyed. He spoke a few words of consolation to those who could not win prizes. He advised them not to lose heart, but to make greater efforts to win them next year. He gave the students valuable advice which certainly did not fall on deaf ears. And then came the most welcome announcement: the least that he could to express his appreciation was to grant us all a day’s holiday, which we received with great joy and loud cheers.


All the students of the school as well as the invited guests were treated to a light refreshment when the function was over. The cheering was tumultuous; and slowly, the evening faded into darkness, the gathering broke up and dispersed. It was quite an enjoyable evening. It will remain an unforgettable event in my life.






THE PROBLEMS OF USING POLYBAGS

Chemically polythene is a polymer of ethylene of high molecular weight. It is a thermoplastic material which when heated gets softened due to weakening of intermolecular forces and thus melts. On cooling, the melted molecules get solidified again. The plastic quality of polythene made it suitable for producing bags, which are light in weight, durable, waterproof, low cost and easy to use for varied purpose. Polythene is largely used for packaging purpose and most widely used for carrying shopping items.

Polythene was developed as chemical compound in the US in the middle of last century. The production and marketing however, started in 1985 in the USA while it was introduced in Bangladesh in 1982.


Survey reports showed that the daily use of polythene shopping bags was as high as 9 million pieces throughout the country while the largest number of 6 million pieces was used in Dhaka city alone. It cost Bangladesh taka about 1000 million in foreign currency is to import raw material.


The manufacturing process of polythene does not yield complete polymerization but create different kinds of monomeric vinyl chlorides. According to scientists, heavy concentration of vinyl chlorides is highly toxic. Most of the brightly coloured polythene bags contain agents like lead and cadmium. There is risk of food-stuff getting contaminated when wrapped in coloured polythene. Polythene may cause dermatitis due to prolonged contact with skin.

Since polythene is not biodegradable, it lowers the fertility of the soil, blocks the urban sewerage system and cause siltation in the waterways. When burnt, polythene materials produce substance like hydrogen cyanide, a highly toxic chemical.


The thrown away polybags remain in the soil for years together without degradation. Air and water cannot pass early into the soil due to presence of non-porous polythene. Soil also is not recharged with nutrients, as it remains deprived from sufficient sunlight due to presence of polythene in the ground. Thus the soil fertility is reduced causing decline in agricultural production.


Scientists have time and again warned that waste polythene bags are responsible for causing water stagnation in the drains, ditches and potholes here and there. Such stagnant water provides a good breeding ground for the mosquitoes resulting in increased incidences of diseases like malaria, filaria, dengue, and encephalitis.

Polythene also causes adverse impact on animal life and the biodiversity. Domestic animals often ingest polythene bags containing organic waste or foodstuff. It may cause intestinal obstruction and death in certain cases.


Scavenger birds like the crows find it difficult to collect food from the dustbin and disposal sites if the domestic waste is disposed of in polybags. The organic waste thrown in polybags and obstructs the organic substance from getting transformed to plant chain.

To the utter relief of the citizens, the government finally ordered a ban on the use and marketing of polythene shopping bags throughout the country with effect from March 1, 2002. Earlier, a partial ban came into effect in Dhaka from January 1 this year.

It is encouraging that the decision of the government was highly appreciated and welcomed by the citizens particularly the advocacy groups who continued persistent campaign against polythene.

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