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Sentence Fragments

In English grammar, a sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence that lacks essential elements and does not express a complete thought on its own. It's important to recognize and avoid sentence fragments because they can make writing unclear or confusing. A complete sentence typically includes a subject, a verb, and a complete thought.

Here are 10 types of sentence fragments with two long advanced examples each, along with correct sentences and explanations:


1. Missing Subject:

Fragment: "Jumped over the fence."

Corrected: "She jumped over the fence."

Explanation: The corrected sentence provides a subject (she) to complete the thought.


Fragment: "Swam across the river."

Corrected: "He swam across the river."

Explanation: Adding "He" as the subject completes the sentence.

Fragmented (Missing Subject): "Climbed the mountain at sunrise."

Corrected: "They climbed the mountain at sunrise."

Fragmented (Missing Subject): "Wrote a novel in a month."

Corrected: "She wrote a novel in a month."

Fragmented (Missing Subject): "Visited the art gallery yesterday."

Corrected: "We visited the art gallery yesterday."

Fragmented (Missing Subject): "Drove to the countryside for the weekend."

Corrected: "He drove to the countryside for the weekend."

Fragmented (Missing Subject): "Built a sandcastle on the beach."

Corrected: "The children built a sandcastle on the beach."


2. Missing Verb:

Fragment: "The old oak tree."

Corrected: "The old oak tree stood tall."

Explanation: "Stood tall" provides the missing verb, making the sentence complete.

Fragment: "Under the moonlight."

Corrected: "Under the moonlight, they danced."

Explanation: The addition of "they danced" supplies the missing verb.

Fragmented (Missing Verb): "The old oak tree in the park."

Corrected: "The old oak tree stood in the park."

Fragmented (Missing Verb): "The house on the corner of the street."

Corrected: "The house on the corner of the street looked magnificent."

Fragmented (Missing Verb): "A cozy cabin in the woods."

Corrected: "A cozy cabin in the woods provides a perfect escape."

Fragmented (Missing Verb): "The dog near the fence."

Corrected: "The dog near the fence barked loudly."

Fragmented (Missing Verb): "A beautiful garden with colorful flowers."

Corrected: "A beautiful garden with colorful flowers blooms in the spring."


3. Dependent Clause:

Fragment: "Although she tried."

Corrected: "Although she tried, she couldn't succeed."

Explanation: The dependent clause is completed with the independent clause, forming a full thought.

Fragment: "Because it rained."

Corrected: "Because it rained, the game was postponed."

Explanation: Adding "the game was postponed" transforms the fragment into a complete sentence.

Fragmented (Dependent Clause): "Although tired and hungry."

Corrected: "Although tired and hungry, they continued the hike."

Fragmented (Dependent Clause): "Since the weather was nice."

Corrected: "Since the weather was nice, we decided to have a picnic."

Fragmented (Dependent Clause): "Because she had studied all night."

Corrected: "Because she had studied all night, she aced the exam."

Fragmented (Dependent Clause): "While waiting at the airport."

Corrected: "While waiting at the airport, I met an old friend."

Fragmented (Dependent Clause): "Even though they were late."

Corrected: "Even though they were late, they made it to the concert."

Fragmented (Dependent Clause): "As soon as the sun set."

Corrected: "As soon as the sun set, the night sky came alive with stars."

Fragmented (Dependent Clause): "If the rain stopped."

Corrected: "If the rain stopped, we could go for a walk."

Fragmented (Dependent Clause): "While wearing a warm coat."

Corrected: "While wearing a warm coat, she braved the cold winter morning."



4. Prepositional Phrase:

  • Fragment: "In the middle of the park."

  • Corrected: "In the middle of the park, children played."

  • Explanation: The prepositional phrase is followed by the verb and subject in the corrected sentence.

  • Fragment: "After the storm."

  • Corrected: "After the storm, the sky cleared."

  • Explanation: The prepositional phrase is completed with a full clause.

Fragmented (Prepositional Phrase): "In the middle of the park."

Corrected: "In the middle of the park, children played."

Fragmented (Prepositional Phrase): "After the storm."

Corrected: "After the storm, the sky cleared."

Fragmented (Prepositional Phrase): "Under the starry sky."

Corrected: "Under the starry sky, they stargazed."

Fragmented (Prepositional Phrase): "Beneath the old oak tree."

Corrected: "Beneath the old oak tree, they found a hidden treasure."

Fragmented (Prepositional Phrase): "Near the bustling city."

Corrected: "Near the bustling city, there was a quiet village."


5. Appositive Fragment:

  • Fragment: "A talented musician."

  • Corrected: "A talented musician, she played the piano beautifully."

  • Explanation: The appositive fragment is followed by a complete clause.

  • Fragment: "An avid reader."

  • Corrected: "An avid reader, he finished three books last week."

  • Explanation: The fragment is completed with a subject, verb, and object.

Fragmented (Appositive Fragment): "A talented musician."

Corrected: "A talented musician, she played the piano beautifully."

Fragmented (Appositive Fragment): "An avid reader."

Corrected: "An avid reader, he finished three books last week."

Fragmented (Appositive Fragment): "A renowned scientist."

Corrected: "A renowned scientist, Dr. Smith made groundbreaking discoveries."

Fragmented (Appositive Fragment): "An experienced chef."

Corrected: "An experienced chef, Chef Rodriguez created a delicious meal."

Fragmented (Appositive Fragment): "A dedicated teacher."

Corrected: "A dedicated teacher, Ms. Johnson inspired her students."


6.Infinitive Phrase:

  • Fragment: "To explore the unknown."

  • Corrected: "To explore the unknown, scientists embarked on a perilous journey."

  • Explanation: The infinitive phrase is followed by a complete independent clause.

  • Fragment: "To become a professional."

  • Corrected: "To become a professional, he dedicated years of hard work."

  • Explanation: The fragment is transformed into a full sentence by adding a subject, verb, and object.

Fragmented (Infinitive Phrase): "To explore the unknown."

Corrected: "To explore the unknown, scientists embarked on a perilous journey."

Fragmented (Infinitive Phrase): "To achieve her dreams."

Corrected: "To achieve her dreams, she worked diligently day and night."

Fragmented (Infinitive Phrase): "To win the championship."

Corrected: "To win the championship, the team trained rigorously."

Fragmented (Infinitive Phrase): "To reach new heights."

Corrected: "To reach new heights, he constantly challenged himself."

Fragmented (Infinitive Phrase): "To make a difference."

Corrected: "To make a difference, volunteers dedicate their time and effort."


7. -ing Phrase:

  • Fragment: "Walking in the rain."

  • Corrected: "Walking in the rain, they got completely drenched."

  • Explanation: The -ing phrase is supplemented with a subject and verb.

  • Fragment: "Running around the field."

  • Corrected: "Running around the field, the children laughed and played."

  • Explanation: The fragment becomes complete with the addition of a subject and verb.

Fragmented (-ing Phrase): "Running through the forest." Corrected: "Running through the forest, she felt a sense of freedom."

Fragmented (-ing Phrase): "Dancing under the stars." Corrected: "Dancing under the stars, they lost themselves in the music."

Fragmented (-ing Phrase): "Swimming in the crystal-clear waters." Corrected: "Swimming in the crystal-clear waters, they spotted colorful fish."

Fragmented (-ing Phrase): "Exploring ancient ruins." Corrected: "Exploring ancient ruins, archaeologists uncovered hidden treasures."

Fragmented (-ing Phrase): "Singing with passion." Corrected: "Singing with passion, the choir filled the auditorium with beautiful melodies."

8. Adjective Fragment:

  • Fragment: "Beautiful and serene."

  • Corrected: "The landscape was beautiful and serene."

  • Explanation: The adjective fragment is transformed into a complete sentence with a subject and verb.

  • Fragment: "Delicious and mouthwatering."

  • Corrected: "The food at the restaurant was delicious and mouthwatering."

  • Explanation: The adjective fragment is followed by the subject and verb in the corrected sentence.

Fragmented (Adjective Fragment): "Beautiful and serene."

Corrected: "The landscape was beautiful and serene."

Fragmented (Adjective Fragment): "Delicious and mouthwatering."

Corrected: "The food at the restaurant was delicious and mouthwatering."

Fragmented (Adjective Fragment): "Tall and majestic."

Corrected: "The redwood trees were tall and majestic."

Fragmented (Adjective Fragment): "Sunny and warm."

Corrected: "The weather was sunny and warm."

Fragmented (Adjective Fragment): "Elegant and stylish."

Corrected: "Her dress was elegant and stylish."

9. -ed Phrase:

  • Fragment: "Frightened by the sudden noise."

  • Corrected: "Frightened by the sudden noise, the cat dashed under the bed."

  • Explanation: The -ed phrase is accompanied by the subject and verb.

  • Fragment: "Inspired by the speech."

  • Corrected: "Inspired by the speech, they decided to take action."

  • Explanation: The fragment is converted into a full sentence by adding a subject and verb.

Fragmented (Adjective Fragment): "Beautiful and serene."

Corrected: "The landscape was beautiful and serene."

Fragmented (Adjective Fragment): "Delicious and mouthwatering."

Corrected: "The food at the restaurant was delicious and mouthwatering."

Fragmented (Adjective Fragment): "Tall and majestic."

Corrected: "The redwood trees were tall and majestic."

Fragmented (Adjective Fragment): "Sunny and warm."

Corrected: "The weather was sunny and warm."

Fragmented (Adjective Fragment): "Elegant and stylish."

Corrected: "Her dress was elegant and stylish."


10.Direct Object Fragment:

  • Fragment: "A captivating novel."

  • Corrected: "She read a captivating novel."

  • Explanation: The direct object fragment is supplemented with the subject and verb.

  • Fragment: "A delicious meal."

  • Corrected: "We enjoyed a delicious meal."

  • Explanation: The fragment is turned into a complete sentence with a subject and verb.

Fragmented (Direct Object Fragment): "A captivating novel."

Corrected: "She read a captivating novel."

Fragmented (Direct Object Fragment): "A delicious meal."

Corrected: "We enjoyed a delicious meal."

Fragmented (Direct Object Fragment): "An interesting article."

Corrected: "He shared an interesting article."

Fragmented (Direct Object Fragment): "A heartfelt letter."

Corrected: "She received a heartfelt letter."

Fragmented (Direct Object Fragment): "A beautiful painting."

Corrected: "They admired a beautiful painting."



Exercise


Identify whether each sentence is a full sentence or a fragmented sentence.


  1. Walking in the rain.

  2. After the storm, the rainbow appeared.

  3. Baking cookies for the party.

  4. Surrounded by nature.

  5. While waiting for the bus, she read a book.

  6. A talented musician, known for his virtuoso performances.

  7. To travel the world.

  8. Running in the marathon, he achieved a personal best time.

  9. In the cozy cabin in the woods.

  10. Exhausted from the long hike.

  11. If it rains tomorrow.

  12. Swimming in the crystal-clear lake.

  13. The cat, a fluffy white Persian.

  14. To become a successful writer.

  15. Despite the challenges, she never gave up.

  16. Hiking through the mountains.

  17. Eating a delicious meal.

  18. Because the movie was sold out.

  19. The teacher, always patient and understanding.

  20. On a warm summer day.

Answers:

  1. Fragmented Sentence

  2. Full Sentence

  3. Fragmented Sentence

  4. Fragmented Sentence

  5. Full Sentence

  6. Fragmented Sentence

  7. Fragmented Sentence

  8. Full Sentence

  9. Fragmented Sentence

  10. Fragmented Sentence

  11. Fragmented Sentence

  12. Full Sentence

  13. Fragmented Sentence

  14. Fragmented Sentence

  15. Full Sentence

  16. Fragmented Sentence

  17. Fragmented Sentence

  18. Fragmented Sentence

  19. Fragmented Sentence

  20. Fragmented Sentence


  1. Missing Subject Fragment: "Baked a delicious cake with chocolate chips."

  2. Missing Verb Fragment: "She with her friends in the park."

  3. Dependent Clause Fragment: "Although he was busy all day, tired and unable to rest."

  4. Prepositional Phrase Fragment: "In the middle of the night, the mysterious sound."

  5. Appositive Fragment: "An accomplished pianist, performing at the concert."

  6. Infinitive Phrase Fragment: "To become a professional athlete, dedication and hard work."

  7. -ing Phrase Fragment: "Hiking through the dense forest, surrounded by tall trees."

  8. Adjective Fragment: "Beautiful and serene, the lake at sunset."

  9. -ed Phrase Fragment: "Excited by the news, an unexpected opportunity."

  10. Direct Object Fragment: "A captivating novel, enjoyed every page."

Answers:

1. Missing Subject Fragment: "She baked a delicious cake with chocolate chips."

  • Corrected: "She baked a delicious cake with chocolate chips."

2. Missing Verb Fragment: "She played with her friends in the park."

  • Corrected: "She played with her friends in the park."

3. Dependent Clause Fragment: "Although he was busy all day, he was tired and unable to rest."

  • Corrected: "Although he was busy all day, he was tired and unable to rest."

4.Prepositional Phrase Fragment: "In the middle of the night, there was a mysterious sound."

  • Corrected: "In the middle of the night, they heard a mysterious sound."

5. Appositive Fragment: "An accomplished pianist performed at the concert."

  • Corrected: "An accomplished pianist performed at the concert."

6. Infinitive Phrase Fragment: "To become a professional athlete, one needs dedication and hard work."

  • Corrected: "To become a professional athlete, dedication and hard work are required."

7. -ing Phrase Fragment: "Hiking through the dense forest, they were surrounded by tall trees."

  • Corrected: "Hiking through the dense forest, they were surrounded by tall trees."

8. Adjective Fragment: "Beautiful and serene, the lake at sunset is a sight to behold."

  • Corrected: "The lake at sunset is beautiful and serene, a sight to behold."

9. -ed Phrase Fragment: "Excited by the news, she received an unexpected opportunity."

  • Corrected: "Excited by the news, she received an unexpected opportunity."

10. Direct Object Fragment: "A captivating novel captivated her; she enjoyed every page."

  • Corrected: "A captivating novel captivated her, and she enjoyed every page."


Identify whether each sentence is a fragmented sentence or a correct sentence.

  1. Without a doubt, one of the most challenging hikes.

  2. Enjoying the beautiful sunset on the beach.

  3. After a long day at work, too exhausted to think straight.

  4. While traveling through Europe, exploring historic cities.

  5. A talented musician, famous for his improvisations.

  6. To master a new language, practicing consistently.

  7. In the cozy cafe on a rainy afternoon.

  8. After finishing the marathon, a sense of accomplishment.

  9. A successful entrepreneur, creating innovative products.

  10. During the concert, the crowd's enthusiastic applause.

  11. If it's too cold outside.

  12. Over the years, honing his skills in woodworking.

  13. While studying for the exam, distracted by the noisy neighbors.

  14. At the top of the mountain, a breathtaking view.

  15. To build a strong community, working together.

Answers:

  1. Correct Sentence

  2. Fragmented Sentence

  3. Correct Sentence

  4. Fragmented Sentence

  5. Fragmented Sentence

  6. Correct Sentence

  7. Fragmented Sentence

  8. Correct Sentence

  9. Fragmented Sentence

  10. Fragmented Sentence

  11. Fragmented Sentence

  12. Correct Sentence

  13. Fragmented Sentence

  14. Correct Sentence

  15. Fragmented Sentence

Identify whether each sentence is a fragmented sentence or a correct sentence.

  1. When the clock strikes midnight.

  2. A beautiful painting, admired by many.

  3. To bake a delicious cake.

  4. In the library, surrounded by books.

  5. After winning the championship, a feeling of triumph.

  6. Hiking in the mountains, feeling the cool breeze.

  7. If it rains tomorrow.

  8. Swimming in the crystal-clear lake.

  9. Playing with her dog in the park.

  10. A successful writer, known for her captivating stories.

  11. During the thunderstorm, lightning illuminating the sky.

  12. Without a doubt, one of the most talented musicians.

  13. If the temperature drops.

  14. Climbing the steep mountain.

  15. Surrounded by friends and family.

Answers:

  1. Fragmented Sentence

  2. Fragmented Sentence

  3. Fragmented Sentence

  4. Correct Sentence

  5. Fragmented Sentence

  6. Correct Sentence

  7. Fragmented Sentence

  8. Correct Sentence

  9. Correct Sentence

  10. Fragmented Sentence

  11. Fragmented Sentence

  12. Fragmented Sentence

  13. Fragmented Sentence

  14. Fragmented Sentence

  15. Correct Sentence

Exercise Identify whether each sentence is a fragmented sentence or a correct sentence.

  1. Despite the difficulties of the journey.

  2. If the concert is sold out.

  3. After traveling through Europe, exploring historic cities.

  4. A talented artist, renowned for their innovative sculptures.

  5. Biking through the mountainous terrain.

  6. To achieve his dreams, working tirelessly.

  7. During the intense debate, his voice trembled.

  8. In the bustling city, amidst the skyscrapers.

  9. Without a doubt, one of the most challenging tasks.

  10. Swimming in the crystal-clear lake on a hot summer day.

  11. The teacher, always patient and understanding, even with difficult students.

  12. A successful entrepreneur, who founded multiple startups.

  13. If the weather remains pleasant.

  14. Over the years, perfecting his craft in carpentry.

  15. After winning the championship, celebrating with friends and family.

Answers:

  1. Fragmented Sentence

  2. Fragmented Sentence

  3. Correct Sentence

  4. Fragmented Sentence

  5. Correct Sentence

  6. Correct Sentence

  7. Correct Sentence

  8. Fragmented Sentence

  9. Correct Sentence

  10. Correct Sentence

  11. Correct Sentence

  12. Correct Sentence

  13. Fragmented Sentence

  14. Correct Sentence

  15. Correct Sentence

Identify whether each sentence is a fragmented sentence or a correct sentence.

  1. As the sun began to set.

  2. Cooking a gourmet meal for her anniversary.

  3. A talented painter, whose works hang in prestigious galleries.

  4. If it rains tomorrow.

  5. During the marathon, breaking a personal record.

  6. To become a renowned chef, perfecting her culinary skills.

  7. If the weather remains pleasant.

  8. In the cozy cottage by the lake.

  9. Running through the forest, feeling the wind in her hair.

  10. Without a doubt, one of the most challenging projects.

  11. Swimming in the clear blue waters.

  12. Over the years, accumulating an impressive collection of vintage cars.

  13. If the concert is sold out.

  14. Playing with her dog in the park.

  15. The teacher, always dedicated to her students.

Answers:

  1. Fragmented Sentence

  2. Fragmented Sentence

  3. Correct Sentence

  4. Fragmented Sentence

  5. Correct Sentence

  6. Correct Sentence

  7. Fragmented Sentence

  8. Correct Sentence

  9. Correct Sentence

  10. Correct Sentence

  11. Correct Sentence

  12. Correct Sentence

  13. Fragmented Sentence

  14. Correct Sentence

  15. Correct Sentence

Exercise

  1. In the garden, amid the blooming flowers.

  2. To travel the world, experiencing different cultures.

  3. If it's too cold outside.

  4. A talented musician, who composes mesmerizing symphonies.

  5. Without a doubt, one of the most beautiful sunsets.

  6. During the thunderstorm, the power went out.

  7. Cooking a delicious meal for her family.

  8. After a long day at work, too exhausted to do anything.

  9. Swimming in the crystal-clear lake on a hot summer day.

  10. If the rain continues tomorrow.

  11. Biking through the scenic countryside.

  12. Over the years, honing his skills as a master chef.

  13. A successful entrepreneur, who founded several successful companies.

  14. If it rains tomorrow, the event will be moved indoors.

  15. Playing with her dog in the park.

Answers:

  1. Fragmented Sentence

  2. Correct Sentence

  3. Fragmented Sentence

  4. Correct Sentence

  5. Correct Sentence

  6. Correct Sentence

  7. Correct Sentence

  8. Fragmented Sentence

  9. Correct Sentence

  10. Fragmented Sentence

  11. Correct Sentence

  12. Correct Sentence

  13. Correct Sentence

  14. Correct Sentence

  15. Correct Sentence




Exercise

  1. Walking through the dense forest, the tall trees providing much-needed shade.

  2. After studying for hours and hours, he aced the challenging exam.

  3. During the thunderstorm, the lightning illuminating the sky and the rain pouring relentlessly.

  4. Climbing the steep mountain, the breathtaking view from the top.

  5. While waiting for the delayed flight, checking emails on her laptop and sipping coffee.

  6. Surrounded by colorful flowers in the garden, the vibrant petals swaying in the breeze.

  7. In the crowded marketplace, searching for the perfect gift for his mother's birthday.

  8. Exploring the ancient ruins, uncovering hidden artifacts and deciphering cryptic inscriptions.

  9. Sitting by the campfire, the crackling flames and the sound of distant wolves howling.

  10. Watching the sunrise over the horizon, the sky turning various shades of orange and pink.


Answers:

  1. Fragment: "Walking through the dense forest, the tall trees providing much-needed shade." Corrected: "Walking through the dense forest, she found the tall trees providing much-needed shade."

  2. Fragment: "After studying for hours and hours, he aced the challenging exam." Corrected: "After studying for hours and hours, she aced the challenging exam."

  3. Fragment: "During the thunderstorm, the lightning illuminating the sky and the rain pouring relentlessly." Corrected: "During the thunderstorm, the lightning illuminated the sky, and the rain poured relentlessly."

  4. Fragment: "Climbing the steep mountain, the breathtaking view from the top." Corrected: "Climbing the steep mountain, we marveled at the breathtaking view from the top."

  5. Fragment: "While waiting for the delayed flight, checking emails on her laptop and sipping coffee." Corrected: "While waiting for the delayed flight, he checked emails on his laptop and sipped coffee."

  6. Fragment: "Surrounded by colorful flowers in the garden, the vibrant petals swaying in the breeze." Corrected: "Surrounded by colorful flowers in the garden, we watched the vibrant petals swaying in the breeze."

  7. Fragment: "In the crowded marketplace, searching for the perfect gift for his mother's birthday." Corrected: "In the crowded marketplace, she was searching for the perfect gift for her mother's birthday."

  8. Fragment: "Exploring the ancient ruins, uncovering hidden artifacts and deciphering cryptic inscriptions." Corrected: "Exploring the ancient ruins, the archeologists uncovered hidden artifacts and deciphered cryptic inscriptions."

  9. Fragment: "Sitting by the campfire, the crackling flames and the sound of distant wolves howling." Corrected: "Sitting by the campfire, they enjoyed the crackling flames and the sound of distant wolves howling."

  10. Fragment: "Watching the sunrise over the horizon, the sky turning various shades of orange and pink." Corrected: "Watching the sunrise over the horizon, they saw the sky turning various shades of orange and pink."

Exercise:

  1. Amidst the bustling city, the skyscrapers towering over everything.

  2. After a long day at work, too exhausted to even think straight.

  3. On the mountaintop, the breathtaking view extending for miles.

  4. Despite his busy schedule, always making time for his family.

  5. While exploring the ancient castle, the history of the place coming alive.

  6. Sitting by the cozy fireplace, the warmth spreading throughout the room.

  7. In the tranquil garden, the scent of blooming flowers filling the air.

  8. During the thunderstorm, the lightning flashing across the dark sky.

  9. With a cup of hot cocoa in hand, feeling relaxed and content.

  10. Underneath the starry night, the constellations shining brightly.

  11. In the art studio, surrounded by brushes, canvases, and paint.

  12. After a day at the beach, the sand sticking to their skin and clothes.

  13. Amid the chaos of the carnival, laughter and music in the air.

  14. Despite the heavy rain, determined to finish the marathon.

  15. Sitting in the library, books piled high on the table and floor.

Answers:

  1. Fragment: "Amidst the bustling city, the skyscrapers towering over everything." Corrected: "Amidst the bustling city, we noticed the skyscrapers towering over everything."

  2. Fragment: "After a long day at work, too exhausted to even think straight." Corrected: "After a long day at work, he was too exhausted to even think straight."

  3. Fragment: "On the mountaintop, the breathtaking view extending for miles." Corrected: "On the mountaintop, we marveled at the breathtaking view extending for miles."

  4. Fragment: "Despite his busy schedule, always making time for his family." Corrected: "Despite his busy schedule, he was always making time for his family."

  5. Fragment: "While exploring the ancient castle, the history of the place coming alive." Corrected: "While exploring the ancient castle, we felt the history of the place coming alive."

  6. Fragment: "Sitting by the cozy fireplace, the warmth spreading throughout the room." Corrected: "Sitting by the cozy fireplace, they felt the warmth spreading throughout the room."

  7. Fragment: "In the tranquil garden, the scent of blooming flowers filling the air." Corrected: "In the tranquil garden, we enjoyed the scent of blooming flowers filling the air."

  8. Fragment: "During the thunderstorm, the lightning flashing across the dark sky." Corrected: "During the thunderstorm, we watched the lightning flashing across the dark sky."

  9. Fragment: "With a cup of hot cocoa in hand, feeling relaxed and content." Corrected: "With a cup of hot cocoa in hand, he felt relaxed and content."

  10. Fragment: "Underneath the starry night, the constellations shining brightly." Corrected: "Underneath the starry night, they saw the constellations shining brightly."



  1. Missing Subject: "Running through the forest, the tall trees providing much-needed shade."

  2. Missing Verb: "After studying for hours and hours, acing the challenging exam."

  3. Dependent Clause: "Since the weather was nice, we decided to have a picnic."

  4. Prepositional Phrase: "In the crowded marketplace, searching for the perfect gift for his mother's birthday."

  5. Appositive Fragment: "A talented musician, played the piano beautifully."

  6. Infinitive Phrase: "To achieve her dreams, working diligently day and night."

  7. -ing Phrase: "Dancing under the stars, lost themselves in the music."

  8. Adjective Fragment: "Beautiful and serene, the landscape."

  9. -ed Phrase: "Frightened by the sudden noise, the cat dashed under the bed."

  10. Missing Subject: "Baking in the oven, the delicious aroma."

  11. Missing Verb: "Before leaving for the trip, all the necessary supplies."

  12. Dependent Clause: "If the rain stops, we could go for a walk."

  13. Prepositional Phrase: "Among the colorful flowers in the garden, watching the butterflies."

  14. Appositive Fragment: "An experienced chef, created a delicious meal."

  15. Infinitive Phrase: "To become a professional athlete, dedicating countless hours to training."

  16. -ing Phrase: "Singing with passion, the choir."

  17. Adjective Fragment: "Elegant and stylish, the dress."

  18. -ed Phrase: "Excited by the news, he called all his friends."

  19. Missing Subject: "Shining in the night sky, the full moon."

  20. Missing Verb: "Before going to bed, her nightly routine."

Answers:

  1. Fragment: "Running through the forest, the tall trees providing much-needed shade." Corrected: "Running through the forest, we found the tall trees providing much-needed shade."

  2. Fragment: "After studying for hours and hours, acing the challenging exam." Corrected: "After studying for hours and hours, she aced the challenging exam."

  3. Fragment: "Since the weather was nice, we decided to have a picnic." Corrected: "Since the weather was nice, we decided to have a picnic."

  4. Fragment: "In the crowded marketplace, searching for the perfect gift for his mother's birthday." Corrected: "In the crowded marketplace, he was searching for the perfect gift for his mother's birthday."

  5. Fragment: "A talented musician, played the piano beautifully." Corrected: "A talented musician, she played the piano beautifully."

  6. Infinitive Phrase: "To achieve her dreams, working diligently day and night." Corrected: "To achieve her dreams, she worked diligently day and night."

  7. -ing Phrase: "Dancing under the stars, lost themselves in the music." Corrected: "Dancing under the stars, they lost themselves in the music."

  8. Adjective Fragment: "Beautiful and serene, the landscape." Corrected: "Beautiful and serene, the landscape was a sight to behold."

  9. -ed Phrase: "Frightened by the sudden noise, the cat dashed under the bed." Corrected: "Frightened by the sudden noise, the cat quickly dashed under the bed."

  10. Missing Subject: "Baking in the oven, the delicious aroma." Corrected: "Baking in the oven, the delicious aroma filled the kitchen."

  11. Missing Verb: "Before leaving for the trip, all the necessary supplies." Corrected: "Before leaving for the trip, they gathered all the necessary supplies."

  12. Dependent Clause: "If the rain stops, we could go for a walk." Corrected: "If the rain stops, we could go for a walk."

  13. Prepositional Phrase: "Among the colorful flowers in the garden, watching the butterflies." Corrected: "Among the colorful flowers in the garden, they enjoyed watching the butterflies."

  14. Appositive Fragment: "An experienced chef, created a delicious meal." Corrected: "An experienced chef, Chef Smith, created a delicious meal."

  15. Infinitive Phrase: "To become a professional athlete, dedicating countless hours to training." Corrected: "To become a professional athlete, she dedicated countless hours to training."

  16. -ing Phrase: "Singing with passion, the choir." Corrected: "Singing with passion, the choir captivated the audience."

  17. Adjective Fragment: "Elegant and stylish, the dress." Corrected: "Elegant and stylish, the dress was the highlight of the evening."

  18. -ed Phrase: "Excited by the news, he called all his friends." Corrected: "Excited by the news, he enthusiastically called all his friends."

  19. Missing Subject: "Shining in the night sky, the full moon." Corrected: "Shining in the night sky, the full moon was a breathtaking sight."

  20. Missing Verb: "Before going to bed, her nightly routine." Corrected: "Before going to bed, she completed her nightly routine."



Exercise

  1. Missing Subject: "Walking along the beach, the waves crashing against the shore."

  2. Missing Verb: "After finishing the book, completely engrossed in the story."

  3. Dependent Clause: "Because the weather was perfect, planning a picnic in the park."

  4. Prepositional Phrase: "In the old attic, discovering a box of vintage photographs."

  5. Appositive Fragment: "A renowned author, known for his bestsellers."

  6. Infinitive Phrase: "To reach the summit, training tirelessly every day."

  7. -ing Phrase: "Skiing down the mountain, feeling the adrenaline rush."

  8. Adjective Fragment: "Elegant and timeless, the watch."

  9. -ed Phrase: "Fascinated by the history, exploring the ancient ruins."

  10. Missing Subject: "Playing in the garden, the children's laughter."

  11. Missing Verb: "Before traveling to France, all the necessary arrangements."

  12. Dependent Clause: "If the rain continues, postponing the outdoor event."

  13. Prepositional Phrase: "Underneath the starry night, gazing at the constellations."

  14. Appositive Fragment: "A talented musician, played a mesmerizing symphony."

  15. Infinitive Phrase: "To become a successful entrepreneur, working diligently."

  16. -ing Phrase: "Hiking in the mountains, enjoying the fresh air."

  17. Adjective Fragment: "Stylish and unique, the car."

  18. -ed Phrase: "Inspired by the movie, she decided to write her own screenplay."

  19. Missing Subject: "In the library, surrounded by books and quiet."

  20. Missing Verb: "Before going on stage, practicing the final routine."

Answer:

  1. Missing Subject: "Walking along the beach, the waves crashing against the shore." Corrected: "Walking along the beach, we watched the waves crashing against the shore."

  2. Missing Verb: "After finishing the book, completely engrossed in the story." Corrected: "After finishing the book, she was completely engrossed in the story."

  3. Dependent Clause: "Because the weather was perfect, planning a picnic in the park." Corrected: "Because the weather was perfect, we were planning a picnic in the park."

  4. Prepositional Phrase: "In the old attic, discovering a box of vintage photographs." Corrected: "In the old attic, they discovered a box of vintage photographs."

  5. Appositive Fragment: "A renowned author, known for his bestsellers." Corrected: "A renowned author, J.K. Rowling, is known for her bestsellers."

  6. Infinitive Phrase: "To reach the summit, training tirelessly every day." Corrected: "To reach the summit, they trained tirelessly every day."

  7. -ing Phrase: "Skiing down the mountain, feeling the adrenaline rush." Corrected: "Skiing down the mountain, they felt the adrenaline rush."

  8. Adjective Fragment: "Elegant and timeless, the watch." Corrected: "Elegant and timeless, the watch was a classic."

  9. -ed Phrase: "Fascinated by the history, exploring the ancient ruins." Corrected: "Fascinated by the history, they enjoyed exploring the ancient ruins."

  10. Missing Subject: "Playing in the garden, the children's laughter." Corrected: "Playing in the garden, the children filled the air with laughter."

  11. Missing Verb: "Before traveling to France, all the necessary arrangements." Corrected: "Before traveling to France, they made all the necessary arrangements."

  12. Dependent Clause: "If the rain continues, postponing the outdoor event." Corrected: "If the rain continues, we will have to postpone the outdoor event."

  13. Prepositional Phrase: "Underneath the starry night, gazing at the constellations." Corrected: "Underneath the starry night, they enjoyed gazing at the constellations."

  14. Appositive Fragment: "A talented musician, played a mesmerizing symphony." Corrected: "A talented musician, John Williams, played a mesmerizing symphony."

  15. Infinitive Phrase: "To become a successful entrepreneur, working diligently." Corrected: "To become a successful entrepreneur, she worked diligently."

  16. -ing Phrase: "Hiking in the mountains, enjoying the fresh air." Corrected: "Hiking in the mountains, they were enjoying the fresh air."

  17. Adjective Fragment: "Stylish and unique, the car." Corrected: "Stylish and unique, the car stood out in the parking lot."

  18. -ed Phrase: "Inspired by the movie, she decided to write her own screenplay." Corrected: "Inspired by the movie, she enthusiastically decided to write her own screenplay."

  19. Missing Subject: "In the library, surrounded by books and quiet." Corrected: "In the library, they were surrounded by books and quiet."

  20. Missing Verb: "Before going on stage, practicing the final routine." Corrected: "Before going on stage, she was practicing the final routine."

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