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Class 11 & 12 English For Today Vocabulary-5 (Unit 9-13)

Updated: Mar 28

Unit Nine: Peace and Conflict

Lesson I

Conflict: Causes and Types


  1. Conflict - ঝগড়া - A disagreement or argument.

  2. Disagreement - অমিল - Lack of agreement or consensus.

  3. Antagonism - বিরোধ - Active hostility or opposition.

  4. Brutality - নিষ্ঠুরতা - Savage physical violence; great cruelty.

  5. Resolution - সমাধান - The action of solving a problem, dispute, or contentious matter.

  6. Contentious - বিতর্কিত - Causing or likely to cause an argument; controversial.

  7. Misunderstandings - মিথ্যা অববোধ - A failure to understand something correctly.

  8. Stress - তনাব - Mental or emotional strain or tension resulting from adverse or demanding circumstances.

  9. Frustration - বিরক্তি - The feeling of being upset or annoyed, especially because of inability to change or achieve something.

  10. Communication - যোগাযোগ - The imparting or exchanging of information or news.

  11. Escalation - বৃদ্ধি - A rapid increase; a rise.

  12. Hostility - শত্রুতা - Hostile behavior; unfriendliness or opposition.

  13. Inevitable - অনিবার্য - Certain to happen; unavoidable.

  14. Varied - বিবিধ - Diverse in form or character; differing.

  15. Principles - নীতি - A fundamental truth or proposition that serves as the foundation for a system of belief or behavior.

  16. Wars - যুদ্ধ - A state of armed conflict between different nations or states or different groups within a nation or state.

  17. Contending - প্রতিযোগী - Competing or fighting to achieve something.

  18. Aggressive - আক্রামক - Hostile and unfriendly in the way one expresses oneself.

  19. Maximize - সর্বোচ্চ করা - Make as large or great as possible; make the best use of.

  20. Harmony - সমগ্রতা - The quality of forming a pleasing and consistent whole.

  21. Competition - প্রতিযোগিতা - The activity or condition of striving to gain or win something by defeating or establishing superiority over others.

  22. Opinions - মতামত - A view or judgment formed about something, not necessarily based on fact or knowledge.

  23. Ideas - ধারণা - A thought or suggestion as to a possible course of action.

  24. Beliefs - বিশ্বাস - Trust, faith, or confidence in someone or something.

  25. Rigid - কঠিন - Unable to bend or be forced out of shape; not flexible.

  26. Expression - অভিব্যক্তি - The process of making known one's thoughts or feelings.

  27. Resources - সম্পদ - A stock or supply of money, materials, staff, and other assets that can be drawn on by a person or organization in order to function effectively.

  28. Hostilities - শত্রুতা - Acts of warfare; conflict or opposition.

  29. Psychological - মানসিক - Relating to the mental and emotional state of a person.

  30. Interpersonal - ব্যক্তিগত - Relating to relationships or communication between people.

  31. Intrapersonal - আত্মবিষয়ক - Existing or occurring within the individual self or mind.

  32. Intragroup - সমূহের মধ্যে - Within a particular group or organization.

  33. Intergroup - প্রতিদ্বন্দ্বিতা - Relating to or involving two or more groups.

  34. Disputes - বিতর্ক - A disagreement or argument.

  35. Agreements - চুক্তি - A negotiated arrangement between two or more parties as a settlement for a dispute.

  36. Insight - অন্তর্দৃষ্টি - The capacity to gain an accurate and deep understanding of someone or something.

  37. Competing - প্রতিযোগিতা - Striving to gain or win something by defeating or establishing superiority over others.

  38. Achievement - অর্জন - A thing done successfully, typically by effort, courage, or skill.

  39. Guidance - নির্দেশনা - Advice or information aimed at resolving a problem or difficulty, especially as given by someone in authority.

  40. Resolution - সমাধান - The action of solving a problem, dispute, or contentious matter.




Lesson 2

Cruelties of Conflict


  1. Lying - শুয়েছিলাম - Resting in a horizontal position.

  2. Soul - আত্মা - The spiritual or immaterial part of a human being or animal, regarded as immortal.

  3. Thirsty - ক্ষুধার্ত - Feeling a need to drink something.

  4. Loaf - রুটির টুকরা - A quantity of bread that is shaped and baked in one piece.

  5. Bread - পাউরুটি - Food made of flour, water, and yeast or another leavening agent, mixed together and baked.

  6. Stone - পাথর - The hard, solid, non-metallic mineral matter of which rock is made.

  7. Ironically - পরিপূর্বানুরূপে - In a way that is contrary to what is expected or intended.

  8. Millionaires - লক্ষ্মীপতি - People whose wealth amounts to a million or more in money or property.

  9. Banshees - রাতে ঘুরতে ঘোমটা - (In Irish legend) a female spirit whose wailing warns of an impending death in a house.

  10. Expensive - দামী - Costing a lot of money.

  11. Doctors - ডাক্তার - A qualified practitioner of medicine; a physician.

  12. Cure - প্রতিষেধ - Relief from the symptoms of an illness.

  13. Heart - হৃদয় - A hollow muscular organ that pumps the blood through the circulatory system by rhythmic contraction and dilation.

  14. Storm - ঝড় - A violent disturbance of the atmosphere with strong winds and usually rain, thunder, lightning, or snow.

  15. Gathering - সংগ্রহ - A coming together of people or things.

  16. Wind - বাতাস - The perceptible natural movement of the air, especially in the form of a current blowing from a particular direction.

  17. Suffering - দুঃখ - The state of undergoing pain, distress, or hardship.

  18. Moan - অত্যন্ত স্তব্ধভাবে উচ্চারণ করা - A long, low sound made by a person expressing physical or mental suffering or sexual pleasure.

  19. Race - প্রজাতি - Each of the major divisions of humankind, having distinct physical characteristics.

  20. Lying - শুয়েছিলাম - Resting in a horizontal position.

  21. Soul - আত্মা - The spiritual or immaterial part of a human being or animal, regarded as immortal.

  22. Thirsty - ক্ষুধার্ত - Feeling a need to drink something.

  23. Loaf - রুটির টুকরা - A quantity of bread that is shaped and baked in one piece.

  24. Bread - পাউরুটি - Food made of flour, water, and yeast or another leavening agent, mixed together and baked.

  25. Stone - পাথর - The hard, solid, non-metallic mineral matter of which rock is made.

  26. Ironically - পরিপূর্বানুরূপে - In a way that is contrary to what is expected or intended.

  27. Millionaires - লক্ষ্মীপতি - People whose wealth amounts to a million or more in money or property.

  28. Banshees - রাতে ঘুরতে ঘোমটা - (In Irish legend) a female spirit whose wailing warns of an impending death in a house.

  29. Expensive - দামী - Costing a lot of money.

  30. Doctors - ডাক্তার - A qualified practitioner of medicine; a physician.

  31. Cure - প্রতিষেধ - Relief from the symptoms of an illness.

  32. Heart - হৃদয় - A hollow muscular organ that pumps the blood through the circulatory system by rhythmic contraction and dilation.

  33. Storm - ঝড় - A violent disturbance of the atmosphere with strong winds and usually rain, thunder, lightning, or snow.

  34. Gathering - সংগ্রহ - A coming together of people or things.

  35. Wind - বাতাস - The perceptible natural movement of the air, especially in the form of a current blowing from a particular direction.

  36. Suffering - দুঃখ - The state of undergoing pain, distress, or hardship.

  37. Moan - অত্যন্ত স্তব্ধভাবে উচ্চারণ করা - A long, low sound made by a person expressing physical or mental suffering or sexual pleasure.

  38. Race - প্রজাতি - Each of the major divisions of humankind, having distinct physical characteristics.

  39. Man - মানুষ - An adult human male.

  40. Progress - অগ্রগতি - Forward or onward movement towards a destination.

  41. Gonna' - চলবে - Informal contraction of "going to."

  42. Blow - বাতাসের ঝড় - A current of air in motion.

  43. Suffering - দুঃখ - The state of undergoing pain, distress, or hardship.

  44. Race - প্রজাতি - Each of the major divisions of humankind, having distinct physical characteristics.

  45. Storm - ঝড় - A violent disturbance of the atmosphere with strong winds and usually rain, thunder, lightning, or snow.

  46. Gathering - সংগ্রহ - A coming together of people or things.

  47. Wind - বাতাস - The perceptible natural movement of the air, especially in the form of a current blowing from a particular direction.

  48. Suffering - দুঃখ - The state of undergoing pain, distress, or hardship.

  49. Moan - অত্যন্ত স্তব্ধভাবে উচ্চারণ করা - A long, low sound made by a person expressing physical or mental suffering or sexual pleasure.



From 'September 1, 1939' by W. H. Auden


  1. Dives - অবান্ধবপন্থান - Informal bars or nightclubs, typically of a low standard.

  2. Uncertain - অনিশ্চিত - Not completely confident or sure of something.

  3. Afraid - ভীত - Feeling fear or anxiety.

  4. Clever - কুশল - Quick to understand, learn, and devise or apply ideas.

  5. Hopes - আশা - A feeling of expectation and desire for a particular thing to happen.

  6. Expire - মেয়াদোত্তীর্ণ হত্তয়া - (of a document, authorization, or agreement) come to the end of the period of validity.

  7. Dishonest - অসাধু - Behaving or prone to behave in an untrustworthy or fraudulent way.

  8. Decade - দশক - A period of ten years.

  9. Waves - তরঙ্গ - A long body of water curling into an arched form and breaking on the shore.

  10. Anger - রাগ - A strong feeling of annoyance, displeasure, or hostility.

  11. Fear - ভয় - An unpleasant emotion caused by the threat of danger, pain, or harm.

  12. Circulate - প্রচলিত হত্তয়া - Move or cause to move continuously or freely through a closed system or area.

  13. Bright - উজ্জ্বল - Giving out or reflecting a lot of light; shining.

  14. Darkened - অন্ধকারময় - Made dark or darker, especially through lack of light.

  15. Lands - জমি - The part of the earth's surface that is not covered by water, as opposed to the sea or the air.

  16. Obsessing - আবিষ্ট হত্তয়া - Preoccupying or filling the mind of (someone) continually, intrusively, and to a troubling extent.

  17. Private - ব্যক্তিগত - Belonging to or for the use of one particular person or group of people only.

  18. Unmentionable - অকথ্য - Too embarrassing, offensive, or shocking to mention or talk about.

  19. Odour - গন্ধ - A distinctive smell, especially an unpleasant one.



Lesson 3

'The Old Man at the Bridge" by Ernest Hemingway


  1. Uncertain - অনিশ্চিত - Not completely confident or sure of something.

  2. Clever - কুশল - Quick to understand, learn, and devise or apply ideas.

  3. Hopes - আশা - A feeling of expectation and desire for a particular thing to happen.

  4. Expire - মেয়াদোত্তীর্ণ হত্তয়া - (of a document, authorization, or agreement) come to the end of the period of validity.

  5. Dishonest - অসাধু - Behaving or prone to behave in an untrustworthy or fraudulent way.

  6. Decade - দশক - A period of ten years.

  7. Waves - তরঙ্গ - A long body of water curling into an arched form and breaking on the shore.

  8. Anger - রাগ - A strong feeling of annoyance, displeasure, or hostility.

  9. Fear - ভয় - An unpleasant emotion caused by the threat of danger, pain, or harm.

  10. Circulate - প্রচলিত হত্তয়া - Move or cause to move continuously or freely through a closed system or area.

  11. Bright - উজ্জ্বল - Giving out or reflecting a lot of light; shining.

  12. Darkened - অন্ধকারময় - Made dark or darker, especially through lack of light.

  13. Lands - জমি - The part of the earth's surface that is not covered by water, as opposed to the sea or the air.

  14. Private - ব্যক্তিগত - Belonging to or for the use of one particular person or group of people only.

  15. Unmentionable - অকথ্য - Too embarrassing, offensive, or shocking to mention or talk about.

  16. Odour - গন্ধ - A distinctive smell, especially an unpleasant one.

  17. September - সেপ্টেম্বর - The ninth month of the year, in the northern hemisphere usually considered the first month of autumn.

  18. Blankly - ফাঁকা - Without expression or understanding; vacantly.

  19. Dully - মধ্যস্থভাবে - In a manner lacking brightness, vividness, or sharpness.

  20. Fascists - ফ্যাসিস্ট - Members of a political party or movement advocating authoritarian government, extreme nationalism, and racism.

  21. Pontoon (English): A flat-bottomed boat or float used for supporting temporary bridges or floating platforms. - পন্তু নৌকা (Bangla)

  22. Stagger (ed) (English): Walk or move unsteadily, as if about to fall. - লম্বমানে চলা বা অস্থিরভাবে চলা (Bangla)

  23. Plodded (English): Walk doggedly and slowly with heavy steps. - ভারে হাটা (Bangla)

  24. Blankly (English): Without expression or understanding; vacantly. - শূন্যতায়, অজ্ঞানে (Bangla)

  25. Fascist (English): A member of a political party or movement advocating authoritarian government, extreme nationalism, and racism. - ফ্যাসিস্ট (Bangla)



Unit Ten : Environment and Nature

Lessen 1

Water, Water Everywhere...


  1. Harrowing (English): Acutely distressing. - বিরহজনক (Bangla)

  2. Curse (English): An appeal or prayer for evil or misfortune to befall someone or something. - অভিশাপ (Bangla)

  3. Crisis (English): A time of intense difficulty or danger. - সঙ্কট (Bangla)

  4. Access (English): The means or opportunity to approach or enter a place. - প্রবেশের সুযোগ (Bangla)

  5. Plenty (English): A large or sufficient amount or quantity; an abundance. - অধিকতম (Bangla)

  6. Perpetual (English): Never ending or changing. - চিরস্থায়ী (Bangla)

  7. Stench (English): A strong and very unpleasant smell. - দুর্গন্ধ (Bangla)

  8. Tributary (English): A river or stream flowing into a larger river or lake. - উপ-নদী (Bangla)

  9. Bounty (English): Generosity; liberality. - উপহার (Bangla)

  10. Discharge (English): Release or let out. - প্রসারিত (Bangla)

  11. Toxic (English): Poisonous. - বিষাক্ত (Bangla)

  12. Digest (English): Break down (food) in the alimentary canal into substances that can be absorbed and used by the body. - পাচন করা (Bangla)

  13. Cruel (English): Willfully causing pain or suffering to others, or feeling no concern about it. - ক্রুর (Bangla)

  14. Thoughtless (English): Lacking consideration for others; inconsiderate. - চিন্তামুক্ত (Bangla)

  15. Harrowing (English): Acutely distressing. - বিরহজনক (Bangla)

  16. Curse (English): An appeal or prayer for evil or misfortune to befall someone or something. - অভিশাপ (Bangla)

  17. Crisis (English): A time of intense difficulty or danger. - সঙ্কট (Bangla)

  18. Access (English): The means or opportunity to approach or enter a place. - প্রবেশের সুযোগ (Bangla)

  19. Plenty (English): A large or sufficient amount or quantity; an abundance. - অধিকতম (Bangla)

  20. Perpetual (English): Never ending or changing. - চিরস্থায়ী (Bangla)

  21. Stench (English): A strong and very unpleasant smell. - দুর্গন্ধ (Bangla)

  22. Tributary (English): A river or stream flowing into a larger river or lake. - উপ-নদী (Bangla)

  23. Bounty (English): Generosity; liberality. - উপহার (Bangla)

  24. Discharge (English): Release or let out. - প্রসারিত (Bangla)

  25. Toxic (English): Poisonous. - বিষাক্ত (Bangla)

  26. Digest (English): Break down (food) in the alimentary canal into substances that can be absorbed and used by the body. - পাচন করা (Bangla)

  27. Cruel (English): Willfully causing pain or suffering to others, or feeling no concern about it. - ক্রুর (Bangla)

  28. Thoughtless (English): Lacking consideration for others; inconsiderate. - চিন্তামুক্ত (Bangla)

  29. Shrink (English): Become or make smaller in size or amount. - হ্রাস (Bangla)

  30. Literature (English): Written works, especially those considered of superior or lasting artistic merit. - সাহিত্য (Bangla)

  31. Economy (English): The wealth and resources of a country or region, especially in terms of the production and consumption of goods and services. - অর্থনীতি (Bangla)

  32. Polluted (English): Contaminated with harmful or poisonous substances. - দূষিত (Bangla)

  33. Trade (English): The action of buying and selling goods and services. - বাণিজ্য (Bangla)

  34. Capital (English): The most important city or town of a country or region, usually its seat of government and administrative center. - রাজধানী (Bangla)

  35. Chronic (English): Persisting for a long time or constantly recurring. - স্থায়ী (Bangla)

  36. Solid waste (English): Unwanted or discarded solid material. - ঠোঁটমুঁট (Bangla)

  37. Monster (English): An imaginary creature that is typically large, ugly, and frightening. - রাক্ষস (Bangla)

  38. Unquiet (English): Causing or characterized by unrest or turmoil; uneasy. - অসন্তুষ্ট (Bangla)

  39. Mysterious (English): Difficult or impossible to understand, explain, or identify. - রহস্যময় (Bangla)

  40. Harmony (English): The quality of forming a pleasing and consistent whole. - সান্নিধ্য (Bangla)

  41. Abundance (English): A very large quantity of something. - প্রচুরতা (Bangla)

  42. Generosity (English): The quality of being kind and generous. - উদারতা (Bangla)

  43. Pollution (English): The presence in or introduction into the environment of a substance or thing that has harmful or poisonous effects. - দূষণ (Bangla)

  44. Government (English): The group of people with the authority to govern a country or state; a particular ministry in office. - সরকার (Bangla)



Unit Ten : Environment and Nature

Lessen 2

The Hakaluki Haor


  1. Biodiversity (English): The variety of plant and animal life in a particular habitat or ecosystem. - বায়োডাইভার্সিটি (Bangla)

  2. Inland (English): Situated in or relating to the interior of a country or region. - অভ্যন্তরীণ (Bangla)

  3. Floodplains (English): Flat or nearly flat land adjacent to a stream or river that stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls and experiences flooding during periods of high discharge. - বন্যা উপত্যকা (Bangla)

  4. Ecologically Critical Area (English): An area recognized for its significant ecological importance and vulnerability, often designated for special protection and conservation efforts. - পারিস্থিতিকভাবে গুরুত্বপূর্ণ এলাকা (Bangla)

  5. Ecosystem (English): A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment. - জীববৃত্ত (Bangla)

  6. Tributaries (English): A river or stream flowing into a larger river or lake. - উপ-নদী (Bangla)

  7. Administrative (English): Relating to the management of public affairs. - প্রশাসনিক (Bangla)

  8. Shelter (English): A place giving temporary protection from bad weather or danger. - আশ্রয় (Bangla)

  9. Poaching (English): Illegal hunting or capturing of wild animals, typically associated with land use rights. - অবৈধ শিকার (Bangla)

  10. Deforestation (English): The action of clearing a wide area of trees. - বনকাটা (Bangla)

  11. Conservation (English): The action of conserving something, in particular, the environment and natural resources. - সংরক্ষণ (Bangla)

  12. Swamp (English): An area of low-lying, uncultivated ground where water collects; a bog or marsh. - হাওর (Bangla)

  13. Evergreen (English): (Of a plant) having green leaves throughout the year. - চিরহরিত (Bangla)

  14. Thatching (English): The craft of covering a roof with dry vegetation such as straw or reeds. - ছাল বা কাশের ছাচ (Bangla)

  15. Economic (English): Relating to economics or the economy. - অর্থনৈতিক (Bangla)

  16. Scenic (English): Providing or relating to views of impressive or beautiful natural scenery. - দৃশ্যমণ্ডলীয় (Bangla)

  17. Tourists (English): A person who is traveling or visiting a place for pleasure. - পর্যটক (Bangla)

  18. Rearing (English): The process of bringing up and training someone, especially a child. - পালন (Bangla)

  19. Aquatic (English): Relating to water. - জলজ (Bangla)

  20. Flash floods (English): A sudden, violent flood resulting from a heavy rainfall in a relatively short period of time. - প্রচণ্ড বন্যা (Bangla)

  21. Floodplains (English): Flat or nearly flat land adjacent to a stream or river that stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls and experiences flooding during periods of high discharge. - বন্যা উপত্যকা (Bangla)

  22. Ecosystem (English): A biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment. - জীববৃত্ত (Bangla)

  23. Tributary (English): A river or stream flowing into a larger river or lake. - উপ-নদী (Bangla)

  24. Fry (English): Young fish, especially of a size suitable for frying. - ছোট মাছ (Bangla)

  25. Aquatic (English): Relating to water. - জলজ (Bangla)

  26. Waterfowls (English): Birds that live on or near water, such as ducks, geese, and swans. - জলচর পাখি (Bangla)

  27. Swamp forests (English): Forests that grow in low-lying, waterlogged areas, characterized by dense vegetation and a high water table. - হাওর বন (Bangla)

  28. Vegetation (English): Plants considered collectively, especially those found in a particular area or habitat. - উদ্ভিদসমূহ (Bangla)

  29. Reed (English): A tall, slender-leaved plant of the grass family that grows in water or on marshy ground. - তারা (Bangla)

  30. Flash flood (English): A sudden, rapid flooding of low-lying areas, typically caused by heavy rainfall. - অপ্রত্যাশিত বন্যা (Bangla)



Lesson 3

The Lake Isle of Inisfree


  1. Glimmer (English): A faint or wavering light. - অলোকিততা (Bangla)

  2. Cricket (English): A nocturnal insect known for its chirping sound, typically associated with warm summer evenings. - শিঙা (Bangla)

  3. Glade (English): An open space in a forest, especially one that is free of undergrowth. - মরুমণ্ডল (Bangla)

  4. Linnet (English): A small songbird with a melodious voice, often found in woodland areas. - পানকোয়া (Bangla)

  5. Lapping (English): The gentle sound made by water as it strikes against a surface repeatedly, such as waves against a shore. - টলমল আওয়াজ (Bangla)

  6. Hive (English): A structure in which bees live and raise their young, typically consisting of a series of wax cells constructed by the bees. - মৌমাছির ঘর (Bangla)

  7. Wattle (English): A framework of interwoven sticks or branches, used typically to form fences and walls. - বেত (Bangla)

  8. Arise (English): To get up from a sitting, lying, or kneeling position; to move upwards. - উত্থিত হত্তয়া (Bangla)

  9. Cabin (English): A small, simple dwelling, typically constructed of wood and located in a rural or remote area. - কুটীর (Bangla)

  10. Arise (English): To get up or stand up. - উঠা (Bangla)

  11. Isle (English): A small island. - দ্বীপ (Bangla)

  12. Cabin (English): A small, simple house, typically of wood. - ছোট গুহা (Bangla)

  13. Wattles (English): Framework consisting of stakes interwoven with branches to form a fence. - ডালে ঘেট (Bangla)

  14. Bee-loud (English): A place filled with the buzzing sound of bees. - মধু মাখা বিস্তৃত জায়গা (Bangla)

  15. Glade (English): An open space in a forest. - বনমুখ (Bangla)

  16. Veils (English): Thin curtains or coverings. - কাপড় (Bangla)

  17. Cricket (English): A small insect that makes a chirping sound by rubbing its wings together. - গুটি (Bangla)

  18. Glimmer (English): A faint or unsteady light. - আলোর অস্থির ধার (Bangla)

  19. Linnet (English): A small songbird. - আলিট (Bangla)

  20. Pavements (English): The surface of a road or sidewalk. - প্রদর্শনী (Bangla)

  21. Core (English): The central or most important part. - কেন্দ্র (Bangla)




Lesson 4

A Minor Bird



  1. Nostalgia (English): A sentimental longing or affection for the past, typically for a period or place with happy personal associations. - পুরাতন স্মৃতির প্রতি বিনোদনান্বেষণ (Bangla)

  2. Recited (English): Repeat aloud or declaim (a poem or passage) from memory before an audience. - মুখোপমান করা (Bangla)

  3. Inauguration (English): The formal admission of someone to office. - উদ্বোধন (Bangla)

  4. Delight (English): A high degree of pleasure or enjoyment; joy. - আনন্দ (Bangla)

  5. Wisdom (English): The quality of having experience, knowledge, and good judgment; the quality of being wise. - বিবেক (Bangla)

  6. Emotions (English): A natural instinctive state of mind deriving from one's circumstances, mood, or relationships with others. - ভাবনা (Bangla)

  7. Grief (English): Intense sorrow, especially caused by someone's death. - দুঃখ (Bangla)

  8. Loneliness (English): Sadness because one has no friends or company. - একাকি ভাব (Bangla)

  9. Clapped (English): Strike the palms of (one's hands) together repeatedly, typically in order to applaud. - একটা বাজি দেওয়া (Bangla)

  10. Silence (English): Complete absence of sound. - শান্তি (Bangla)



Poem "The Tyger" by William



  1. Tyger (English): A tiger, symbolizing power and ferocity. - বাঘ (Bangla)

  2. Burning (English): On fire; aflame. - প্রজ্বলিত (Bangla)

  3. Blight (English): A plant disease, especially one caused by fungi such as mildews, rusts, and smuts. - রোগ (Bangla)

  4. Immortal (English): Living forever; never dying or decaying. - অমর (Bangla)

  5. Fearful (English): Causing fear or apprehension. - ভীতিজনক (Bangla)

  6. Symmetry (English): The quality of being made up of exactly similar parts facing each other or around an axis. - সমবিন্যাস (Bangla)

  7. Deeps (English): Deep parts of the ocean. - গভীরতা (Bangla)

  8. Skies (English): The region of the atmosphere and outer space seen from the earth. - আকাশ (Bangla)

  9. Burnt (English): Past tense of "burn." - দহকৃত (Bangla)

  10. Aspire (English): Direct one's hopes or ambitions toward achieving something. - উচ্চাকাঙ্খা প্রকাশ করা (Bangla)

  11. Sinews (English): Tendons or connective tissues. - পেশী (Bangla)

  12. Hammer (English): A tool with a heavy metal head mounted at right angles at the end of a handle, used for jobs such as breaking things and driving in nails. - হাতুড়ি (Bangla)

  13. Chain (English): A connected flexible series of metal links used for fastening or securing objects and pulling or supporting loads. - শর্তরী (Bangla)

  14. Furnace (English): An enclosed structure in which material can be heated to very high temperatures, e.g., for smelting metals. - ভক্ষন (Bangla)

  15. Anvil (English): A heavy iron block with a flat top, concave sides, and typically a pointed end, on which metal can be hammered and shaped. - আনভিল (Bangla)

  16. Grasp (English): A firm hold or grip. - ধরা (Bangla)

  17. Stars (English): A fixed luminous point in the night sky that is a large, remote incandescent body like the sun. - তারা (Bangla)

  18. Spears (English): A weapon with a long shaft and a sharp pointed head, used both for thrusting and throwing. - বরা (Bangla)

  19. Tears (English): A drop of clear salty liquid secreted by glands in a person's eye when they cry or when the eye is irritated. - অশ্রু (Bangla)

  20. Lamb (English): A young sheep. - ছাগল (Bangla)



Unit Eleven: Tours and Travels

Lesson 1

Travelling to a Village in Bangladesh


  1. scarce (English) - অভাবমূলক (Bangla): Insufficient; not plentiful.

  2. loaves (English) - রুটি (Bangla): Bread that has been shaped and baked in one piece.

  3. tea (English) - চা (Bangla): A hot drink made by infusing the dried, crushed leaves of the tea plant in boiling water.

  4. milk (English) - দুধ (Bangla): The white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.

  5. cheese (English) - পনির (Bangla): A food made from the pressed curds of milk.

  6. jam (English) - জ্যাম (Bangla): A sweet spread or preserve made from fruit and sugar boiled to a thick consistency.

  7. Intermediate (English) - মধ্যস্থ (Bangla): Coming between two things in time, place, character, etc.

  8. crowded (English) - সম্পূর্ণ (Bangla): Filled with many people or things.

  9. loveliness (English) - মনোহর (Bangla): The quality of being beautiful or attractive.

  10. moonlit (English) - চাঁদের আলোয় আলোকিত (Bangla): Illuminated by the light of the moon.

  11. paddy (English) - ধান (Bangla): Rice before it is milled.

  12. palms (English) - তালু (Bangla): The inner surface of the hand between the wrist and fingers.

  13. reflected (English) - প্রতিফলিত (Bangla): Thrown back or turned back.

  14. glow (English) - আলো (Bangla): A steady light source.

  15. cooling-fire (English) - শীতল আগুন (Bangla): A fire used for cooling purposes.

  16. lantern (English) - লালটেন (Bangla): A portable source of light.

  17. country boat (English) - দেশী নৌকা (Bangla): A traditional boat used for transportation in rural areas.

  18. tranquil (English) - শান্ত (Bangla): Free from disturbance; calm.

  19. blaze (English) - আলোর ধারাবাহিক (Bangla): A strong, bright, and steady light or flame.

  20. celebrity (English) - বিখ্যাত ব্যক্তি (Bangla): A famous person.

  21. suitcase (English) - স্যুটকেস (Bangla): A rectangular traveling bag.

  22. dawn (English) - ভোর (Bangla): The first appearance of light in the sky before sunrise.

  23. glance (English) - ঝকঝকে দেখা (Bangla): To take a brief or hurried look.

  24. remote (English) - দুরবৃত্ত (Bangla): Far away in distance or time.

  25. remonstrated (English) - তাণ্ডব করা (Bangla): To make a forcefully reproachful protest.

  26. zoo (English) - চিড়িয়াখানা (Bangla): An establishment that maintains a collection of wild animals, typically in a park or gardens, for study, conservation, or display to the public.

  27. permanent (English) - স্থায়ী (Bangla): Lasting or intended to last indefinitely.

  28. court (English) - আদালত (Bangla): A place where trials or other legal cases are heard.

  29. district commissioner (English) - জেলা কমিশনার (Bangla): An official who heads the administrative district of a country.

  30. character (English) - চরিত্র (Bangla): The mental and moral qualities distinctive to an individual

  31. gather (English) - সংগ্রহ করা (Bangla): To bring together; collect.

  32. weave (English) - বুনা (Bangla): To form fabric by interlacing threads.

  33. intricate (English) - জটিল (Bangla): Very complicated or detailed.

  34. permanent (English) - স্থায়ী (Bangla): Lasting or intended to last indefinitely.

  35. remote (English) - দুরবৃত্ত (Bangla): Far away in distance or time.

  36. remonstrate (English) - তাণ্ডব করা (Bangla): To make a forcefully reproachful protest.

  37. tranquil (English) - শান্ত (Bangla): Free from disturbance; calm.







Lesson 2

Arriving in the Orient


  1. porpoises - small aquatic mammals resembling dolphins - শিশুড়শিংঘী

  2. ploughed - moved forcefully through something - সাগর সমুদ্র পার করা

  3. enamel-like - resembling the glossy finish of enamel - আইলেস্ট

  4. limned - outlined in a bright color - ছবির রূপান্তর করা

  5. flecks - small spots or marks - ছত্রক

  6. phosphorescent - emitting light without combustion or heat - প্রকাশযুক্ত

  7. punkahs - large fans suspended from the ceiling and operated by a cord - পঙ্খা

  8. salaaming - bowing down with respect - প্রণাম জানানো

  9. maidans - open fields or grounds - মাঠ

  10. galloped - ran quickly - বেগে দৌড়ানো

  11. besought - urgently requested - বিনম্রভাবে অনুরোধ করা

  12. nave - ignorant or uninformed - অজ্ঞ

  13. discharged - spat out forcefully - প্রক্ষেপ করা

  14. savory - pleasant or agreeable - সুগন্ধিত

  15. foamed - produced foam or froth - ফেনা ছিটানো

  16. parched - extremely dry - পরিতপ্ত

  17. egrets - long-legged birds with white plumage - ছাগল

  18. supine - lying face upward - প্রতিষ্ঠিত

  19. pagoda - a tiered tower with multiple eaves, common in Eastern architecture - প্যাগোডা

  20. barbaric - uncivilized or primitive - জঙ্গলী

  21. demonic - resembling or characteristic of demons - অশুভ

  22. jolted - moved suddenly with a jerk - হান্ডাক্রাফ্ট

  23. saurian - resembling a lizard or reptile - সারগ্যো

  24. half-whistle - a whistle made with less than full breath - অর্ধশব্দে সিটি

  25. exclaimed - cried out suddenly or loudly - অবাক হওয়া

  26. seized - grabbed or took hold of forcibly - বদ্ধ করা

  27. torches - handheld light sources - মশাল

  28. wailing - crying mournfully - হাহাকার

  29. niece - a daughter of one's brother or sister - ভাতুজা

  30. warmly - with enthusiasm or affection - তাপমাত্রা বা গরম পরিমাণে




Lesson 3

Ecotourism


  1. Ecotourism - Responsible travel to natural areas that conserves the environment, sustains the well-being of the local people, and involves interpretation and education.

  2. Undisturbed - Not disrupted or disturbed; unaffected by human activity.

  3. Impoverished - Poor; lacking the basic necessities of life.

  4. Classification - The act or process of grouping things based on similarities.

  5. Conservation - The protection, preservation, management, or restoration of natural environments and wildlife.

  6. Low impact - Having minimal or little effect on the environment.

  7. Participation - Involvement or engagement in an activity or process.

  8. Biodiversity - The variety of life forms in a given area or ecosystem.

  9. Empowerment - The process of giving power or authority to someone.

  10. Endangered - Seriously at risk of extinction or danger.

  11. Cultural practices - The customs, beliefs, and traditions of a particular group of people.

  12. Minimize - To reduce to the smallest possible amount or degree.

  13. Respect - A feeling of admiration or deference towards something or someone.

  14. Awareness - Knowledge or perception of a situation or fact.

  15. Positive experiences - Pleasant or beneficial encounters or events.

  16. Financial aid - Assistance or support provided in the form of money.

  17. Hosts - The local people or communities in a tourist destination.

  18. Political climate - The prevailing political situation or conditions in a country.

  19. Environmental climate - The condition or state of the natural environment.

  20. Conservation - The act of preserving, protecting, or restoring natural habitats and ecosystems.

  21. Sustainable - Capable of being maintained or continued over time.

  22. Diverse - Varied; having different forms or types.

  23. Marine life - Living organisms that inhabit the oceans and seas.

  24. Erosion - The process of wearing away or breaking down of land by natural forces such as wind, water, or ice.

  25. Contamination - The introduction of harmful or undesirable substances into the environment.

  26. Displacement - The forced movement of people or animals from their usual environment or habitat.

  27. Biodiversity - The variety of plant and animal life in a particular habitat or ecosystem.

  28. Exploitation - The act of using resources or people selfishly or unethically for one's own gain.

  29. Adverse effects - Unfavorable or harmful consequences or outcomes.

  30. Infrastructure - The basic physical and organizational structures and facilities needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.



  1. Endangered (বিপন্নস্থিতি অবস্থায়) - At risk of extinction or extinction in the near future due to various factors such as habitat loss, climate change, or human activities. (ঝুঁকিতে)

  2. Conservation (সংরক্ষণ) - The careful management and protection of natural resources, ecosystems, and wildlife to ensure their continued existence for future generations. (সংরক্ষণ)

  3. Impoverished (বিপন্ন) - Lacking in financial resources or basic necessities, often resulting in poverty or deprivation. (দরিদ্র)

  4. Biodiversity (বায়োডাইভার্সিটি) - The variety and variability of life forms within a given ecosystem, habitat, or area, including species diversity, genetic diversity, and ecosystem diversity. (জৈব বৈচিত্র্য)

  5. Hiking (হাইকিং) - The activity of walking or trekking for extended periods, typically in natural environments such as mountains, forests, or trails, for recreation, exercise, or exploration. (পাহাড় ও বনে হেঁটে যাওয়া)

  6. Critic (মতামতদাতা) - A person who evaluates or analyzes something, typically works of art, literature, or performances, and expresses their opinions or judgments about its quality or significance. (সমালোচক)

  7. Species (প্রজাতি) - A group of organisms that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring in nature, sharing common characteristics and occupying a specific ecological niche. (প্রজাতি)

  8. Degradation (অবশেষণ) - The process of deterioration or decline, especially in the quality or condition of something, often resulting from environmental damage, pollution, or misuse. (অবসাদন)



Unit Twelve: Art and Craft

Loosen 1

What is Beauty?


  1. Appreciate (মূল্যায়ন করা) - To recognize the value or quality of something; to admire or enjoy something.

  2. Define (সংজ্ঞা করা) - To explain the meaning or significance of something; to give a precise definition.

  3. Objective (বৈষম্যহীন) - Not influenced by personal feelings or opinions; based on facts or reality.

  4. Universal (সার্বজনীন) - Applicable or common to all cases or situations; existing or occurring everywhere.

  5. Dependent (অবলম্বনশীল) - Reliant on or influenced by something else; needing support or assistance.

  6. Perceptions (ধারণা) - The way in which something is regarded, understood, or interpreted; the process of becoming aware of or understanding something.

  7. Beholder (দর্শক) - A person who observes or looks at something, especially with admiration or fascination.

  8. Manifests (প্রকাশ করা) - To show or demonstrate a quality, feeling, or characteristic clearly.

  9. Repulsed (অসহ্য করা) - To feel strong disgust or aversion towards something; to be unwilling to accept or tolerate something.

  10. Injustice (অন্যায়) - Lack of fairness or justice; unfair treatment or behavior





'She Walks in Beauty' by Lard Byron


  1. Climes (অঞ্চল) - Regions with a particular climate or geographical feature.

  2. Mellowed (শিতল) - Made softer or more gentle; having a pleasant and soothing quality.

  3. Impaired (ক্ষতিগ্রস্ত) - Damaged or weakened; having a reduced quality or ability.

  4. Tress (কেশ) - A long lock or curl of a person's hair.

  5. Eloquent (অচ্ছাদিত) - Fluent or persuasive in speaking or writing; expressing oneself clearly and effectively.

  6. Innocent (নির্দোষ) - Free from sin, guilt, or wrongdoing; not causing harm or injury to others.

  7. Adjusted (সমন্বিত) - Set or arranged in a particular way; adapted or made suitable for a specific purpose.

  8. Adjoining (অতিক্রমী) - Next to or joined to something else, especially geographically or in space.

  9. Kinsmen (আত্মীয়) - Male relatives collectively; members of the same family or kinship group.

  10. Moss (ছাই) - A small flowerless plant that typically grows in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.

  11. Aspect (দৃষ্টিভঙ্গি) - The appearance or quality of something, especially when considered from a particular perspective.

  • দিক, দৃষ্টিভঙ্গি, পরিমিতি

  1. Gaudy (অশোভন) - Extravagantly bright or showy, typically so as to be tasteless.

  • উল্লাসপ্রদ, ভ্রমণের সময় নাগাদ পরিধান করা, আলাদাভাবে চমকপ্রদ

  1. Impair (অক্ষম করা) - Weaken or damage something, especially a human faculty or function.

  • ক্ষতিগ্রস্ত করা, প্রতিবন্ধ করা

  1. Scarce (অভিলম্ব) - Insufficient for the demand; not enough.

  • অপর্যাপ্ত, বাজে থাকা

  1. Adjoining (সংলগ্ন) - Next to or joined with something else, especially buildings or rooms.

  • অনুবাদিত, সন্নিহিত

  1. Brethren (সহপ্রাণ) - Fellow members of a particular religion, society, or profession; brothers.

  • ভাইবোন, বন্ধুবান্ধব


Lesson 2

Folk Music



Folk music - লোকসঙ্গীত - Songs and music of a community that are not influenced by sophisticated musical rules or standard musical styles.

Heritage - ঐতিহ্য - The traditions, achievements, beliefs, etc., that are part of the history of a group or nation.

Secular - ধর্মনিরপেক্ষ - Not religious or spiritual; relating to worldly things.

Sprang - উৎপন্ন হত্তয়া - To originate or arise from a particular source.

Transmission - প্রেরণ - The act or process of sending something from one person, place, or thing to another.

Illiterate - অশিক্ষিত - Unable to read or write.

Semi-literate - অর্ধ-শিক্ষিত - Having some but not extensive literacy skills.

Dialect - উপভাষা - A form of a language that is spoken in a particular area and that uses some of its own words, grammar, and pronunciations.

Metaphor - রূপক - A figure of speech in which a word or phrase is used to describe something as something else.

Riverine - নদীপরিসর - Relating to, formed by, or resembling a river.

Manifestation - প্রকাশ - A clear appearance of a particular condition or quality.

Ethnic - নৃত্বিজ - Relating to a particular race, nation, or tribe and their customs and traditions.

Chores - কাজ - Routine tasks or duties, especially a household or farm work.

Regional - অঞ্চলিক - Relating to or characteristic of a particular region or district.

Roof-beating - ছাদের পিটবার গান - A traditional practice of singing songs while beating down and firming rooftops.

Wedding songs - বিবাহের গান - Songs performed during wedding ceremonies.

Pastoral songs - গ্রাম্য গান - Songs that depict rural life, especially those sung by shepherds or rural workers.

Bhawaiya - ভাওয়াইয়া - A genre of folk music popular in northern Bangladesh.

Gambhira - গম্ভীরা - A type of folk song characterized by its serious and philosophical themes, often performed in Malda, Bangladesh.

Kabigan - কবিগান - A form of folk music involving the performance of songs accompanied by storytelling.

Leto - লেতো - A traditional form of folk music involving group singing and dancing.

Alkap - আলকাপ - A traditional folk art form in Bangladesh, often performed during religious festivals.


  1. Folk music (লোকসঙ্গীত) - Music originating from the traditions of ordinary people, typically transmitted orally.

  • লোকসঙ্গীত

  1. Influenced (প্রভাবিত) - Having an effect on or being affected by something.

  • প্রভাবিত, প্রভাব পেয়েছে

  1. Ancient (প্রাচীন) - Belonging to the very distant past.

  • প্রাচীন, প্রাচীনকালীন

  1. Transmitted (প্রেরিত) - Passed on or conveyed from one person or place to another.

  • প্রেরিত, প্রেরণ করা

  1. Illiterate (অশিক্ষিত) - Unable to read or write.

  • নির