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Band-9 Vocabulry for IELTS

IELTS band 9 vocabulary words, along with their meanings and examples from IELTS essays:


Abundant - (adj.) plentiful, ample

Example: The city offers abundant opportunities for cultural exploration.


Acquire - (v.) to gain, obtain

Example: Learning a second language can help you acquire new perspectives.


Adequate - (adj.) sufficient, satisfactory

Example: The government must provide adequate healthcare for all citizens.


Advocate - (v.) to support, promote

Example: Many environmentalists advocate for renewable energy sources.


Alleviate - (v.) to ease, relieve

Example: Yoga can alleviate stress and improve overall well-being.


Ambiguous - (adj.) unclear, vague

Example: The politician's statement was intentionally ambiguous, leaving room for interpretation.


Analyze - (v.) to examine, study closely

Example: Researchers analyzed the data to identify patterns and trends.


Apparent - (adj.) clear, evident

Example: The effects of climate change are becoming increasingly apparent.


Appreciate - (v.) to recognize the value of, be grateful for

Example: We should appreciate the efforts of those who work to protect the environment.


Arbitrary - (adj.) random, without reason

Example: The decision to close the factory seemed arbitrary and unfair.


Aspire - (v.) to have a strong desire or ambition

Example: Many young students aspire to become successful entrepreneurs.


Assess - (v.) to evaluate, judge

Example: Teachers assess students' performance through various assessments.


Assimilate - (v.) to integrate, adapt

Example: Immigrants often face challenges in assimilating into a new culture.


Attain - (v.) to achieve, accomplish

Example: With hard work and dedication, you can attain your goals.


Attribute - (v.) to credit, assign

Example: The success of the project can be attributed to the team's collaboration.


Authentic - (adj.) genuine, real

Example: The museum displays authentic artifacts from ancient civilizations.


Bias - (n.) prejudice, favoritism

Example: The journalist's article was criticized for its political bias.


Coherent - (adj.) logical, consistent

Example: The professor's lecture was coherent and easy to follow.


Coincide - (v.) to occur at the same time, correspond

Example: The conference coincides with the release of the latest research findings.


Complement - (v.) to enhance, complete

Example: The new furniture complements the overall design of the room.


Comprehend - (v.) to understand, grasp

Example: It is important to read widely to comprehend different perspectives.


Conceive - (v.) to imagine, envision

Example: The artist conceived a unique concept for her next exhibition.


Conducive - (adj.) favorable, beneficial

Example: A quiet environment is conducive to concentration and productivity.


Constitute - (v.) to form, make up

Example: These factors constitute the main causes of climate change.


Contemplate - (v.) to consider, ponder

Example: Before making a decision, it is important to contemplate the possible outcomes.


Contradict - (v.) to oppose, deny

Example: The witness's statement contradicted the defendant's alibi.


Correlate - (v.) to relate, connect

Example: Research has shown that regular exercise


Correlate - (v.) to relate, connect

Example: Research has shown that regular exercise correlates with improved mental health.


Counterpart - (n.) equivalent, counterpart

Example: The CEO met with her international counterparts to discuss business strategies.


Cumulative - (adj.) increasing or growing by accumulation

Example: The cumulative effects of pollution are detrimental to the environment.


Deduce - (v.) to infer, conclude

Example: From the evidence presented, we can deduce that the suspect is guilty.


Deficit - (n.) shortage, insufficiency

Example: The country is facing a budget deficit due to excessive spending.


Deplete - (v.) to exhaust, use up

Example: Overfishing has depleted the fish population in the ocean.


Dilemma - (n.) a difficult choice, a predicament

Example: She faced a dilemma when deciding between pursuing her passion or a stable career.


Discern - (v.) to perceive, recognize

Example: It is important to discern reliable sources of information from misinformation.


Discrepancy - (n.) inconsistency, difference

Example: There was a discrepancy between the witness's testimony and the video evidence.


Disperse - (v.) to scatter, spread out

Example: The crowd began to disperse after the concert ended.


Dissent - (v.) to disagree, differ in opinion

Example: Some members of the committee dissented from the proposed plan.


Diverse - (adj.) varied, different

Example: The university prides itself on its diverse student body from around the world.


Dominate - (v.) to control, prevail

Example: The multinational corporation dominates the global market.


Elaborate - (adj.) detailed, intricate

Example: The architect presented an elaborate design for the new building.


Eminent - (adj.) distinguished, renowned

Example: The scientist is an eminent figure in the field of astrophysics.


Empirical - (adj.) based on observation or experience

Example: The study drew conclusions based on empirical data collected over several years.


Engage - (v.) to involve, participate

Example: It is important for teachers to engage students actively in the learning process.


Enhance - (v.) to improve, strengthen

Example: Regular exercise can enhance physical fitness and overall well-being.


Enormous - (adj.) huge, immense

Example: The construction of the skyscraper required an enormous amount of resources.


Eradicate - (v.) to eliminate, get rid of

Example: Efforts to eradicate poverty require a comprehensive approach.


Esteem - (v.) to regard highly, respect

Example: She is esteemed for her contributions to the field of literature.


Evolve - (v.) to develop, change over time

Example: Technology continues to evolve at a rapid pace.


Exemplify - (v.) to illustrate, represent

Example: The character in the novel exemplifies courage and resilience.


Exploit - (v.) to take advantage of, utilize unfairly

Example: Some companies exploit cheap labor in developing countries.


Extensive - (adj.) wide-ranging, comprehensive

Example: The researcher conducted an extensive study on the effects of climate change.


Facilitate - (v.) to make easier, assist

Example: Technology has facilitated communication across long distances.


Fluctuate - (v.) to vary, change frequently

Example: The prices of commodities often fluctuate based on supply and demand.


Formulate - (v.) to create, develop

Example: The committee worked together to formulate a plan of action.


Foster - (v.) to promote, encourage

Example: The government aims to foster innovation and entrepreneurship.


Implicate - (v.) to involve, incriminate

Example: The evidence found at the crime scene implicates the suspect.


Impose - (v.) to enforce, apply

Example: The government may impose stricter regulations to protect the environment.


Inclined - (adj.) likely, disposed

Example: She is inclined to pursue a career in the field of medicine.


Indicate - (v.) to suggest, show

Example: The study's findings indicate a strong correlation between smoking and lung cancer.


Infer - (v.) to deduce, draw a conclusion

Example: From the data collected, we can infer that exercise improves cognitive function.


Inhibit - (v.) to hinder, restrain

Example: Fear of failure can inhibit individuals from taking risks.


Innovate - (v.) to introduce new ideas or methods

Example: Technology companies constantly strive to innovate and stay ahead of the competition.


Integrity - (n.) honesty, moral principles

Example: The leader is known for his integrity and ethical decision-making.


Integrate - (v.) to combine, merge

Example: The school aims to integrate technology into its curriculum.


Intricate - (adj.) complex, detailed

Example: The artist created an intricate mosaic using tiny glass pieces.


Justify - (v.) to provide a valid reason or explanation

Example: The company must justify its decision to lay off employees.


Magnitude - (n.) great size or extent

Example: The earthquake's magnitude was measured on the Richter scale.


Manifest - (v.) to demonstrate, display

Example: The symptoms of the disease began to manifest in the patient.


Manipulate - (v.) to control or influence cleverly or unfairly

Example: The media can manipulate public opinion through selective reporting.


Merge - (v.) to combine, unite

Example: The two companies decided to merge to expand their market share.


Mitigate - (v.) to alleviate, reduce

Example: Planting trees can help mitigate the effects of climate change.


Notion - (n.) a concept, idea

Example: The notion of equality is fundamental to a just society.


Nurture - (v.) to care for, nourish

Example: Parents play a crucial role in nurturing their child's development.


Objective - (adj.) unbiased, impartial

Example: The journalist strives to present the news in an objective manner.


Obsolete - (adj.) outdated, no longer in use

Example: The invention of smartphones made traditional alarm clocks obsolete.


Optimize - (v.) to make the best use of, maximize

Example: The company aims to optimize its production process to increase efficiency.


Paradox - (n.) a contradiction, a puzzle

Example: The concept of time travel presents a paradox that challenges our understanding.


Perceive - (v.) to understand, be aware of

Example: Different cultures may perceive gestures and symbols differently.


Persuade - (v.) to convince, influence

Example: The speaker used compelling arguments to persuade the audience.



Pivotal - (adj.) crucial, essential

Example: The meeting tomorrow is pivotal to the success of the project.


Plausible - (adj.) believable, reasonable

Example: The witness provided a plausible explanation for his actions.


Potent - (adj.) powerful, effective

Example: The drug has a potent effect on pain relief.


Prevalent - (adj.) widespread, common

Example: Social media is prevalent in today's society.


Prohibit - (v.) to forbid, ban

Example: The law prohibits smoking in public places.


Prominent - (adj.) well-known, notable

Example: The scientist made a prominent contribution to the field of genetics.


Proponent - (n.) advocate, supporter

Example: She is a strong proponent of renewable energy.


Propel - (v.) to drive, push forward

Example: Innovation in technology has propelled economic growth.


Provoke - (v.) to incite, stimulate

Example: His provocative statements provoked a heated debate.


Proliferate - (v.) to multiply, increase rapidly

Example: The use of smartphones has proliferated in recent years.


Proponent - (n.) advocate, supporter

Example: She is a strong proponent of renewable energy.


Prudent - (adj.) wise, cautious

Example: It is prudent to save money for unexpected expenses.


Reconcile - (v.) to resolve, make compatible

Example: The couple tried to reconcile their differences and save their relationship.


Refute - (v.) to prove false, disprove

Example: The scientist presented evidence to refute the hypothesis.


Reinforce - (v.) to strengthen, support

Example: The positive feedback reinforced her confidence.


Relevance - (n.) importance, significance

Example: The discussion of climate change is of great relevance in today's world.


Reluctant - (adj.) unwilling, hesitant

Example: She was reluctant to accept the job offer due to the long commute.


Resilient - (adj.) able to recover quickly, bounce back

Example: The community showed resilient spirit in the face of adversity.


Retain - (v.) to keep, preserve

Example: It is important to retain important information for future reference.


Reveal - (v.) to disclose, make known

Example: The investigation revealed new evidence in the case.


Rigorous - (adj.) thorough, demanding

Example: The scientific study underwent rigorous testing and analysis.


Sustain - (v.) to support, maintain

Example: Renewable energy sources help sustain the environment.


Synthesize - (v.) to combine, integrate

Example: The researcher synthesized data from various studies to draw conclusions.


Tackle - (v.) to deal with, address

Example: The government needs to tackle the issue of unemployment.


Temperate - (adj.) mild, moderate

Example: The region has a temperate climate with four distinct seasons.


Transform - (v.) to change, convert

Example: Technology has transformed the way we communicate.


Undermine - (v.) to weaken, sabotage

Example: Gossip and rumors can undermine trust within a community.


Unprecedented - (adj.) never before seen or experienced

Example: The pandemic had an unprecedented impact on global travel.


Utilize - (v.) to make use of, employ

Example: The company aims to utilize renewable energy sources.


Validate - (v.) to confirm, prove the truth or validity of

Example: The experiment was conducted to validate the hypothesis.


Versatile - (adj.) adaptable, flexible

Example: She is a versatile actress who can perform in various genres.


Vigorous - (adj.) energetic, robust

Example: Regular exercise promotes a vigorous and healthy lifestyle.


Yield - (v.) to produce, generate

Example: The research study yielded valuable insights into the topic.


Zeal - (n.) enthusiasm, passion

Example: He tackled his work with great zeal and dedication.


Accommodate - (v.) to provide lodging or space for, adjust to suit

Example: The hotel can accommodate up to 200 guests.


Advocate - (n.) a supporter, proponent

Example: She is a strong advocate for human rights.


Ample - (adj.) plentiful, abundant

Example: There is ample evidence to support the theory.


Bolster - (v.) to support, strengthen

Example: The government implemented policies to bolster the economy.


Cite - (v.) to quote, reference

Example: The author cited several studies to support her argument.


Conducive - (adj.) favorable, advantageous

Example: A calm environment is conducive to effective studying.


Constitute - (v.) to form, make up

Example: Women constitute a significant portion of the workforce.


Contradict - (v.) to oppose, disagree with

Example: His statement contradicted what he had previously said.


Delineate - (v.) to describe, outline

Example: The map clearly delineates the boundaries of the national park.


Deploy - (v.) to position or use strategically

Example: The military deployed troops to the conflict zone.


Detrimental - (adj.) harmful, damaging

Example: Smoking is detrimental to one's health.


Deviate - (v.) to depart from a norm or plan

Example: She decided to deviate from the original route and take a shortcut.


Diminish - (v.) to decrease, reduce

Example: The quality of the product diminished over time.


Discernible - (adj.) perceptible, noticeable

Example: There was a discernible improvement in her performance.


Disparity - (n.) inequality, difference

Example: There is a significant disparity in income levels between the rich and the poor.


Elicit - (v.) to draw out, evoke

Example: The speaker's words elicited a strong emotional response from the audience.


Emphasize - (v.) to highlight, give importance to

Example: The speaker emphasized the importance of environmental conservation.


Encompass - (v.) to include, cover

Example: The study encompasses a wide range of topics.


Evoke - (v.) to elicit, bring forth

Example: The painting evokes a sense of tranquility and peace.


Exacerbate - (v.) to worsen, intensify

Example: The economic crisis exacerbated unemployment rates.


Flourish - (v.) to thrive, prosper

Example: The business began to flourish after implementing new strategies.


Implication - (n.) a consequence or result

Example: The implications of the decision were far-reaching.


Inhibit - (v.) to hinder, restrain

Example: Fear can inhibit individuals from taking risks.


Intricate - (adj.) complex, intricate

Example: The intricate design of the artwork required meticulous attention to detail.


Justification - (n.) a reason or explanation

Example: The student provided strong justifications for his opinion in the essay.


Manifestation - (n.) an indication or embodiment of something

Example: The increased crime rate is a manifestation of deeper social issues.


Meticulous - (adj.) extremely careful and precise

Example: The architect paid meticulous attention to every detail of the building's design.


Omit - (v.) to leave out or exclude

Example: Please do not omit any important details in your report.


Overlook - (v.) to fail to notice or consider

Example: The supervisor overlooked a crucial mistake in the project.


Paradoxical - (adj.) seemingly contradictory but actually true

Example: It is paradoxical that she is both confident and shy at the same time.


Pervasive - (adj.) widespread, prevalent

Example: The influence of social media is pervasive in today's society.


Provoke - (v.) to incite or stimulate a reaction or emotion

Example: His offensive remarks provoked anger among the audience.


Reiterate - (v.) to repeat or emphasize

Example: The speaker reiterated the importance of preserving the environment.


Resonate - (v.) to evoke a strong emotion or response

Example: The powerful message of the poem resonated with the audience.


Scrutinize - (v.) to examine closely or carefully

Example: The committee will scrutinize the proposal before making a decision.


Simultaneously - (adv.) happening at the same time

Example: The two events were scheduled to take place simultaneously.


Underlying - (adj.) fundamental, basic

Example: There are underlying causes for the increase in crime rates.


Validate - (v.) to confirm or prove the validity of something

Example: The results of the experiment validated the hypothesis.


Virtually - (adv.) almost, nearly

Example: The new technology has virtually eliminated the need for manual labor.


Widespread - (adj.) extensive, prevalent

Example: The flu outbreak has become widespread in the community.


Withstand - (v.) to endure or withstand pressure or force

Example: The bridge is designed to withstand strong winds and earthquakes.


Yield - (v.) to produce or provide a result or outcome

Example: The research study yielded valuable insights into the topic.


Zealous - (adj.) passionate, enthusiastic

Example: She is a zealous advocate for animal rights.


Attribute - (v.) to credit or ascribe to a particular cause or source

Example: The success of the project can be attributed to effective teamwork.


Bolster - (v.) to support, reinforce

Example: The new evidence bolstered the defendant's case.


Constitute - (v.) to form or make up a whole

Example: Women constitute a significant portion of the company's workforce.


Corroborate - (v.) to confirm or support with evidence or testimony

Example: The witness's statement corroborated the victim's account of the incident.


Curtail - (v.) to reduce or restrict

Example: The government implemented measures to curtail carbon emissions.


Deter - (v.) to discourage or prevent from doing something

Example: The high security measures are intended to deter potential criminals.


Elucidate - (v.) to clarify or explain

Example: The professor used diagrams to elucidate the complex concept.


Endorse - (v.) to support or approve

Example: The celebrity endorsed the new product in a television commercial.


Exemplify - (v.) to serve as a typical example of

Example: The organization's success exemplifies effective leadership.


Exacerbate - (v.) to make a problem or situation worse

Example: The lack of rain exacerbated the drought conditions.


Facilitate - (v.) to make easier or more convenient

Example: The new software facilitates data analysis and reporting.


Hamper - (v.) to hinder or impede progress or movement

Example: The heavy traffic hampered our ability to arrive on time.


Illuminate - (v.) to clarify or make something clear

Example: The professor used real-life examples to illuminate the complex theory.


Indicate - (v.) to point out or show

Example: The survey results indicate a high level of customer satisfaction.


Instigate - (v.) to initiate or provoke an action or event

Example: His inflammatory remarks instigated a heated argument.


Justify - (v.) to provide a valid reason or explanation for something

Example: The defendant's lawyer tried to justify his client's actions.


Mitigate - (v.) to reduce or alleviate the severity or impact of something

Example: The new policy aims to mitigate the effects of climate change.


Promote - (v.) to support or encourage the growth or development of

Example: The company promotes a healthy work-life balance for its employees.


Reinforce - (v.) to strengthen or make something more effective

Example: The positive feedback reinforced her confidence in her abilities.


Substantiate - (v.) to provide evidence or proof for something

Example: The witness's testimony substantiated the defendant's alibi.


Undermine - (v.) to weaken or compromise the effectiveness or stability of

Example: The leaked documents undermined the company's reputation.


Validate - (v.) to confirm or prove the truth or validity of something

Example: The experiment's results validated the hypothesis.


Yield - (v.) to produce or provide a result or outcome

Example: The project yielded significant financial benefits for the company.


Zeal - (n.) great enthusiasm or passion for something

Example: She tackled her work with zeal and dedication.

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