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              Linking words and phrases 

Basic Rules

 

Linking words and phrases are used to show relationships between ideas. They can be used to join 2 or more sentences or clauses (a clause is a group of words which contains a subject and a verb).

Linking words/phrases can be used to add ideas together, contrast them, or show the reason for something. 

 

Adding ideas and information 

 

Also 
This is used to give more information or ideas. It can be put at the beginning of a sentence, or between the subject and the verb.

We are unable to repair this watch. Also, this is the fourth time this has happened.

I want to be an astronaut. I also want to be a biologist. What should I do?

 

Besides/Besides this/Besides that 
This is usually placed at the beginning of a sentence. It is used to make an additional point.

Traffic congestion is a problem in my city. Besides this, the trains are very expensive.

I can't afford to go to the concert. Besides, I don't really like classical music.

 

As well as this/that 
This is very similar to besides/besides this/besides that . It is usually placed at the beginning of a sentence. It is used to make an additional point.

My boss is the only other person who sells the watches. As well as that, he might blame me.

We went to the park today. As well as that, we did some shopping.

 

Showing reasons 

 

As and since are used to introduce the reason for something. They are similar in meaning and use to 'because'. They can be placed at the beginning of the sentence, or in the middle.

 

As 
As the watch you have returned is not genuine, we are unable to repair it.

We are unable to repair the watch you have returned as it is not genuine.

 

Since
Since the watch you have returned is not genuine, we are unable to repair it.

We are unable to repair the watch you have returned since it is not genuine.

 

Showing results 

 

Consequently and as a consequence are linking words which link reasons with results. They are common in formal writing.

 

Consequently 
This is the fourth time that this has happened and, consequently, we can't accept further watches from you.

This is the fourth time that this has happened. Consequently, we can't accept further watches from you.

 

As a consequence
This is the fourth time that this has happened and, as a consequence, we can't accept further watches from you.

This is the fourth time that this has happened. As a consequence , we can't accept further watches from you.

 

Contrasting ideas 

 

Despite and in spite of 


These are followed by nouns or gerunds (verb + 'ing'). They are notfollowed by clauses (subject + verb).

Despite losing the match, the team were happy with their efforts.

In spite of the lost match , the team were happy. (meaning: they lost the match but they were happy anyway)

If you want to use a clause with despite and in spite of, you need to add 'the fact that '.

Despite the fact that they lost the match, the team were still happy.

In spite of the fact that they lost , the team were still happy.

 

While and whereas are used to contrast two opposite ideas in one sentence . These words can be placed at the beginning of the sentence or in the middle.

While London is exciting, it is much too busy.

Life in the city is fast, whereas life in the countryside is slow.

 

Conjunctions

We can join two sentences or clauses together using conjunctions (or linking words). We can use conjunctions to add ideas together,contrast them, show the order that things happened in or show the reason why things happened. 

 

Conjunctions - adding 

 

and
I'm missing my mum's cooking and I don't know how to cook the way she does. 
They like tea and coffee.

as well as 
As well as not having a job, Michal is running out of money. 
Alice looks after patients at work, as well as looking after Michal in the flat. 

in addition to (more formal)
In addition to offering loans, we can give you advice about other financial services.
There is a heated indoor swimming pool in addition to to three outdoor pools in the hotel.

 

Conjunctions - contrasting 

 

but 
I'm trying to give up fast food but it's just so easy and cheap.
Alice was trying to help Michal but Helen didn't understand.

although
Although he's trying to be more healthy, he finds it easier to eat fast food.
Tim is going to work in the stockroom although he doesn't really want to.

however (more formal)
The flight has been delayed, however , the airline will offer compensation to all passengers. 
We received your cheque. However, you failed to sign it. Please do so immediately.

 

Conjunctions - timing 

 

while
While Alice and Michal were hugging, Helen came in.
Tim was serving a customer while his manager was waiting to speak to him.

before
Before Michal could explain, Helen started shouting at him.
Michal began to cry before he had even finished talking to Alice.

after/after that
After New Year, some of the flatmates kept their resolutions.
They went to the cinema and after that, they walked home.

during
During the President's speech everyone has to listen carefully.

Will you put the kettle on for tea during the adverts? 

Conjunctions - reasoning 

 

so
He's beginning to run out of money so he can't afford better food.
She's joined the gym so she can get fit.

because + verb
He can't afford better food because he's beginning to run out of money.
Tim is going to work in the stockroom because he wants to get an interview. 

Because of + (adjective) noun 
Because of heavy snow, this train is running approximately 15 minutes late.
There are long delays on the M11 because of an accident at junction 32.

                        List of Linking / Connecting Words

 

To show reason:

  • Because of

  • For the purpose of

  • Given that

  • Granted that

  • In fact

  • In order to

  • In view of

  • Owing to

  • Provided that

  • Seeing that

  • So that

  • With this in mind

  • With this intention

  • With this purpose

 

To show result:

  • Accordingly

  • As a consequence (of)

  • As a result

  • Consequently

  • Due to

  • For this reason

  • Forthwith

  • Hence

  • Then

  • Therefore

  • Thereupon

  • Thus

 

To provide examples:

  • As an example of

  • For example/ For instance

  • For one thing

  • Illustrated by

  • In another case

  • In the case of

  • In this case

  • In this situation

  • Including

  • Like

  • Namely

  • On this occasion

  • Proof of this

  • Specifically

  • Such as

  • To clarify

  • To demonstrate

  • To demonstrate/ To clarify

  • To simplify

 

To add more information:

 

  • Additionally/an additional

  • Along with

  • Also

  • And

  • Apart from this

  • As well as

  • As well as that

  • Besides

  • Coupled with

  • Finally

  • First

  • Further

  • Furthermore

  • In addition

  • In addition to this

  • In the same fashion

  • Last

  • Moreover

  • Not only…but also

  • Not to mention

  • Second

  • Similarily

  • Third

  • Together with

  • Too

 

To give emphasis:

  • Above all

  • Absolutely

  • Chiefly

  • Clearly

  • Definitely

  • Especially

  • Even

  • Importantly

  • In detail

  • In truth

  • Indeed

  • It should be noted

  • Naturally

  • Never

  • Obviously

  • Of course

  • Particularly / in particular

  • Positively

  • Surprisingly

  • To clarify

  • To emphasize

  • To repeat

  • Truly

  • Undoubtedly

  • Unquestionably

  • With attention

  • Without a doubt

 

 

To Show Comparison:

  • Alike

  • As with

  • Both

  • By the same token

  • Compare / compare(d) to (with)

  • Correspondingly

  • Either

  • Equal

  • Equally

  • In a similar manner

  • In common

  • In like manner

  • In the same way

  • In the spitting image of

  • Just as

  • Just as…so too

  • Just like

  • Likewise

  • Most important

  • Resembles

  • Same as

  • Similar to

  • Similarly

  • Still another

 

 

To show contrast:

  • Alternatively

  • As opposed to

  • Contrarily

  • Contrary to

  • Conversely

  • Despite/in spite of

  • Differing from

  • Even so

  • However

  • In contrast (to)

  • In opposition

  • Instead

  • Nevertheless

  • Nonetheless

  • Nor

  • Notwithstanding

  • On the other hand

  • Rather

  • Though

  • Unlike

  • Up against

  • Whereas

  • While

  • Yet

 

To Show Order

  • First/ firstly

  • Second/ secondly

  • Third/ thirdly

  • Finally

  • At this time

  • Following

  • Previously

  • Before

  • Subsequently

  • Above all

  • Lastly and most importantly

  • Last but not least

  • First and foremost…

 

 

To Show Condition

  • Although this may be true

  • As

  • Because of

  • Even if

  • Given that

  • Granted that

  • If

  • In that case

  • In the event that

  • Lest

  • On the condition that

  • Only if

  • Since

  • Then

  • Unless

  • When

  • Whenever

  • While

 

To show Concession

  • Admittedly

  • Albeit

  • All the same

  • Although

  • Although/Even though

  • And still

  • And yet

  • Be that as it may

  • Even if

  • Even so

  • Even though

  • However

  • In spite of

  • Nevertheless

  • Nonetheless

  • Regardless of this

  • Up to a point

 

To Show Generalisation

  • As a rule

  • Broadly speaking

  • Commonly

  • For the most part

  • Generally speaking

  • In general/ Generally

  • In most cases

  • Mainly

  • More often than not

  • Mostly

  • Normally

  • Often

  • On the whole

  • On the whole

  • Overall

  • Predominately

  • Regularly

  • Typically

 

To show Restatement

  • Alternatively

  • Alternatively stated

  • Expressed simply

  • In a nutshell

  • In other words

  • In short

  • In simple language

  • In simple terms

  • In summation

  • Namely

  • Otherwise stated

  • Put differently

  • Put in another way

  • Reiterated

  • Said differently

  • Simplified

  • Simply put

  • That is to say

  • To put it differently

 

To show Reference

  • As applied to

  • As far as

  • Concerning

  • Considering

  • In connection to

  • In terms

  • Pertaining to

  • Regarding

  • Some examples of these might be:

  • Speaking about/of

  • The fact that

  • With regards to

  • With respect to

 

To show Clarification

  • I mean

  • In explanation

  • In lay terms

  • In other words

  • In simple terms

  • Simply put

  • Simply stated

  • That is to say

  • To break it down

  • To clearly define

  • To explain

  • To make plain

  • To put it clearly

  • To put it in another way

  • To simplify

 

To Show Summary

  • All things considered

  • Altogether

  • As demonstrated above

  • As noted

  • As shown above

  • As you can see

  • Briefly

  • By and large

  • Generally speaking

  • Given these points

  • In a word

  • In any event

  • In brief

  • In conclusion

  • In essence

  • In short

  • In summary

  • In the end

  • In the final analysis

  • On the whole

  • Overall

  • Therefore

  • To conclude

  • To end

  • To sum up

  • To summarise

  • Ultimately

 

To show Space/ Location

  • Across

  • Adjacent

  • Adjacent

  • Around

  • At the rear

  • Below

  • Beneath

  • Near

  • Nearby

  • Next to

  • On bottom

  • On top

  • Opposite

  • Over

  • Surrounding

  • To the left

  • Underneath

                        Advanced Rules

Linking words/Connector

Linking words (also called 'connective' or 'transition' words) help you to connect ideas and sentences when we speak or write English. We can use linking words to give examples, add information, summarise, sequence information, give a reason or result, or to contrast ideas. They enable us to establish clear connections between ideas. By using these words we can better build a sentence and convey what we are trying to say in a more concise manner

 

Most linking words can either connect clauses within a sentence, or start a sentence to form

a link with the previous statement.

 

 Types of linkers:

There is more than one type of linking word. In this lesson we will discuss some of the most commonly used ones.

  1. Linkers showing reasons/causes

  2. Linkers showing effects/results

  3. Linkers showing similarity/comparison

  4. Linkers showing contrast

  5. Linkers showing sequence/Order

  6. Linkers to give example

  7. Linker to add more information/ideas

  8. Linkers showing time of action

  9. Linking words indicating purpose

  10. Linking words indicating condition/Options

  11. Linkers to clarify/rephrase/ restatement

  12. Linkers indicating emphasis

  13. Linkers used as relative pronoun

  14. Linkers used a relative conjunction

  15. Linkers showing reference to

  16. Linkers to show Concession

  17. Linkers for generalization

  18. Linker to introduce conclusion

  19. Linkers indicating summary

  20. Other linking words

1.    Linkers showing reasons/causes

A reason linking word is one which shows the cause and effect of a situation. Transitional words and transitional phrases to provide the result of what has been stated or has occurred. Some good examples of this type of transition word are; therefore, as a result of, because, consequently, for this reason, accordingly, hence so that and thus. We might see them used in a sentence such as; The horse had lost its leg, therefore it could not walk without assistance.
List of reason linking word: as, since, because, because of, due to/ owing to, due to the fact that, owing to the fact that
The following are linking expressions that we use to give reasons for why something has occurred.


1.    As- As and since are used to introduce the reason for something. They are similar in meaning and use to 'because'. They can be placed at the beginning of the sentence, or in the middle.
As the watch you have returned is not genuine, we are unable to repair it. 
We are unable to repair the watch you have returned as it is not genuine.
As he got up late, he missed the bus.
2.    Since ( = because)
Since the watch you have returned is not genuine, we are unable to repair it. 
We are unable to repair the watch you have returned since it is not genuine.
Since he didn’t answer all questions, he got poor score in the examination.
3.    Because / because of- The difference between these two words is that because is followed by a subject + verb, and because of is followed by a noun/gerund. Because /because of can be used at the beginning or in the middle of a sentence. 
We believe in incentive schemes, because we want our employees to be more productive.
The flight was cancelled because the air-traffic controllers were on strike.
The flight was cancelled because of the air-traffic controllers' strike.
Because it was raining, the match was postponed.
There were so many people in the shop because of the sale.
Because of feeling sick , Monir didn’t go to school.

4.    Due to / owing toBoth due to (= because of) and owing to are followed by a noun/gerund. 
Emergency services were overwhelmed with calls due to the severe storms.
The company’s financial losses were due to poor management.
The PM resigned owing to lack of support from many of his ministers.
The accident was due to the carelessness of the driver.
Owing to the rising cost of fuel, more people are using public transport.

5.    Due to the fact that/ owing to the fact that- Due to the fact that is followed by subject + verb. 

Many businesses have closed down due to the fact that rents have increased dramatically.
Due to the fact that oil prices have risen, the inflation rate has gone up by 2%.
Owing to the fact that the workers have gone on strike, the company has been unable to fulfill all its orders.

6.    On account of- On account of is followed by noun / verb(ing).
They moved house on account of their dispute with the neighbours.
He got the job on account of being the son of a prominent businessman,
7.    For
We can also use 'for' to mean 'because'. 'For' can only go in the middle of the two clauses. We often add a comma before it.
We cancelled the picnic, for it was raining.
I was tired after journey, for I had been forced to bike 40 km.
I told her to leave, for I was very tired.
8.    With this in mind
With this in mind, we must ensure more job security.
With this in mind, building rural structures on stilts would avoid soil destruction and enable the reclamation of built-up land.
These families need support with this I mind, a group of specialist met last weekend.
With this in mind, the company has embarked upon a policy of commissioning new work outside the house.
9.    In order to
In order to achieve this, we need a budget.
In order to maximize profit the firm would seek to maximize output.
He works hard in order to succeed in life.

2.    Linkers showing effects/results/consequence


A result linking word is similar to a reason transition word and will link a sentence to the outcome of it. 
List of result linking word: As a result, As a result of , Consequently, As a consequence, Thus, Therefore So , That's why, Eventually, Hence ,this means that , Accordingly
1.    As a result: used when saying that because of a particular situation, something else happens or is true. As a result of is followed by a noun, pronoun or gerund.
Some people suffer from stress at work and become ill as a result.
As a result of the rise in the number of accidents, the government has taken strict decisions. 
I cannot attend the party tonight as a result of being so tired from having worked late all week.
Several houses were shattered as a result of heavy rain.

2.    Consequently- Consequently links reasons with results. used when saying that because of a particular situation, something else happens or is true. 
There has been a great deal of rain and consequently the reservoirs are full.
This is the fourth time that this has happened and, consequently, we can't accept further watches from you.
The disease attacks the plant, the flower does not open, and consequently no seeds are produced.
3.    As a consequence- used for saying that one thing is the result of another
She has lived in France, and as a consequence speaks French fluently.
He lacks self-confidence. As a consequence, he is unlikely to be successful. 
Zack has skipped school on many occasions. As a consequence, he’s failed his French test. 
She has lived in France, and as a consequence speaks French fluently.
As a consequence of global warming, our climate is already starting to change.

4.    Thus : as a result of what you have just mentioned .

He was the eldest son, and thus, heir to the title. 
The program is very simple and thus easy to run. 
He has been studying hard for a long time. Thus, he has made considerable progress. 
You didn’t tell me you wanted to come. Thus, we won’t be taking you with us. 
We do not own the building. Thus, it would be impossible for us to make any major changes to it.
5.    Therefore : as a result of the reason that has just been mentioned; consequently.
She is only seventeen and therefore not eligible to vote. 
We do not have enough money. Therefore we cannot afford to buy the new car.
The new boots are lighter and softer, and therefore more comfortable to wear.
I no longer have the support of the committee. I have therefore decided to resign.
This is a binding contract. Therefore, we recommend that you review it with a lawyer.
She already had a lot of experience and therefore seemed the best candidate for the job.
6.    So (less formal): used for saying that something happens or someone does something because of what you have just mentioned
There was nothing on TV, so I decided to go to bed. 
They had not eaten all day, so they were very hungry.
She thought there might have been an accident, so she called the police.
He was born in France, so he also has a French passport.
A tree had fallen across the road, so they had to turn round and go back.
There weren’t enough beds, so I had to sleep on the floor.
7.    That's why: 
You always help the people, that is why people admire you.
The money was not distributed properly. That's the reason why we had an argument.
Cold temperatures kill mosquitos. That's why you won't see them in winter.
8.    For this reason: used when explaining the reason for something. 
The Colonel was confident that war was impending, and for this reason he hurried his preparations to leave the country. 
For this reason, start by choosing a relatively quiet environment rather than a busy road.
For this reason, they are not a good choice for exterior use.
9.    Eventually- in the end, especially after a long time or a lot of effort, problems, etc
I found it hard to follow what the teacher was saying, and eventually I lost concentration.
Gambling became an obsession , and he eventually lost everything.
He nagged me so much for a new bike that eventually I gave in.
She hopes eventually to attend medical school and become a doctor.
10.    Hence- for this reason. 'Hence' is typically used in a sentence to show a cause and effect relationship between two parts of a sentence. 
Peter's leaving at the end of this week - hence his anxiety to get his work finished.
The customer was displeased with her meal, hence the chef prepared a replacement.
Professor Brown is an outstanding scientist. Hence, he is highly respected.
This material is highly poisonous, hence the importance of careful handling.
The prime minister was attending the conference, hence all the extra security.

11.    This means that- is used when saying what the result of something is.
   If students arrive late, this means that lesson time is wasted.
   Every has left the town. This means that nobody is around to use the local amenities including shops, taxi services, libraries and the like.
12.    Accordingly- as a result of something
No formal complaint was made; accordingly, the police took no action.
The demand has increased sharply. Accordingly, the prices are higher now.
The cost of materials rose sharply last year. Accordingly, we were forced to increase our prices.
Plenty of tourists visit the area in summer. Accordingly, selling hand-made objects is the main source of income for locals.

 

 

 

3.    Linkers showing similarity/comparison
A comparison transition word is used to compare two ideas or thoughts. Connecting to things by suggesting that they are in some way alike. Transitional words and transitional phrases to show how things are similar.
List of result linking word: Similarly, Equally, Likewise, Just as, Just like. Similar to, Same as, Compare / compare(d) to (with). By the same token, In the same way, Correspondingly, by the same token, in like manner, in similar fashion, in the same way, likewise, wherever, by the same token, similarly, in like manner, in similar fashion

1.    Likewise- the same; in a similar way.
You can’t give your phone number to every man who asks for it. Likewise, you can’t go out with everyone who fancies you. 
Just water these plants twice a week, and likewise the ones in the bedroom.
Math was hard for me in high school. Likewise, it is hard in college. 
Her second marriage was likewise unhappy.
2.    Similarly- in a similar way.
You’re not allowed to use your phone here. Similarly, you have to switch it off when you’re in the library.
I was brought up to be polite. Similarly, I have tried to teach my own children good manners.
Houseplants require much care and attention; similarly, outdoor plants must be cared for properly. Shamim turned the wheel. Similarly, his brother did.
Similarly, the basketball and hockey games draw nearly full attendance.
3.    Correspondingly- used for saying that one thing is related to another, or is caused by another ; in a way that is similar to
The new exam is longer and correspondingly more difficult to pass.
The service is better and correspondingly more expensive.
As his political power has shrunk, he has grown correspondingly more dependent on the army.
She’s an excellent photographer. Correspondingly, her paintings are works of art.
4.    In the same way-
Cutting down on sugar will help you lose weight. In the same way, doing more exercise will help you get rid of a few kilos.
People don't look after other people's property in the same way as they look after their own.
Rock climbing takes much practice and skill. In the same way, learning to write well requires a great deal of practice. Alex enjoys telling jokes; in the same way/similarly, his son adores funny stories.
5.    Also- Likewise; too
If you stay, I will also.
Jeremy is now at Dartmouth College, where his father also studied.
Since you're having another cup of coffee, I'll have one also.
The symptoms of the illness were also described in the book. 
6.    As….as ( used in affirmative sentence) equal to the amount or level that is usual/possible/necessary/expected
There were twice as many visitors as usual last weekend.
Our aim is to collect as much information as possible.
The damage wasn’t quite as bad as expected.
   Rahit is as intelligent as his brother.
   Dhaka city is as overpopulated as Gazipur.
   You can eat as much as you want.

7.    So…..as (  ( used in negative sentence)
   She is not so tall as his sister. 
It wasn't so good as last time.
It's not so easy as you'd think.
He was not so quick a learner as his brother.
It's not so much a hobby as a career
   She is not so successful as her brother. 
8.    Such… as
I have never seen such a man as Nizam .
Indeed, the boy  has not read such an interesting book as this one.
9.    Alike - in the same way or in a similar way
Not everyone acts or thinks alike.
The techniques are being applied almost everywhere by big and small firms alike.
You should address the problem immediately. We should do alike.
The two towns are very much alike in size and population.
Good management benefits employers and employees alike.
Great minds think alike.
10.    Equally- used for adding another comment that has the same importance as one that you have already made
The views of parents are important, but equally we must listen to teachers.
Equally, not all customers are honest.
I'm trying to do what is best, but equally I've got to consider the cost.
She may have arrived late or it is equally possible that she never went there at all.
11.    Just as
She’s just as smart as her sister.
The house was just as she had imagined it.
The new laws will be just as oppressive as those they replace.
12.    Just like
Working with housecats is just like working with lions or tigers.
Life is a natural cycle, just like the changing seasons.
13.    Similar to
The text was essentially similar to the previous year's resolution.
Some people say I have a running style similar to him.
The situation in 2011 remained very similar to previous years.
14.    The same as
They're exactly the same as last month.
Rick hasn't changed. He looks exactly the same as he did at school.
Having a power is not the same as using the power.
I need some time to myself, the same as anybody else.
15.    Compare / compare(d) to (with)-
Compared to our small flat, Bill's house seemed like a palace.
Compared to people living only a few generations ago, we have greater opportunities to have a good time.
I was at a disadvantage compared to the younger members of the team.
He gets the ball off quickly compared to two years ago.
Simulators are very realistic, but they don't compare to the actual experience of flying an airplane.
Compare to the bank credit and other traditional financing, lease financing in support to small and medium enterprises have an unparalleled advantage.
Track your original estimates and see how they compare to your actual time.
Compare to traditional immovable watchdog timer, this thesis provides a method to realize alterable watchdog timer. 
16.    By the same token
Teenagers should be more respectful; by the same token, parents should be more understanding.
She must be more reasonable, but by the same token you must try to understand her.
I want to win, but by the same token, I don't want to hurt Sam's confidence.
I realise that he hasn't come up with any new ideas, but by the same token we haven't needed any.
17.    Correspondingly
Correspondingly, the roles each of them played were soon different.
The new exam is longer and correspondingly more difficult to pass.
Correspondingly it must be recognised that an individual has entered work with a particular educational standard.
But the traders did not become correspondingly more refined in their behavior.
18.    As much as
The flowers have grown somewhat, still they haven’t grown as much as they did last summer.
We're in the dark just as much as you are.
Some of the doctors are paid almost twice as much as the nurses.
19.    Like – (not formal)
She looked like she was about to cry.
I wish I could play the piano like she does.
We cook our porridge like the people in Scotland do.

 

 

 


4.    Linkers showing contrast


A contrast transition word can be used to show a contrast between two ideas within a sentence. Transition words and phrases to show how things are different

List of contrast linking word: Alternatively, Although, At the same time, but, By contrast, conjunctions, connectors, connectors of contrast, contrast list, Conversely, Despite, differences, Even so, Even though, example sentence, example sentences, examples, grammar, However, In contrast, In spite of, Instead, linking words, Nevertheless, Nonetheless, Notwithstanding, On the contrary, On the other hand, Otherwise, samples, Though, using, Whereas, While, yet
   
1.    Though-It is used to show that two ideas are opposing one another.
Though it is not exactly accurate information, it is said that there are 3 workers under the dent.
Though the meal was spicy, it was really delicious.
Anne was fond of Tim, though he often annoyed her.
Though he loves his teacher very much, he did not get used to his friends.
They're very different, though they did seem to get on well when they met.
Though she's almost 40, she still plans to compete.
2.    Although- It is used for introducing a new statement that makes main statement surprising.
Although no body is at home, some sounds are coming from the house.
Although she loves her job, she decided to quit her job.
They are generous although they are poor.
Although he works hard, he is not successful in the course.
Although patience and persistence is a painful thing, but it can gradually bring you the benefits.

3.    Even though- It is used as a stronger way to say “though” or “although”.
He always gets the highest grade from the courses, even though he does not work regularly.
Even though I met all the criteria needed for the job, I was not hired.
She never took a taxi, even though she could afford to.
My father will go to the work, even though he has two painful operations.

4.    On the contrary
It is used to show that a thought or feel which is the opposite of what has just stated. Use "on the contrary" to disagree with an idea or to dispute the "truth" of a widely-held view.
It's no trouble at all; on the contrary, it will be a great pleasure to help you.
The risk of infection hasn’t diminished – on the contrary, it has increased.
It must have been terrible.’ ‘On the contrary, I enjoyed every minute.’
This election will not bring prosperity to the country. On the contrary, chaos will increase.
It doesn't seem ugly to me; on the contrary, I think it's rather beautiful.
5.    On the other hand-  It is used to say something that is different from the first thing mentioned.  We use "on the other hand" to contrast two different views of a single issue or problem. Note that although these two views may represent opposites, they do not contradict or cancel each other out. 

I like playing football. On the other hand, my brother likes playing basketball.
This private school is very expensive. On the other hand, education of the school is very well.
We had no money but, on the other hand, we were very happy.
Laptops are convenient; on the other hand, they can be expensive.
Ali worked hard. On the other hand Okan hardly did any work at all.

6.    Nevertheless- despite something that you have just mentioned, It is used to say something which contrasts with what has just been said. There is little chance that we will succeed in changing the law.
She was very tired, nevertheless she kept on working.
Nevertheless, it is important that we try.
The news may be unexpected; nevertheless it is true.
Our defeat was expected but it is disappointing nevertheless.
The old system had its flaws, but nevertheless it was preferable to the new one.
She studied diligently for several months. Nevertheless she failed. 
The place was so beautiful; nevertheless, we did not want to spend our holiday in here.
They lost the game; nevertheless, they continued to play.

7.    Nonetheless- despite this fact. It is used to link two contradictory thoughts.
The problems are not serious. Nonetheless, we shall need to tackle them soon.
France and Germany are pursuing modest but nonetheless courageous reforms.
The problems are not serious. Nonetheless, we shall need to tackle them soon.
The paintings are complex, but have plenty of appeal nonetheless.
My uncle is 70 years old now. Nonetheless, he maintains his interest in legal matters.
He worked with very little salary but he was happy with his job nonetheless.
The food was unsalted, but it was nonetheless delicious.
Nonetheless, the region still plays an important role in the country's economy.
8.    Despite/ in spite of- It is used to show something which happen without being affected by something else.  These are followed by nouns or gerunds (verb + 'ing'). They are not followed by clauses (subject + verb).
In spite of / despite being much older than the others, he won the race.
I can manage to stay cheerful despite everything.
They went swimming in spite of all the danger signs
That man is very stingy, despite having a lot of money.
In spite of our efforts, we lost the match.
In spite of all our careful plans, a lot of things went wrong.
Despite vehement opposition from his family, he quit school and became an actor.
Despite/ In spite of the rain, I went for a walk.
Despite losing the match, the team were happy with their efforts.

If you want to use a clause with despite and in spite of, you need to add 'the fact that '.
Despite the fact that they lost the match, the team were still happy.

9.    In contrast (to)- It is used to compare two things or people and to say that the second one is very different from the first one.
In contrast to the diligent bee, the butterfly flies hither and yon with no apparent purpose. George is an optimist. In contrast, Bill is a pessimist.
Extroverts love crowds. In contrast, introverts prefer solitude.
In contrast to Farin, who was tall and willowy, Daisy was small and curvy.
This child is short and fat. In contrast, her sister is tall and thin.
Some people are extroverts. In contrast, some people are introverts.
In contrast to his big brother, he speaks English very well.
In contrast to the moon with an average temperature of -18°C, the Earth is able to maintain an average surface temperature of +15°C.
10.    By contrast- It is used for the act of comparing in order to show differences.
David is unaware of what is around. By contrast, Lisa is very cautious.
Children like crowds. By contrast, elders prefer solitude.
My daughter is very active. By contrast, my son is so moody.
When you look at their new system, ours seems very old-fashioned by contrast.

11.    While- Only those sentences that can be contrasted using the adversative sentence connectors "in contrast" or "conversely" can also be re-worded to combine with adversative subordinators ("while", "whereas")
While London is exciting, it is much too busy. 
Success has many fathers, while failure is an orphan.
While the average surface temperature of the moon is -18°C, the average surface temperature of the Earth is +15°C.
I like tennis, while my brother prefers bowling.
While my sister has blue eyes, mine are brown.
12.    Whereas- It is used for comparing two things which have significant differences from each other Some people like fat meat, whereas others hate it.
Chicken meat is white, whereas cow meat is red.
You can do what you want outdoors, whereas it’s impossible to do them at home.
Her hair has a natural wave, whereas her sister’s hair just straight.
Life in the city is fast, whereas life in the countryside is slow.
Taxes have gone up, whereas social security contributions have gone down.
13.    Unlike- unlike is used to show how two things are different from each other
Unlike in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol.
Unlike most systems, this one is very easy to install. 
His boss allows him to work from home, unlike mine.
She’s very friendly, unlike her sister.
Unlike the moon with an average temperature of -18°C, the Earth is able to maintain an average surface temperature of +15°C.
14.    Alternatively-
The agency will make travel arrangements for you. Alternatively, you can organize your own transport.
We could take the train or alternatively go by car.
The quickest way is to take the motorway. Alternatively, there is the coastal route, which is much prettier.
Alternatively, instruments can be sent by carrier if you live too far away to visit personally.
15.    Conversely- Use "conversely" to contrast the relationship between two related features in the same situation, process, or facts from opposite points of views . It is used to express an idea that is different from or opposite the other idea mentioned before.
Northern European countries had a great summer. Conversely, southern Europe had poor weather. 
In real life, nobody was all bad, nor, conversely, all good.
Six is more than five; conversely, five is less than six. 
His family made a lot of effort to make their son’s lessons better, conversely, he never made any effort.
16.    Even so- despite what has just been said
Even so, many old friends were shocked at the announcement.
It’s raining. Even so, we must go out.
This hypothesis is true, but even so, further research is required.
This dive may be dangerous for us, even so, we have to do it.
Your thoughts are very fanciful, but even so, they are worth to imagine.
I had a terrible headache, but even so I went to the concert.
Even so, the idea gained complete acceptance only early this century.
Even so, the agricultural sector remains largely underdeveloped.
There are a lot of spelling mistakes; even so, it's quite a good essay.
17.    Differing from- 
Differing from his white colleagues, he preferred instructing his scholars to the ambition of acquiring personal renown.
Their opinion, differing from that of St. Andrews, gave rise to uncalled-for and insoluble difficulties.
Differing from the senior school students, the vocational school students are eliminated through the selection examinations.
18.    Contrary to- 
Contrary to all our expectations, he found a well-paid job and a nice house to live in.
Contrary to popular belief, many cats dislike milk.
The situation in Ireland is quite contrary to this principle.
Contrary to expectations and the weather forecast, we had a fine day for the experiment.
19.    Yet- It is used to add something that is surprising after the first sentence which are mentioned before.
It’s a long-term business, yet it’s more fun than other jobs.
The weather was snowy, yet it was not cold.
That woman was short and overweight, yet somehow, she was attractive.
George is very handsome. Yet, he is not popular with girls.
20.    However- "However" is the most common of the contrastive sentence connectors and can serve two different functions. It can introduce conflict or a problem that contrasts with the situation, facts or viewpoints presented in earlier sentences, or signal that the contrast introduced in the second sentence is somehow surprising or unexpected in light of what was said in the first sentence.
That man has much money. However, he isn’t happy at all. 
She sings very well. However, she is a stutterer. 
He was feeling bad. He went to work, however, and tried to concentrate.
We thought the figures were correct. However, we have now discovered some errors.
I respect my best friend’s ideas however we do not have the same thoughts.
No country, however rich, can afford the waste of its human resources.

21.    Instead-It means in place of something or someone else. Use "instead" to replace or substitute one action with another. When "instead" comes at the beginning of a sentence (with a comma), it tends to be often used after a negative sentence.
There is no chocolate now, I can give you some sugar instead.
Would you like to go to another place instead of cinema?
Instead of complaining, you should try to be a constructivist.
If you don’t have olive oil, you can use sunflower oil instead.
The committee has rejected our proposal. Instead, they have brought forward an alternative plan.
Tickets will cost only £5, instead of the usual £6.50.
Alison will be playing instead of me on Saturday.
Can’t we deal with this now instead of waiting until tomorrow?

22.    Notwithstanding- It means despite the thing mentioned.
Notwithstanding differences, there are clear similarities in all of the world's religions.
He continues to exhibit the same behaviors, our warnings notwithstanding.
These drugs seem to be different, notwithstanding having same contents.
Notwithstanding two players getting red card, the team won the game.
Notwithstanding some members' objections, I think we must go ahead with the plan.

23.    But- It is used to add statement which is different from what you have said before.
I know the answer to the problem, but I do not know why it is.
He is a very handsome but he is very rude person.
They heard us but they did not understand what we said.
It's easy to fall into a trap, but hard to get out again.
Little thieves are hanged, but great ones escape.
24.    In theory… in practice… show an unexpected result. 
In theory, teachers should prepare for lessons, but in practice, they often don’t have enough time.

 

 

5.    Linkers showing sequence/Order
An order transition word can be used to show a change in the order or timing of consecutive ideas and phrases. 

List of contrast linking word: at first, first of all, to begin with, in the first place, at the same time, for now, for the time being, the next step, in time, in turn, later on, meanwhile, next, then, soon, the meantime, later, while, earlier, simultaneously, afterward, in conclusion, with this in mind

1.    First/ Firstly/First of all/- For an action that happens before any others. We can also use "first" at the end of the sentence.
In the first place I prefer the train because I can see the landscape. 
First of all, I’d like to talk about the benefits of having a pet. 
I have a lot of work to do. First, I will make a cup of tea. 
Firstly, this car looks awful, and secondly, it’s unreliable.
First of all/ In the first place any violation of traffic signal must be taken seriously.
2.    Second/ secondly/in the second place- used for introducing the second in a series of two or more things
Secondly, I have control over my luggage. 
Secondly, their impressive numeracy skills must be mentioned.
Firstly, I didn’t know the neighbourhood and, secondly, it was night.
3.    Third/ thirdly/in the third place
Thirdly, it is better for the environment.
In the third place, you can always count on your pet pig to perform some tricks for you when you’d like to impress a pretty girl.
Secondly, how much will it cost? And thirdly, when do I pay?
4.    To begin with- You use to begin with to introduce the first of several things that you want to say
To begin with, pet pigs are cleaner than dogs.
To begin with, we must consider the faculties of the staff all-sidedly.
To begin with, I want to say thank you to all of you who are attending the lecture this morning.
5.    In the beginning
Some steps should be taken to control population in the beginning.
In the beginning I found it hard to concentrate, but now it’s much easier.
In the beginning he had felt well, but little by little he was becoming weaker.
In the beginning I found the course very difficult.
6.    First and foremost- used for emphasizing the main point or the most important reason for something
He was first and foremost an educator who cared about his students.
‘Why not get a job that pays more?’ ‘First and foremost, because I really like what I’m doing.’
We will continue to focus on our players first and foremost.
7.    Also- used for adding another fact or idea to what you have already said
Khaled is a keen photographer who also loves to paint.
The electric drill can also be used as a screwdriver.
Not only is it a comfortable and stylish hotel, it’s also a popular meeting place.
Also, they don’t eat much.
8.    Besides- in addition to someone or something else that is being mentioned. We write -ing form of the verb after besides.
A lot of them are studying other things besides Italian.
There are cakes and sandwiches, and lots more besides.
Besides being a teammate, he’s my friend.
Besides making money, the company aims to set high standards of quality and design.
I don’t want to go shopping. Besides, I haven’t got any money.
Besides not eating much, they won’t ever chew on your electric cords.
9.    In addition
used for adding an extra piece of information to what has already been said or written
People gain valuable work experience and, in addition, employers can afford to employ them.
In addition, they can be taught to feed themselves if you allow them access to your pantry.
In addition to these arrangements, extra ambulances will be on duty until midnight.
In addition to my weekly wage, I got a lot of tips.
In addition to his movie work, Redford is known as a champion of environmental causes.
10.    Furthermore
Furthermore, they make wonderful walking buddies.
Furthermore, the particles act as nuclei for droplets of water vapour.
Furthermore, sports collectibles require certificates of authenticity in California.
11.    Moreover
Moreover, they’ll show you the way home when you’re drunk.
Moreover, as a worker gets older, overtime, shift work and so on become less .
12.    Next" and "then" can both be used for an action that happens after another action but we usually use:
"next": for an action that happens immediately after another action, or as soon as possible. We can also use "next" at the end of the sentence.
I went to Bolivia on holiday. "Next", I want to go to Brazil.
I’m eating breakfast now. I will clean the kitchen "next".
13.    "Then": for an action that happens after another action if it’s not immediate. We can use "and then" without a comma.
I will go to the shop, then to the park and finally I will relax in the bar.
Sarah is doing her degree. Then, she wants to be a lawyer.
If you doubt yourself, then indeed you stand on shaky11 ground.
Sarah will probably not be a lawyer immediately after she gets her degree.
They went shopping in the morning and then they went to the zoo. 
We don’t know if they went to the zoo immediately after they went shopping.
14.    Later
Later, it transpired she had failed the examination.
She arrived on the ferry, and he came later. 
He later felt that he was wrong. 
Later on, we watched a movie.
15.    After
It is not enough to help the feeble up but to support him after.
It is too late to shut the stable door after the horse has been stolen.
Joy often comes after sorrow, like morning after night.
16.    Before
Before you give up, think of the reason why you held on so long.
I went for a run before breakfast.
The patient had died before the doctor came.
I joined the police in 1999. Before that I was in the army.
Don't try to walk before you can crawl.
17.    Following
They arrived on Monday evening and we got there the following day.
The team blossomed following the appointment of the new manager.
Following his military service, Wilkins returned to his home town.
18.    Previously
I had visited them three days previously.
Previously, the child was under the protection of her mother.
19.    Before-
Your name is before mine on the list.
Do not count your chickens before they are hatched.
Leave your keys at reception before departure.
20.    Subsequently- afterwards; later
Subsequently, new guidelines were issued to all employees.
Subsequently, new guidelines were issued to all employees.
He subsequently became chairman of the party.

Transition words and phrases to mark the end of an ascending order
21.    Above all- most important of all; especially.
Above all, keep in touch.
Above all, fishing requires great patience.
Above all Susie is a great survivor, with a bright, indomitable spirit.
22.    Last, lastly, last of all
Lastly, and most importantly, you should be optimistic.
Lastly, I would like to ask about your future plans.
Lastly, your reputation as an eccentric will rapidly grow in the neighbourhood if you’re seen walking a pet pig on a leash every morning.
23.    Last but not least- You use last but not least to say that the last person or thing to be mentioned is as important as all the others.
Last but not least, I find I seriously cannot relate to women.
Last but not least, I'd like to thank all the catering staff.
And, last but not least, its growth and production has a huge impact on the environment we live in.
And last but not least there is the questions of adequate funding.
24.    Finally- for the action that happens at the end, after any others, or after a long time. We can use "finally" before the verb without a comma.
Finally, pet pigs are fantastic guards. No burglar would ever have the heart to hurt a pet pig.
Finally, I got an A in Math.
I worked all evening. Finally, I went to bed at 11pm.
I worked all evening and I finally went to bed at 11pm.
After five years, I finally sold the house.
Finally, after months of speculation, the latest model went on sale.

 

6.    Linkers to give example
An illustration transition word is used to give an example of what the speaker is referring to. 
The following sentence shows the use of an illustration transition word; 
List of linking words to give examples: For example, For instance, Namely, as an illustration, specifically, to demonstrate, to illustrate, in this case, namely, including, for example and such as. 

1.    For example- 
There are many interesting places to visit in the city, for example, the botanical garden or the art museum.
When I go camping, I bring lots of things, for example, a fishing rod, matches, and a sleeping bag.
Many factors are important, for example class, gender, age and ethnicity.
Many countries, for example Mexico and Japan, have a lot of earthquakes.
I can play quite a few musical instruments, for example, the flute, the guitar, and the piano.
Fractions can be written with oblique strokes, for example 2/3.
2.    For instance
Appreciate the small things your spouse does for you. For instance, leave thank-you notes for them every now and then. 
There are lots of things to do at the park, for instance feeding the ducks or playing on the slide.
There have been many leaders in history who have tried to rule the entire world, for instance, Julius Caesar and Alexander the Great
Joyce has studied many Asian languages, for instance, Korean, Chinese, and Thai.
My father loves going to restaurants which serve exotic foods.  For instance, last week he went to a restaurant which serves deep-fried rattlesnake.
3.    To illustrate- 
Earthquakes can be highly destructive. To illustrate, the earthquake which occurred  in Erzincan in 1939 devastated the whole town, killing more than 35000 people.
To illustrate my point, let me tell you a little story.
To illustrate, consider a discount security with few days to maturity with a discount rate of 9 percent.
4.    Namely refers to something by name.
There are two problems: namely, the expense and the time.
In this paper we explicitly consider sociological factors, namely social custom, and the notion of individual commitment.
There are three major advantages of the design, namely cheapness, simplicity and availability.
There are also tiny traces of other noble gases besides argon, namely, neon, krypton, and xenonWe need to concentrate on our target audience, namely women aged between 20 and 30.
5   Such as
I prefer to wear casual clothes, such as jeans and a sweatshirt.
When I visit Korea, I want to go to many cities, such as Seoul and Taegu.
I can play quite a few musical instruments, such as the flute, the guitar, and the piano.
Car companies such as Toyota and Ford manufacture their automobiles in many different countries around the world.
6.    Like
I also make other jewellery like rings and bracelets. 
I love big cats, like lions.
Western European countries like France and Spain have high unemployment at the moment.
7.    For one thing-  used when mentioning one reason for something as an example, when there are several reasons
A lot of people don’t take the time to read contracts. For one thing, they’re often in very tiny print.
For one thing, they’re completely loyal to their owners. 
For another thing, you might want to consider how cute they look in pyjamas.

 

7.    Linker to add more information/ideas
An Addition transition word will give additional information in a sentence, deepening the meaning that is taken from it. 

List of linking words to more information/ideas: And, In addition As well as, Also, Too, Furthermore, Moreover, Apart from, In addition to, Besides, in addition, than, furthermore, besides, another, too, also, similarly and likewise

1.    Also- This is used to give more information or ideas; in addition; too
In my speech, I will be looking at the present location. I shall also be making predictions for the future.
She's fluent in French and German. She also speaks a little Italian.
I didn't like it that much. Also, it was much too expensive.
I want to talk to Prince Harry when I’m in England. Also, I want to meet his sister-in-law.
It’s very humid. Also, you can easily get sunburnt.
He also recently said that he would be leaving at the end of the year.
I probably also have a copy of the list.
Khaled is a keen photographer who also loves to paint.
The electric drill can also be used as a screwdriver.
She's a talented singer and also a fine actress.
2.    Too
I love wearing earrings. I design and make them too.
Of course, our customers complain, but we too have our problems.
3.    Additionally 
Additionally, the bus service will run on Sundays, every two hours.
Additionally, the restaurant often features live music, and special events.
Additionally, the bus service will run on Sundays, every two hours.
4.    Furthermore
He said he had not discussed the matter with her. Furthermore, he had not even contacted her. 
You cannot go into the theatre as you have not got tickets, furthermore you are not in the correct dress for this performance.
Mr Brown has earned the respect of farmers everywhere. Furthermore, they know they can trust him.
He is old and unpopular. Furthermore, he has at best only two years of political life ahead of him.
He is lazy, and furthermore, he has no sense of responsibility.
The ratio of women is still relatively low. Furthermore, 65% of female board members are of European origin.
5.    As well as that
We went to the park today. As well as that, we did some shopping. 
My boss is the only other person who sells the watches. As well as that, he might blame me.
We went to the park today. As well as that, we did some shopping.
6.    Along with- 
Along with parties and parliaments, elections have lost their charm.
Rohit was arrested along with eleven other men.
A plane carries passengers, heavy radar equipment along with full fuel tanks.
7.    Besides/Besides this/Besides that- This is usually placed at the beginning of a sentence. It is used to make an additional point.
Traffic congestion is a problem in my city. Besides this, the trains are very expensive.
I can't afford to go to the concert. Besides, I don't really like classical music.
I can’t afford to go to the concert. Besides, I don’t really like classical music.
Besides working as a doctor, he also writes novels in his spare time.
Besides cancer, smoking can lead on to other diseases.
8.    In addition-
You haven’t paid the rent yet. In addition, you owe me money. 
Company employees are paid travel expenses in addition to their normal salary.
I have the skills that you require and, in addition, have several years experience.
In addition to a competitive salary, the company offers attractive employee benefits.
The film star has an incredible car in addition to a large house.
In addition to the twins, Jason has another child by his first wife.
9.    In addition to this
John’s grades are terrible because he has been so lazy these days. In addition to this, his relationship to his parents got worse.
In addition to this, the ailment affects many more females than gentlemen.
In addition to this, some marketing is directed specifically at creating or changing people's wants.

10.    Moreover- Moreover is used at the beginning of a sentence.
Unemployment has risen dramatically over the last few years. Moreover, many people are moving abroad to look for work.
The report is badly written. Moreover, it is inaccurate.
The report is badly presented. Moreover, it contains inaccuracies.
The rent is reasonable, and moreover, the location is perfect.
11.    Not only…but also- We use not only... also ... to add emphasis.
If the project fails this will have terrible consequences not only on our department, but also on the whole organization. 
Not only do they sell furniture, they also sell electronic gadgets.
A nation reveals itself not only by the men it produces but also by the men it honors, the men it remembers.
If the plan fails, it will affect not only our department, but also the whole organization.
The proposed new structure is notable not only for its height, but also for its shape.
12.    Apart from (this)
Apart from this paragraph, the report contains a number of sensible initiatives.
Apart from this, the area would seem to be an excellent site for shopping, leisure and community facilities.
Apart from their house in London, they also have a villa in Spain.
It was a difficult time. Apart from everything else, we had financial problems.
You've got to help. Apart from anything else you're my brother.
Apart from providing humanitarian aid, the UN is also supposed to enforce agreements.
13.    What's more- What's more is used to add something surprising or interesting to what you have just said.
Japanese cuisine is delicious and what's more, it's good for you.
The hotel is near all the sights. What's more it has a spa.
What is more, it is very easy to make mistakes in counting calories.
I've been fortunate to find a career that I love and, what is more, I get well paid for it.
What is more, owing to various factors, the number of people living alone is growing.


8.    Linkers showing time of action
List of linkers showing time of action:  Till, until, before, after, since, when, while previously    after a few, following, soon , as soon as , afterward, formerly, subsequently, in the future ,immediately, then , after before, later, thereafter ,currently, meanwhile, till , during, next, eventually, finally, next week,    until ,when, Afterwards, always , at length, during, earlier, following, immediately, in the meantime, later, never, next, now, once, simultaneously, so far, sometimes, soon, subsequently, then, this time, until now, when, whenever, while
   
1.    At first/first- 
At first there was a lack of trust between them.
It wasn’t a piece of cake to learn English. At first, I couldn’t pronounce all the words correctly.
At first he wouldn’t even talk about it.
At first, I had great difficulty with grammar Later, however , I was able to overcome these difficulties by studying hard.
First pick up the receiver and then insert a coin into the coin-box.
2.    Then- 
Then, I couldn’t spell all the words correctly.
He glanced quickly at Sally and then looked away again.
Add the numbers together first – then multiply.
First Lewis will give a TV interview. Then comes the main news conference.
3.    Afterward/ afterwards- at a later or future time; subsequently.
Afterwards, I had a hard time understanding the tenses.
We had tea, and afterward we sat in the garden for a while.
I read the morning papers for a while. Afterwards, I took a shower.
Let’s go and see a film and afterwards we could go for a meal.
I didn’t see her again until a few days afterwards.
Afterward, she got a promotion.
4.    Later
Later, I couldn’t memorize phrasal verbs and idioms.
The gossip about her later proved to be entirely false.
Police arrested several men, who were later released.
5.    In the meantime- during the time between two events or between the present time and a future event
The government waits for an economic miracle while, in the meantime, whole industries collapse.
In the meantime, I was getting some help from My English Teacher.
The doctor will be here soon. In the meantime, try and relax.
The party is Tuesday, but in the meantime I have to shop and prepare the food.
Please call a taxi, and in the meantime, I'll pack some food.
My first novel was rejected by six publishers. In the meantime I had written a play.
6.    Meanwhile- at the same time
He accepted money from investors and was meanwhile spending it on luxury cruises.
I went to college. Meanwhile, all my friends got well-paid jobs.
Mother went shopping; meanwhile, I cleaned the house.
I'll be back soon. Meanwhile follow on.
They’ll be here soon. Meanwhile, let’s have coffee.
7.    Eventually-In the end, after a long time and a lot of effort, problem. 
Eventually, she got a job and moved to Paris.
Eventually the government was forced to bow to public pressure and reform the tax.
The five survivors eventually reached safety, ragged, half-starved and exhausted.
He worked so hard that eventually he made himself ill.
Keep trying and you'll find a job eventually.
8.    Finally- after a long time, process, or series of events
We finally arrived home at midnight.
My father finally agreed to let me go on the trip.
I’d like to thank everyone for coming this evening.
After hiking all day we finally reached the uppermost part of the mountain
After weeks of frenetic activity, the job was finally finished.
It finally dawned on me what she'd meant.
9.    Henceforth- Starting from this time, from now on.
Foreigners were henceforth to be encouraged to come and live in Spain.
In my opinion, we all should henceforth encourage him to start his own business.
Henceforth I expect you to be punctual for meeting.
Henceforth, supervisors will report directly to the manager.
She announced that henceforth she would be running the company.
10.    Meanwhile: in the intervening period of time, at the same time. 
Cook for a further half hour; meanwhile, make the stuffing
11.    In the meantime : In the time before something else finishes or is supposed to happen.
We’ll soon send you the information about the scholarship, in the meantime, visit our website to keep yourself updated.
12.    As soon as : As soon as is a conjunction. You use as soon as to say that something will happen immediately after something else has happened. 
I’ll tell you where he is as soon as I can.
As soon as I opened the front door I smelled the distinctive aroma of fresh coffee.
My plants revived as soon as I gave them some water.
Please deliver the baggage to my hotel as soon as you have located it.
13.    At the same time : If two or more things exist, happen, or are true at the same time, they exist, happen, or are true together although they seem to contradict each other. 
Traveling will cost you a lot of money. At the same time, I think it’s something we should definitely experience at least once in our life.
You have to be firm, but at the same time you should try and be sympathetic.
14.    Sooner or later: Used to say that you do not know exactly when something will happen, but you are certain that it will happen.
Sooner or later she will realize what she has been doing is wrong.
She was convinced that sooner or later she would fulfil her destiny.
Opportunity, sooner or later, comes to all who work and wish.
15.    All of a sudden: If something happens all of a sudden , it happens quickly and unexpectedly. 
Yesterday when I was walking in the woods, all of a sudden, it started to rain heavily.
All of a sudden there was a terrific bang and a flash of smoke.
He sprang out of the room all of a sudden.
16.    Till 
His brother told him to wait there till/until he retured.
Never put off till tomorrow what can [may] be done today.
You’ll have to wait till tomorrow.
Just sit here till I come back.
17.    Since
I have not seen him since he was four.
The rain has been continuous since this morning.
18.    After 
He went there after he had completed his work.
He died on June 3rd and was buried the day after.
After you’d left, I got a phone call from Stuart.
19.    Before
He had completed the work before he went out.
Think carefully before you choose.

9.    Linking words indicating purpose
List of linkers showing time of action:  For, So as to, So as not to, In order to, In order not to, So that
1.    To 
He is looking for a part time job to save some pocket money.
He took all precautionary measures to save his countrymen from disaster.
Nobody came to help me.
I am writing to thank you for your generous gift.
To call security, just press this button here.
2.    In order to
She wakes up early in order to be on time to work.
The government plans to cut taxes in order to stimulate the economy.
They work long hours in order to take home a fat wage packet.
understand yourself in order to better understanding others.
3.    So as to- In order to; with the intention of.
The police cordoned off the streets so as to create a clear path for the president's caravan.
The senator always tries to claim the moral high ground during a debate so as to shift public opinion in his favor.
They visited him so as to offer their condolences for the death of his wife.
He read a lot so as to learn about the intellectual history of Europe.
4.    So as not to/In order not to -We use so as not to and in order not to to express purpose in the negative form.
They woke up early in order not to be late.
She exercises regularly so as not to get fat.
He helped the new policewoman so as not to fail in her first mission.
5.    so that-we can also express purpose with so that. In this case you generally need to use a modal.
He turned down the music so that he wouldn't disturb the neighbors.
He got a visa so that he can travel to the USA.
He decided to stay in England for a while so that he could practice his English. 
She is learning French so that she speak to her mother in law.
I left a note so that Peter would know where we were.
6.    For Purpose can be also expressed by using for. For may be followed by either a noun or a verb + ing.
I stopped there for a chat.
This mop is for cleaning the floor.
We use the basement for storage.
The red button is for turning the machine off.

7.    Lest = so that...not; in case something unpleasant happens
I closed the gate lest the dog should escape.
He filled up the car lest he ran out of petrol.
In other words, he filled up the car so that he didn't run out of petrol
Helen turned the radio down lest she should miss the phone ringing.
8.    For fear of (that)
I didn't tell her the bad news for fear of upsetting her.
He handles his phone with care for fear that it will break.
He doesn't want to damage his phone so he handles it with care.
She kept the windows shut , for fear of burglars.
People don't like to ask questions for fear of appearing ignorant.

10.    Linking words indicating conditions/ Options

Condition transition words are used to establish the condition or to bring into consideration another view point. These words are used to provide a condition to what has been stated

List of linkers showing time of action: considering, generally, admittedly, for the most part, often, occasionally ,granted, if, or otherwise unless, until/till, provided /provided that/providing that, in case, as long as, Supposing that once, had, were, should, when

1.    If
If anyone calls, tell them I’m not at home. 
If you want, I shall help you. 
If you brush and floss every day, you probably won't get cavities.
If you try hard, you will succeed.
I he had helped others, he would have been helped by them.
2.    Only if- used for introducing a situation or condition that must exist before something else happens
We will perform a few songs, only if the profits go to charity.
The rebels say they are ready to stop fighting, but only if the prisoners are released.
Only if the chairperson resigns will we be able to restore the confidence of our members.
I'll tell you, but only if you don't tell anyone else.
We can succeed only if everyone in the team pulls his weight.
3.    Even if – used for emphasizing that although something may happen or may be true, another situation remains the same
He’s determined to prove his innocence, even if he has to go to the highest court in the land.
Even if she loses her job, she will still have a job in education.
I'm going to the party even if it rains.
We shouldn't slight anybody even if he's a nobody.
I like her, even if  she can be annoying at times.
Even if you did see someone, you can't be sure it was him.
4.    In that case- a situation or set of conditions, especially one involving a particular person or thing
I’ve made up my mind.’ ‘In that case, there’s no point discussing it.
‘I don’t need it tonight.’ ‘In that case, I’ll keep it until tomorrow.’
In that case you will have fewer rather than more difficulties with which to cope.
5.    In case- 
Take an umbrella in case it rains.In case you fail to find my house, phone me.
Keep these papers together in case they are lost.
Don't play by the river in case you fall in and drown!
Keep some candles as a standby in case the power fails.
6.    Unless- 
I can't reach the top shelf unless I use a stepladder.
Unless a check is signed, it is invalid.
I tend to forget things unless I mark them down.
I can't let you in unless you give the password.
Unless you've purchased tickets, you won't be able to attend the show.
Unless I’m mistaken, she was back at work yesterday.
7.    After – 
After he gets the promotion, he will get a new office.
8.    As a consequence of 
As a consequence of studying hard, you will pass the exam.
Animals have died as a consequence of coming into contact with this chemical.
As a consequence of expansionism by some European countries, many ancient cultures have suffered.
As a consequence of their different interpretations, they had different criteria for judging attainment.
9.    As a result of – 
As a result of seismic testing, oil was discovered on Henry's land.
Her hair started falling out as a result of radiation treatment.
Students may suffer severe financial hardship as a result of the government's decision.
She died as a result of her injuries.
The project foundered as a result of lack of finance.
10.    As /so long as – used before saying the conditions that will make something else happen or be true
  My parents don’t care what job I do as long as I’m happy.
As long as I am capable, I will ride my bike to work. 
As long as you get your homework finished and handed in on time, I don't care what kind of music you listen to.
OK, you can have one cookie before dinner as long as you don't spoil your appetite!
                Allah will- be with us as long as our purpose is honest.
11.    As soon as –
The parade will start as soon as the mayor arrives.
As soon as we can afford it, we'll move out to the suburbs.
We're hoping for a return to normality as soon as possible.
12.    Assuming – on condition that 
Assuming you're right, there's not much I can do about it.
You can get a red dress, assuming one is on sale.
13.    But for – 
But for these interruptions, the meeting would have finished earlier.
But for the rain we would have had a nice holiday.
I might never have got to university but for you.
I was sure she knew the answer but for some reason she hung back.
We would have been lost, but for the map.
14.    Once – used for saying that as soon as one thing happens, something else happens
Once we were through the gates, she went off and left me on my own.
I’m sure you’ll be very happy here once you get to know everyone
Once the chores are done, we will go to the park. 
Once you make a promise, you should not break it.
15.    On the condition that – 
On the condition that medical treatment is inefficacious, an open heart surgery should be performed.
I got three years' probation, on condition that I stay at the hostel for a yea
You will get the job, on the condition that you will work every other Saturday.
16.    Provided (that) – only if a particular thing happens or is done
You can go out to play provided that you finish your homework first.
Provided you pay me back by Friday, I’ll lend you the money.
Provided that you have the money in your account, you can withdraw up to £100 a day.
They can do whatever they like provided that it is what the Treasury has already agreed.
Provided that the other House now passes the Bill in the same form, it will have finished with it for good.
I will go to the prom with you, provided you apologize.
17.    Providing – only if a particular thing happens or is done
It’s a lot easier to get good marks on a short-answer question, providing you do it well.
Financiers are prepared to be generous, providing that it is not their own money they are spending.
We will give you the money, providing you can pay it back within six months. 
The plane will take off provided/provided that/providing that the weather is fine.
They befriended the young girl, providing her with food and shelter.
I will agree to go provided/providing my expenses are paid.
18.    Since –  used when explaining why someone does something or why a situation exists
Since Barbara is no longer my wife, I’m no longer responsible for her debts.
Since it is autumn, there are many leaves on the ground.
I shall not be able to attend the meeting since I shall be on holiday with my family.
You should talk to Karen since she’s the one responsible for authorizing payments.
19.    Until – 
They don't talk to me until I talk to them
We know not what is good until we have lost it.
20.    When / Whenever  – 
When I get hungry, I will go to a restaurant.
When my friend comes, you will please tell him to wait for me.
   Whenever I eat spicy food, I get hives.
   Wherever there are flowers, bees will come to pollinate.
21.    Whether – 
He spent all his paycheck on clothes, whether that was smart or not.
It is unclear whether the meeting will go ahead as planned.
I don't mind whether we eat now or this evening, it's all the same to me.
I doubted whether the story is true.
Check whether a fuse has blown.
I discussed with my intimate friends whether I would immediately have a baby.
22.    Otherwise- It is used to show what the result will be if the thing or condition, mentioned before, does not occur.
I hope the weather improves. Otherwise, we’ll have to cancel the picnic.
The programme has saved thousands of children who would otherwise have died.
I had better study for my exams. Otherwise, I won’t pass the courses.
Leave my house now, otherwise I will call the police.
Take your umbrella, otherwise you will get wet.
23.    Alternatively- It is used to propose another possibility.
We could drive all the way. Alternatively, we could fly.
Alternatively, it can be taken in tablet or capsule form.
You can play football. Alternatively, you can go to the cinema with me.
They can call us to contact, or  alternatively, they can send an email to us.
I think we can go far away for vacation, or alternatively, we can go where we went last year.
Alternatively pick up a pen and a piece of paper and compose your own speech immediately after reading all these for inspiration.
24.    Suppose/ Supposing that : used for introducing a possible situation or action and the results of it
    Suppose you won the lottery, what would you do with the money?
          Supposing that you will come, I shall wait for you.
25.    Had : 
Had she not helped me I would have been in bad trouble
Had you wanted, I would have helped you.
Had it not rained yesterday, we would have finished painting the walls.
26.    Were:     
Were I a king, I would help the poor.
Were we to have kids, we would need a bigger house
27.    Should:  
Should you not help him, the consequence would be different. 
Should you call after hours, leave a message

 

11.    Linkers to clarify/rephrase the ideas/Explain
Clarification transition words can be used to further explain an idea or thought.Transitional words and transitional phrases to express an alternative to what has been previously stated
      List of linkers showing time of action:
1.    That is to say
Keep romance alive. That is to say, don’t let your lovelife fall into routine.
He's a local government administrator, that is to say a Civil Servant.
Languages are taught by the direct method, that is to say, without using the student's own language.
He was found innocent in the court, that is to say, the court could not convict him legally.
That is to say, he acquires the patterns of behavior which are accepted as normal in his society. 
Our friends, that is to say our son’s friends, will meet us at the airport.

2.    In other words
Don’t be unsociable. In other words, go out and make some friends. 
In other words, the elephant is already dancing with the dragon. 
29. The tax only affects people on incomes of over $200,000 - in other words, the very rich.
30. It is also a cliche that computers are incapable of creative thought - in other words, imagination.
He was economical with the truth – in other words, he lied.
3.    Put alternatively: 
John has managed to get over Jane. Put differently, he’s started seeing other women.
4.    That is
The brochure dealt with travelling in Morocco. That is/In other words/ Namely, it discussed transportation, currency, and language.
The machinery was not impaired; that is, it wasn’t damaged. 
Good readers should be able to read between the lines; that is, they should be able to make inferences (=to draw conclusions) about information that is conveyed indirectly or given only partially.
There is only one topic to discuss, namely, the question of discipline. As a child grows up, he learns how to behave in ways which are appropriate to the society into which he is born. 
5.    To Put it differently- used when you are going to explain something in a different way in order to make it easier to understand
To put it differently, we use one ear to listen to one another, the other ear to listen to the water.
To put it differently, doubt means delay.

 


12.    Linkers indicating emphasis/ Particularization

An emphasis transition word is used to support a piece of information which has just been given, they can also be used to emphasise an idea. Transition words and phrases to put forward a point or idea more forcefully. 

List of linkers showing time of action:  Indeed, above all, certainly, of course, obviously, in fact, in short and clearly. Certainly, granted that in fact, most certainly, neutrally, obviously of course surely, undoubtedly, without a doubt, in fact    indeed    as a matter of fact    actually

1.    As a matter of fact: used when you are going to give more details about something
I haven’t been here long. As a matter of fact, I just got off the plane yesterday.
I love sleeping with my pet pig. As a matter of fact, I can’t fall asleep unless he’s in my bed. 
I like reading. As a matter of fact, it is my favorite pastime.
2.    In fact : used for saying what is really true, when this is surprising or different from what people think
He was paid money for a job that did not in fact exist.
In fact, she was quite right.
I didn't fail the exam; in fact I did rather well!
In fact, his business career had distinctly unpromising beginnings.
He's not at all exciting, in fact he's really rather commonplace.
I told them not to invite Rachel to the party. In fact, I was the only person who saw what a party pooper she really was. He is quite wealthy. In fact, he is one of the richest men in Turkey.
3.    Actually: used for emphasizing what is really true or what really happened
Actually, I'd rather spend the evening at home .
Actually, I'll be a bit late home.
Actually, I'm busy at the moment—can I call you back?
Well, actually, I think she's done a pretty good job.
Actually, it would be much more sensible to do it later.
There’s a big difference between saying you’ll do something and actually doing it.
I think it would be a good idea to send her some flowers. Actually, you should get her a hundred orchids.
Actually, it's I that owe you a lot.
4.    Indeed: used for adding a statement that supports and increases the effect of what you have just said
Brendel is certainly a fine musician. Indeed, I regard him as one of the greatest pianists of our time.
The service will benefit the nation’s young people, and, indeed, all Americans.
This was indeed the most memorable day of my life.
I don’t mind at all. Indeed, I would be delighted to help.
Indeed, it could be the worst environmental disaster in Western Europe this century.
I didn't mind. Indeed, I was pleased.
He may be the best-dressed man around. Indeed, he has a really good taste in fashion. Mural is a highly talented musician. Indeed, he has an extraordinary gift for music.
It is indeed an honour to serve my country in such an esteemed position.
5.    Most/More importantly: used for saying that something is very important
I’d like to talk to you about how to keep calm at your workplace. Most importantly, never go to the canteen while your boss is there.
Most importantly, we don't have to change our lifestyles after all.
More importantly, few if any stored samples go back farther than the mid fifties.
Even more importantly, it can achieve dramatic reductions in the amount of energy used.
More importantly, the definition of the adventitious population stresses an element of choice in rural residence.
Most importantly they see the social structure of capitalist societies as being based not upon conflict but upon shared values.
Most importantly, poverty rates remain unacceptably high.
6.    Primarily- mainly
The magazine is targeted primarily at young middle-class women.
We're primarily concerned with keeping expenditure down.
Public order is primarily an urban problem.
Bone marrow transplants are a controversial procedure, primarily because of the high costs involved.
You’ll have to focus on your immediate surroundings. Primarily, on your computer screen.
7.    Above all (else):  used for referring to something that is more important than any of the other things you could mention
He will be remembered above all as a loving husband and family man.
Above all else, the government must keep the promises it has made.
Above all, Africa needs and deserves solidarity and respect.
Above all, this forest is designed for wear and tear.
Above all, this forest is designed for wear and tear.
Above all, we must demonstrate imagination and a capacity for innovation.
Above all, don’t ever look up from your notes when people are around.
8.    Most significantly
Most significantly, avoid eye-contact at all costs.
Most significantly, the United States voted against the resolution.
Most significantly on my sense of a distant but still valid national identity-until then I had entertained hopes of return.
9.    Essentially, Basically- used for emphasizing what is the most important aspect of something or fact about something
That, essentially, is the difference between them.
The book is basically a love story.
Basically, their goal is to promote healthier eating habits.
How can I put this? Essentially, having an affair with one of your colleagues should be the last thing on your mind. 
Basically, there's not a lot we can do about it.
There have been some problems but basically it's a good system.
10.    Undoubtedly : used for saying that something is certainly true or is accepted by everyone
The next few days will undoubtedly prove crucial.
Teaching off a blackboard is boring, and undoubtedly turns people off.
Country music was undoubtedly one of the forerunners of rock and roll.
Undoubtedly, political and economic factors have played their part.
Undoubtedly, the story itself is one of the main attractions.
11.    Obviously : used for emphasizing that you know people already know 
Obviously I’ll have to think about your offer carefully.
Obviously what she did was wrong, but I don't think it warranted quite such severe punishment.
She was obviously annoyed that the man had happened along.
Obviously, we don’t want to spend too much money.
12.    Particularly / in particular : used for emphasizing that something refers especially to one specific person, thing, or situation
Regional policy has become a hot political issue, particularly in the past decade.
It is particularly worrying that nobody seems to be in charge.
First-time visitors to France will find this guide particularly handy.
I love silver earrings, in particular ones from Mexico.
13.    Especially: used when mentioning conditions that make something more relevant, important, or true
It was a very cold house, especially in winter.
He did not want to upset his father, especially as his mother was so ill.
You’ll need to book your ticket in advance, especially if you want to reserve a seat.
The car is quite small, especially if you have children.
14.    Clearly: used for showing that what you are saying is true and that most people will realize this
Both companies clearly like to do things their own way.
Clearly, one of the objectives is to demoralize the enemy troops in any way they can.
Clearly we wouldn’t want to upset anyone
Clearly, this will cost a lot more than we realized.
15.    Absolutely: completely: used for emphasis
Are you absolutely certain you saw him?
Training is absolutely essential in this business.
Don't delay for longer than absolutely necessary.
They have absolutely no idea how this happened.
16.    Definitely: without any doubt
Your dessert is definitely the best one here.
That’s definitely not the man I saw running away.
I definitely remember sending the letter
17.    Without a doubt:  very definitely: used for emphasis
She is without a doubt one of our most talented students.
We still believe we can win this series without a doubt.
18.    Never: used to emphasize a negative statement instead of ‘not’
She’d never do anything to harm you.
Never had anyone seen Suzan so anxious.
He never so much as smiled .
Never had Andrew worked so hard.
Most people have never even heard of Iggy.
I’m never surprised at what I do.
19.    It should be noted: 
It should be noted that there is possibly another option, that is for the company to increase its capacity
It should be noted, however, that the least-developed countries had a limited capacity to contribute
It should be noted that if you have something to note, then note it.
20.    Unquestionably: used for emphasizing how true something is, or for saying that most people believe it
His commitment to the job is unquestionable.
Unquestionably, teaching has been a paramount part of his career.
21.    Positively: used for emphasizing that something is true, especially something surprising or unexpected
His voice changed and became positively angry.
This is positively the worst thing that I can even imagine.
22.    Without any shadow of a doubt: With certainty; for sure.
I only made such a big change in my life because I knew without the shadow of a doubt that it was the right thing for me to do.
They knew without any shadow of doubt what the patches were.

 

CORRECTION
23. Rather: I thought it was a good idea to get a ferret. Rather, it had always been my dream to get one.
24. To be more precise: You might want to change a few things. To be more precise, I think you should start again from scratch.

13.    Linkers used as relative pronoun
Relative pronouns are important connecting words. They are different from conjunctions in some ways.
List of relative pronoun used as linkers: who, which, whom, whose, what, whatever, whichever, that
1.    Who 
I know the boy who came here yesterday. 
The policeman who received an award for excellent service is a friend of mine. 
The professor who is a well-known economist gave a lecture on recession.
2.    Which 
This is the book which-I want. 
Tenzing and Hilary climbed Mount Everest which is 27,000 feet high.
3.    Whom :
The man whom you met yesterday- is my uncle. 
The man whom we met at the theatre is a writer.
4.    Whose 
This is the boy whose pen has been lost. 
Mr. Narayan, whose books are best-sellers, doesn’t like publicity. 
Alice whose best friend is an actor doesn’t watch films.
5.    That 
This is the house that he bought last year. 
The doctor wrote the prescription that the patient asked for.
6.    What 
What you said is not true.
I don’t know what he would like to mean.
7.    Whoever 
Whoever works hard, succeeds in life.
There's a reward for whoever finishes first.
8.    Whatever 
I will give you whatever you want.
We must face tomorrow, whatever it may hold, with determination, joy, and bravery.
9.    Whichever
Whichever of you can give the. answer will be rewarded.
It will be a difficult operation, whichever method you choose.

 

 

14.    Linkers used a relative conjunction
List of relative conjunction:

1.    Or: 
You will come or I will go. 
Give up smoking or I will punish you.
You can have tea or coffee.
You can work hard or you can fail.
2.    Nor: You did not come nor did you phone. 
Nasima does not read nor does she verb
Switzerland is not in the European Union, nor is it a member of NATO.
3.    Both .. and 
I would like both the cake and the cookies for dessert. 
When we go to the beach let's pack both the beach umbrella and the tent.
The game is suitable for both children and adults.
He was both determined to beat the record and to win over the crowd
4.    Either…. Or. Either you will play with me or I will go back. 
Either you clean your room or you do not get to go outside. 
Could you ask either Mrs. Jones or Mr. Louis to come to the office, please? 
Either Lisa or the coach will bring the bag of gear to the game.
5.    Neither…. nor: 
Neither will she dance nor will she sing. 
She will neither dance nor sing. 
The young boy would eat neither the soup nor the vegetables for lunch. 
Neither the president nor the Congress likes the outcome of the investigation.
6.    Not only….. but also: 
Not only do I have a son but also I have two daughters. 
Not only is he a liar but he is also a cheat.
He is not only handsome but also intelligent.
He is not only poor but also unemployed.
He speaks Spanish not only naturally but also fluently.
Mark works not only careless but also hasty.
They visited not only Germany but also Spanish.
She not only dance extraordinary but also sing perfectly.

7.    No sooner had….than : 
No sooner had the thief seen the police than he fled away.
No sooner had I received her call, than I left for her place. 
No sooner had she finished one project, than she started the next. 
No sooner had I eaten the fish, than I started feeling sick. 
No sooner had they completed the work, than they demanded the wages. 
No sooner had I gotten my bags unpacked than I realized that my camera was missing.
No sooner had he graduated, than he was on his way to America.
8.    Hardly/scarcely had when : 
Hardly had he reached the station when the train left.
Hardly had I reached the station when the train came.
Scarcely had I reached the station when the train arrived.
Scarcely had the , teacher entered the classroom when the students stood up.
9.    As soon as :
As soon as the teacher entered the class room, the students stood up.
As soon as I arrived at the station, the train came.
As soon as she finished one project, she started working on the next.

 


15.    Linkers showing reference to
Reference transition words are used to literally make a reference to a continuing idea. 

Linkers showing reference: concerning, speaking about, considering, the fact that and with regards to. You might see a reference transition in a sentence like this one, as for, as to, with regard, to, with respect to as regards, regarding, as far as X is concerned

1.    As for : 
As for the money, don't give it a second thought.
As for me, if I had fifty-three minutes to spend as I liked, I should walk at my leisure toward a spring of fresh water.
I can’t teach that class today, I’m sick. As for the rest of the teachers, they are still on leave.
As for you, you ought to be ashamed of yourself.
As for the hotel, it was very uncomfortable and miles from the sea.
Both Orkun and Ozkan are my friends. Orkun studies law at Ankara University. As for Ozkan, he studies mechanical engineering at METU.
2.    As far as: with regard to (something)- used for saying which person or thing you are talking about
He has no worries as far as money is concerned.
As far as the weather is concerned, we've been having nothing but rain for the past week.
As far as comfort is concerned, a car is definitely much better than a bicycle. 
As far as traffic is concerned there are no delays at the moment.
I make the decisions as far as finance is concerned.
Sony, which is $550, is much more expensive than Grundig, which is $440. However, as far as quality is concerned (With regard to/ As regards quality), the former is far better than the latter.
3.    with respect to - concerning
The two groups are very similar with respect to age.
The Department makes a single carbon offsetting payment in respect of all official travel undertaken by ministers and officials.
With respect to your proposal, we are sorry to say that we cannot agree to it.
With respect to your enquiry, I enclose an explanatory leaflet.
On the other hand, with respect to convenience, it is difficult to say the same thing.
4.    In respects
His work is good in respects of quality but bad in respect of quantity.
METU and ITU are similar in several respects (=ways). First, they are both technical universities. 
5.    As regards: used for introducing a subject that you will be discussing
As regards pollution, old diesel-engined vehicles are the worst offenders.
As regards the method of payment, a decision will be made after the contract has been signed.
As regards the potential energy crisis, why aren’t we putting money into serious alternative sources of energy?
Secondly, they are alike as regards the courses offered.
6.    Speaking about/of : used for introducing something new that you are going to say relating to a subject that someone has just mentioned
Speaking of money, have we paid our credit card bills yet?
Speaking of your mother, we’d better go in so she doesn’t worry.
7.    Considering (this)- used for showing that your opinion about something is affected by a particular fact
They’ve made remarkable progress, considering they only started last week.
Considering the price we paid, it was a very disappointing meal.
Robert played brilliantly, considering how badly injured he was.
I think these results are very satisfactory, considering.
He does very well, considering how old he is.
Considering her lack of experience, it is surprising she has achieved so much.
You managed the project well, considering your inexperience.
8.    Regarding (this): concerning a particular subject
EU regulations regarding the labelling of food
Davis had very little to say regarding the accident.
We’re exploring a variety of options regarding this issue.
9.    The fact that: used after expressions such as ‘due to’ or ‘in view of’ when you are giving some extra information
The increase in divorce may be partly due to the fact that people live longer.
I don’t like early mornings anyway, quite apart from the fact that I hardly slept last night.
There are exceptions, but the fact that information is held in confidence is not as such a sufficient reason for exemption.
10.    With regards to (this): concerning a particular subject
There has been a few changes in the laws with regard to food safety
With regard to the discussion about immigration, I’d like to hear Ms. Masolo’s opinion.
With regard to the bomb, I think we should only deploy it preemptively once we know the enemy intends to bomb us, as well.
The company's position with regard to overtime is made clear in their contracts.
I am writing with regard to your recent order.

 

16.    Linkers to show Concession
A concession transition word is used to acknowledge an opposing view and might be used in the form of the following phrases; at least or at any rate. Transitional words and transitional phrases to accept a point or idea with reservation
1.    Admittedly: used for saying that you admit something is true, especially when this makes your main idea weaker
I’m sure it was her although, admittedly, she was wearing a different coat.
Admittedly, it is rather expensive but you don’t need to use much.
Admittedly, I've never actually been there.
Admittedly, I could have tried harder but I still don't think all this criticism is fair.
Admittedly, Venice wasn't a very big place, but there was little chance of meeting her again accidentally.
2.    All the same: 
My parents treated us all the same when we were kids.
If it's all the same to you, I'll go this weekend.
3.    Up to a point: to some degree but not completely
Self-expression is good up to a point but you can’t just let these kids run wild.
Their plan worked up to a point.
Up to a point, regulation may attract business by offering a more secure environment.
4.    Even so: used for introducing a statement that seems surprising after what you said before
Crashes are rare, but, even so, there should be stricter safety regulations.
It was raining, but even so we had to go out.
I had a terrible headache, but even so I went to the concert.
There are a lot of spelling mistakes; even so, it's quite a good essay.
The new method is not perfect; even so, it's much better than the old one.
Even so, many old friends were shocked at the announcement.
5.    Despite/In spite of: 
In spite of the fact that he is rich, he lives in a small house. 
In spite of the efficiency and usefulness of computers, we should not become too dependent on them.
Despite their usefulness, computers can be dangerous tools when wicked people spread evil messages through them.
6.    Although/Even though: used for introducing a fact that makes the main statement in your sentence very surprising
Even though / Although  you dislike Sanya, you should try to be nice to her. She still loves him, even though he treated her very badly.
Most of us ignore this good advice, even though we know it to be true.
Even though I have a master’s degree in business administration, I can’t fill out my tax form.
Although/ Even though he is rich, he lives in a small house.
7.    Even if: 
He is poor and has no house, but even if he had money, he wouldn’t buy a house.
He’s determined to prove his innocence, even if he has to go to the highest court in the land.
8.    However: 
She has the window open, however cold it is outside.
She doesn’t like him. However, she helps him if he needs it.
The government invests a lot of money on tourism. However, not many tourists visit our town.
I tried to lift the box. However, it was too heavy for me
9.    Though/ Although
Although it was cold, we went to Ifrane. 
Although he is poor in English, he does not work hard. Although the school is far away, Zahra attends all afternoon classes. 
Although he is rich, Adil does not help the poor. 
Although international organizations work hard, they can’t solve all the problems. 
Although globalization has a positive impact on 
Though the school is very far from her village, Fatima insists on attending all her lessons.Though / Although I liked the sweater, I decided not to buy it.
I liked the sweater. I decided not to buy it, though . Hamid was not offered a better position though he did a great job. Although computers are extremely useful tools, we should not be too dependent on them.
10.    Nevertheless: despite a fact or idea that you have just mentioned.
It’s a difficult race. Nevertheless, about 1,000 runners participate every year.
Alexander II was an obscure but nevertheless interesting Scottish king.
Brain drain has terrible consequences on the developing countries. 
Nevertheless, nothing has been done to solve the problem or at least reduce its negative effects. Nevertheless, we should not become too dependent on them.
11.    Nonetheless -  despite what has just been said.
You need a torch for emergencies, but candles are, nonetheless, very handy to have during power cuts.
This is a global phenomenon that has nonetheless very different expressions across regions and development levels.
He is very rich; nonetheless he is miserly. 
12.    Still- used for saying that something remains true despite what you have just said or done
We knew we wouldn’t win the game, but it was still exciting!
This is a short novel, but it is still too long.
I hadn’t seen him for 25 years. Still, I recognized him immediately when I saw him.
The weather was awful all week. Still, we had a nice rest.
13.    Yet : used for introducing a word or idea that is surprising after what has just been mentioned
They had plenty of time, yet she felt there was almost none.
The novel is 800 pages long, yet it reads more quickly than many shorter books.
He looks cheerful yet somehow sad at the same time.
The sun was shining and there was no wind, yet it was cold. Computers are useful tools, yet we must not become too dependent on them.

14.    Apart from: except for someone or something
I hardly know anyone in the village apart from William and you.
Apart from my host, I didn't know a single person there.
Apart from criminal investigation techniques, students learn forensic medicine, philosophy and logic.
Apart from the piano, he plays all musical instruments. (= He plays all musical instruments except the piano.)
15.    Except for : we  use except for to introduce the only thing or person that prevents a statement from being completely true.
He hadn't eaten a thing except for one forkful of salad. 
Everyone was late, except for Richard.
Except for James, they all seemed quite interested in the offer.
. The benches were empty except for a single solitary figure.
She ruled for ten years, except for a brief interval.
Except for smoking and drinking, he is a thrifty man.
16.    After all- used for saying that something is true despite what was said or planned before
Maybe she was right after all.
I’m sorry, but we’ve decided not to come after all.
The world is but a little place, after all

 

 


17.    Linkers for generalization

A generalization transition word can be used to give an example of an idea relating to the subject. 

List of generalization linkers:  on the whole: in general; in all / most / many / some cases; broadly speaking; by and large; to a great extent; to some extent; apart from; As a rule, For the most part, In general/ Generally, On the whole, Overall, In most cases

1.    In general/Generally- as a whole, without giving details
In general, Japanese cars are very reliable and breakdowns are rare
In general, the standard of your work is very high. 
In general, all children can be difficult.
In general, incumbents have a 94 per cent chance of being re-elected.
In general, a plain carpet makes a room look bigger.
2.    On the whole - is used to sum up your opinion of something which is good and bad in parts.
The photography of the film wasn’t all that good, but the plot was exciting. On the whole, I enjoyed it. 
I have had my ups and downs. But, on the whole, life has been good to me. 
On the whole, I think it is a good idea but I would still like to study it further.
My opinion is on the whole the same as yours.
On the whole, I'm happy with the way I look.
3.    Broadly/generally speaking- used for saying that something is true in the most important ways. To a great extent and to a certain extent mean ‘partly’.
Broadly speaking, we agree about most things.
Broadly speaking, strong winds raise the water level in the direction towards which the wind blows.
Generally speaking, it’s quite a good school.
Broadly speaking, workers obtained certain rights and material benefits.
Broadly speaking, nurses are an overworked lot. 
4.    To a great/large extent- mainly
The complaints were to a large extent valid.
To a great extent, the increase of macro-economics depends on the condition of consumption requirement.
To a great extent a person’s upbringing has a greater bearing on his character than his education. 
To a certain extent, a person’s fate is determined by his actions.
5.    In most cases, people will be nice to you if you are nice to them.
In most cases, both parents were still alive and still married to each other.
In most cases such patients have past histories of hy -pertension.
These will in most cases make it easier for tax exiles to acquire a foreign domicile.
6.    As a general rule- 
As a general rule vegetable oils are better for you than animal fats.
As a general rule, prices follow demands; if there is no demand, prices are low.
As a general rule of thumb, children this age should not spend more than one hour on homework.
As a general rule vegetable oils are better for you than animal fats.
7.    For the most part
For the most part, the land was covered with grass.
For the most part, he either lies on his bed or paces back and forth in his room.
For the most part, there are two types of lyric generators.
8.    Overall
Overall, the tone of the book is satirical/the book is satirical in tone.
Overall, this is a very useful book.
And so, overall, few new jobs would be created.
Overall, it's been a good year.
9.    In most cases
In most cases they escape the attention of the wider public.
In most cases, both parents were still alive and still married to each other.
In most cases such patients have past histories of hy -pertension.
10.    As a rule- used for saying what usually happens
As a rule, I stay in on Friday nights.

18.    Linkers indicating summary
Restatement transition words are used to summarise an idea or restate something that has already been said. 

List of linkers indicating summary: In short In brief ,In summary As was previously stated, so,consequently, in summary, all in all, to make a long story short,    thus,    as I have said,    to sum up, overall, as has been mentioned, then, to summarize, to be brief, briefly,    in all,    on the whole, therefore,  as has been noted, hence, in a word, to put it briefly, in sum, altogether, in short, To summarise , In a nutshell

1.    In summary- used at the end of a talk or piece of writing for introducing a short statement that gives only basic information or opinions
In summary, nobody knows where the disease originated.
In summary, this was a disappointing performance.
In summary, all government departments are administered rather differently.
In summary, it may not be the best idea to frequent the same pubs as your boss.
In summary, all government departments are administered rather differently.
In summary, it is my opinion that this complete treatment process was very successful.
In summary, his views are out of date.
In summary, if we want to save the environment, we must act quickly.
In summary, Goldilocks was a very messy and very picky little girl.
2.    Finally- We use finally in speech or writing to introduce a final point, question, or topic.
And finally, a word about the winner and runner-up.
Finally he returned to the official line from which he had swerved.
And finally, I would like to thank you all for coming here today.
We finally traced him to an address in Chicago.
Finally, the tortoise crossed the finish line to prove that “slow and steady” really does win the race.
3.    All things considered- used for saying that you have thought carefully about all aspects of something before expressing an opinion about it
Tricia played quite well, all things considered.
All things considered , being locked in a castle with talking dishes and furniture may have been the best thing that ever happened to Belle.
All things considered , I'm sure we made the right decision.
All things considered, we had surprisingly few injuries.
All things considered , she's done very well.
4.    Ultimately- used for emphasizing the main point that you are talking about
What worries them, ultimately, is the cost of the scheme.
All life depends ultimately on oxygen.
Ultimately, however, films come down to their stories and characters.
Ultimately the only person who can decide if his adventure up the bean stalk was worth it is Jack himself.
5.    in the final/last analysis
In the final analysis, the third little pig was very generous when he allowed his lazy brothers to hide in his house made of bricks.
used for giving the facts that are most relevant in a situation
In the final analysis, it is up to the students to decide.
In the final analysis, it is the drug companies that are going to profit from this policy.
All real education is, in the final analysis, self-education.
In the final analysis I think our sympathy lies with the heroine of the play.
In the final analysis, humour is a matter of individual interpretation.
6.    In short/brief:  used for introducing a summary of something that you have just said
Inflation is down, spending is up. In short, the economy is in good shape.
In short, the style concerns not what a writer says but how he says.
In short, we must be prepared.
Try tennis, badminton or windsurfing. In short, anything challenging. 
His novels belong to a great but vanished age. 
They are, in short, old-fashioned.
In short, if we want to save the environment, we must act quickly.
The plan is to change the radio station’s style: in brief, less talk and more music.
In brief, the meeting was a disaster.
In brief, the President plans to cut defense spending and lower taxes.
In brief, I have made up my mind to quit the job.
Meeting my boss at the pub was an interesting experience. In brief, it was a disaster.
7.    To summarise- 
To summarise, this is a clever approach to a common problem.
To summarise the above website, although other environments are supported, the most tested/recommended.
To summarize, the organic compounds found in cells are built up and broken down by enzymes.
8.    Altogether
Altogether, our achievements are very great.
9.    In short: Try tennis, badminton or windsurfing. In short, anything challenging.
10.    To sum up: 
Well, to sum up, what is the message that you are trying to get across?
To sum up, there are three main ways of tackling the problem.
To sum up, some people are better suited to working from home than others.
To sum up, there are three main ways of tackling the problem…
11.    Briefly: used when you are about to say something without many details
Briefly, there are three principal challenges.
Briefly, the hunter and his quarry glared at each other.
There is, to put it briefly, a plethora of offerings to which the term theory has been applied in sociology.
12.    In a nutshell-  used for saying that you are going to express something in a simple direct way
To put it in a nutshell, we lost the case.
13.    in a word- In short; in summary
In a word, the situation is serious.
In a word, the whole plan fell through.

 

19.    Linker to introduce conclusion

Conclusion transition words are used to conclude the ideas that have been previously mentioned. 
List of linkers used to introduce conclusion: in short, in essence, all things considered, in brief and altogether. generally speaking in the final analysis all things considered as shown above in the long run given these points as has been noted in a word for the most part after all in fact in summary in conclusion in short ,in brief in essence to summarize on balance altogether overall ordinarily usually by and large to sum up on the whole
in any event in either case all in all definitely ultimately


1.    In conclusion: used in writing or formal speech for showing that the next thing you say will be the last thing you say
In conclusion, I would like to thank everyone who helped to make this event possible.
In conclusion, if we want to save the environment, we must act quickly.
In conclusion, I would like to say how much I have enjoyed myself today.
In conclusion, it may be said that pigs make the best pets. In conclusion, walking is a cheap, safe, enjoyable and readily available form of exercise.
In conclusion, walking is a cheap, safe, enjoyable and readily available form of exercise.
2.    To conclude: 
To conclude, if we want to save the environment, we must act quickly.
To conclude, I’d like to express my thanks to my family.
3.    all in all- used for showing that you are considering every aspect of something
All in all, I think it has been a very successful conference.
All in all, I love the summer very much! You should start practising your English from now on. All in all, you have to make sure both you and your customers are satisfied with your work.
4.    all things considered- She took it very well, all things considered.
5.    Altogether- used for emphasizing that what you are saying is true in every way
She looked altogether charming in her white dress.
Altogether, our achievements are very great.
The food was good and we loved the music. Altogether it was a great evening.
6.    By and large- used for referring to something in a very general way
By and large I think the emphasis should be on recruiting the right people.
By and large, I enjoyed my time at school.
By and large the Poles and Germans of the city had shown that they could rub along together.
By and large, these people are peace-loving, law-abiding citizens.
By and large, I enjoyed my time at school.
7.    Eventually-in the end, especially after a long time or a lot of effort, problems, etc.:
at the end of a process or period of time in which many things happen.
He eventually escaped and made his way back to England.
Eventually, she got a job and moved to London.
Eventually your child will leave home to lead her own life as a fully independent adult.
Dad was eventually diagnosed as suffering from a chronic heart condition.
We’re hoping, eventually, to create 500 new jobs.
8.    given these points
Given these points, it’s clearly time to consider some changes. In the long run, these recommendations will benefit our company.
9.    in essence- used for emphasizing what is the most important feature of something
What she is saying, in essence, is that the law does not protect against this type of abuse.
In essence, all computers are the same.
10.    In the final analysis- used for giving the facts that are most relevant in a situation
In the final analysis, it is up to the students to decide.
In the final analysis, the only people who will benefit are property owners.
11.    Obviously- used for emphasizing that you know people already know or understand what you are talking about
Obviously I’ll have to think about your offer carefully.
Well, obviously, we want you to be happy, darling.
Obviously, television has both advantages and disadvantages.
12.    on balance- after considering all the relevant facts
On balance, I think we made the right decision.
On balance, the company has had a successful year.
13.    on the whole- used for talking about the general situation
It was a pretty good conference on the whole.
  On the whole, she felt that the report was fair.
On the whole, I’m happy with the way I look.

 

 

20.    Other linking words

1.    At the same time: It is used for two things which happen together.This is so people can watch TV and play playstation games at the same time.I study architecture at university. At the same time, I work part-time at a firm.
2.    after all: considering all the factors in the situation
I don’t think he should be punished for breaking the window. After all, he’s only five years old.
3.    incidentally/by the way (used to introduce an additional point that the speaker has just thought of)
Some people, and incidentally that includes Robert, just won’t look after themselves properly.
4.    all the same: even so, nevertheless, in any case,
I like him; all the same, I don’t trust him
5.     anyway, anyhow, in any case
I wasn’t asked; anyway/anyhow/in any case, I wasn’t keen to go.
I couldn’t get my head around the Passive Voice. Anyway, I don’t think it’s important to use it all the time.
Anyhow, I’ve just decided to learn Russian next.
At any rate, I don’t want to become a simultaneous interpreter in five languages.

 

                      Linking Words Worksheet-1.1

Fill in the blanks with appropriate linking words

1.      The girl will come.................... she is allowed to do so.

2.      I wish to know.......................... he will come or not.

3.      He will do this ..........................  he is stopped by you.

4.      You may go out........................ the rain has stopped.

5.      The mice will play ...................  the cat is away.

6.      She went to bed early............... she felt very tired.

7.      He closed his house.................. his friends had gone.

8.      I will trust you.......................... you sign your name.

9.      He will not escape death ......... rich he may be.

10.   He left the house....................... the rain stopped.

11.   He could not pass .....................  he tried his best.

12.   He gave me the word................ he would help me.

13.   Work hard................................. you may succeed.

14.   Life is full of tears.................... none wishes to die.

15.   He is rich ..................................  his brother is poor.

16.   Shut the door............................. the child may not go out.

17.   Try heart and soul .................... you will fail.

18.   Hurry up.................................... you will miss the train.

19.   I like him................................... he is truthful.

20.   The man kept silent .................  he knew nothing.

21.   ..........  it was late, Neela didn't seem in a hurry to leave.

22.   They put video cameras in shops ............ stop people stealing things.

23.   We decided not to go out fora meal............... we were too tired.

24.   ..................  you're ready, we can start now.

25.   Our room was very small, ................ we didn't really mind.

26.   No one was watching the television, ..............  I switched it off.

27.   You can't drive a car...................... you've got a licence.

28.   Olivia booked a taxi cab ............... she could go out for the evening.

29.   ..........  having absolutely no talent, Zaman became a popular TV personality.

30.   Take a sandwich with you................... you are hungry.

LINKING WORDS/LIKERS Worksheet- 2.1

 

Complete the following sentences by supplying appropriate connecting words:-

 

1. Small service is true service --- it lasts.

2. It is a great loss to a man --- he cannot laugh.

3. We there met boy --- had lost his way.

4. It is the common doom of man --- he must eat his bread by the sweat of his brow.

5. Fit words are better --- fine ones.

6. He makes no friend, --- never made a foe.

7. The moment --- is lost is lost forever.

8. Forgive us our debts --- we forgive our debtors.

9. The man --- stands by me in trouble I won't bid him go till the sun shines again.

10. Money ---- is easily earned is soon spent.

11. --- somewhat pompous, he was an entertaining companion.

12. --- Poetry takes me up so entirely --- I scarce see what passes under my nose.

13. He --- fights and runs away, lives to fight another day.

14. Never refuse to entertain a man in your heart --- all the world is talking against him.

15. --- you would be healthy, be good.

16. --- I am dead, my dearest, sing no sad songs for me.

17. A man has no more right to say an uncivil thing --- to act one.

18. --- the blind lead the blind, both shall fall into the ditch.

19. --- this be madness --- there is method in it.

20. Consider the lilies --- they grow.

21. --- he has a car, he often goes to the office on foot.

22. --- we approached the house, we heard the sound of music.

23. I have not been well --- I returned from Delhi.

24. These are the books --- I ordered last week.

25. They live --- their fathers lived before them.

26. No one can tell --- this will end.

27. he had gone I remembered --- he was.

28. A man --- loses his temper continually is a nuisance.

29. Youth is the time --- the seeds of character are sown.

30. The house --- he was born lies in ruins.

31. --- my mother died I was very young.

32. Do not halloo --- you are out of the wood.

33. I shall see you tomorrow, --- we will talk the matter over.

34. They always talk never think.

35. I did not recognize him --- he told me --- he was.

36. They serve God well --- serve His creatures.

37. I have a little shadow --- goes in and out with me.

38. I met a boy --- told me --- I could find you.

39. We learn, --- we may be able to make our way in the world.

40. --- he was not there, I spoke to his brother.

41. A vessel that once gets a crack, --- it may be cunningly mended, will never stand such rough usage --- a whole one.

42. --- it journeys through space, the earth is not alone; spinning round with it is the moon.

43. Other planets have moons --- ours is very large compared to the earth.

44. I resolved --- I would say nothing --- I knew the worst.

45. --- he was born, --- brought him up, and --- he lived, we are not told.

46. Nothing can describe the confusion of thought --- I felt --- I sank into the water.

47. --- he was a strict disciplinarian he was loved by all --- I served under him.

48. One great reason --- we are insensible to the goodness of the Creator is the fact --- his bounty is so extensive.

49. Passengers are warned --- it is dangerous to lean out of the window --- the train is in motion.

                   Linkers/Connectors Worksheet-4.0

SSC Examination -2020 all board question


1.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Dhaka Board-2020;Jashore Board- 2015]
The rapid growth of the population must be controlled. (a)–all sorts of attempts to solve the food problem will fail. (b)–we have to increase our food production very rapidly. We may mostly solve our food problem by changing our traditional food habit. (c)–we can take potato instead of rice. (d)–it is high time we changed our eating habit. (e) –knowledge of the nutritive value of food can help solve our food problem.


2.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors: [Rajshahi Board-2020]
The greatness of a book depends (a) — on the acceptability among the readers. If we read a book only once, we can discover many things in it. (b)--- basing on one reading, we cannot judge the standard of a book. (c)--- a book is praised highly, we have no doubt about the greatness of the book. (d) — the first reading we may not understand a book. (e)---if it is read more than once, we can understand the greatness of the book easily.

 

3.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Cumilla Board-2020]
None can deny the importance of tree plantation (a) — our lives on earth, directly and indirectly, depend on it. (b) — it is a matter of sorrow that we are cutting down trees indiscriminately. (c) — trees are planted, soon our country will turn into a desert. (d) — there will be an adverse change in the climate. (e) — we should plant more and more trees for our own sake.

4.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Jashore Board-2020]
Teaching is such a profession (a) ---helps to build a nation. A teacher is (b) --- a guide (c) ---a pioneer. He has to dedicate to this noble profession in order to guide the nation. (d) ---, he is called an architect of a new society. (e) --he neglects his duties, social discipline will break down.

5.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Barisal Board-2020]
Truthfulness is the greatest of all virtues (a) ---makes a person really great. (b) ---we cultivate the habit of speaking the truth, we cannot command the confidence of others. The man (c) ---nobody believes can never be famous in life. It may be (d) ---we may succeed once or twice by telling lies, (e) ---It never brings about good result. A lie never lies hidden. Today or tomorrow it comes to light. 

6.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Chittagong Board-2020]
Bangladesh is a small country (a) ---it has a large population. A great number of people are poor (b) ---illiterate. (c) ---we want to develop the country, we must control the rapid growth of population. (d) ---we have to face a great problem. But it is a matter of joy (e) ---our government Is taking initiative to solve the problem.

 


7.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Sylhet Board-2020;Dinajpur Board 2015]
Summer noon is very painful and disgusting. (a) ---the sun shines hotly over head, life becomes miserable. The sufferings of the people know no bounds (b) ---the electricity goes off. (c) ---the people use hand fans to fan themselves. Children can neither sleep (d) ---read. They feel out of sorts. (e) ---the poor suffer most. They work outside in the burning sun.


8.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Dinajpur Board 2020]
Honesty is the best way of leading life through (a)--- one can get mental peace. It is a great rational virtue (b)--- leads a man to the way of humanity. Life of a man is not very peaceful (c)--- honesty can open a door of peace before him. An honest man is more respected (d)--- other men. (e)--- We shall never be dishonest in our life.

 

9.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Mymensingh Board 2020]
Women are, nowadays as important as men in the society. They constitute nearly half of our total population. (a) ---there can be no denying the fact (b) ---they too possess equal rights and duties (c) -- men do. They have noble mission to fulfil as men. (d) ---they get opportunity their genius, powers (e) ---will bloom fully.


SSC Examination -2019 all board question


10.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Dhaka Board-2019]
A school magazine is a magazine (a) ---is published by the school authority annually. It contains poems, articles, essays and jokes. The publication of it is not an easy task (b) ---it needs time, energy and money. (c) ---a magazine committee is formed from the teachers and the students. The editor (d) ---is selected or elected by the committee members invites writings. (e) ---good writings are selected for printing. 


11.     Complete the passage using suitable connectors: [Rajshahi Board-2019]
The whole world has turned into a global village (a) ---- the improvement of information technology. Now we can know (b) ---- is happening on the other corner of the world sitting at home. One culture is coming in touch with another. The poor culture is receiving quickly the elements (c) ---- are in rich culture. (d) ---- technology transforms culture and develops it. (e) ---- we have to prevent the infiltration of bad culture of another society to our own culture.


12.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Cumilla Board-2019;Jashore Board-2019]
Morning walk is a good habit for all classes of people. (a) ---- it is a simple exercise, it is good for health both physically (b) ---- mentally. (c) ---- the morning air is fresh and free from any kind of noise and pollution, it keeps us sound and healthy. Morning walk costs nothing (d) ---- gives more. (e) ---- we should make the habit of morning walk.


13.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Sylhet Board-2019]
Honesty is a divine virtue. The man (a) ---possesses this quality is the happiest person in the world. To be honest, man should have trustworthiness (b) ---nobody trusts a liar. (c) ---. Allah helps the honest people. (d) ---children should be taught honesty from the very beginning of life. (e) ---they should be taught discipline.


14.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Barisal Board-2017]
Climate change means the changes in climate. (a)---, climate on earth is constantly changing. (b)--- climate change, the weather pattern in any specific region on earth (c)--- across the whole earth is changing. Human activities are greatly responsible for it. We are cutting down trees for habitation and agricultural purpose. (d)---, use of chemicals in industries causes serious harm to the ozone layer. (e)---, there is a rapid increase in temperature causing greenhouse effect.


15.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Chittagong Board-2019]
Many schools have a uniform (a)--- there are arguments for and against. One argument is what to put on. (b)--- pupils were allowed to wear clothes according to their own choice. (c)--- some clothes may not be suitable for schools. (d)--- some of the students cannot afford to buy it. (e)---wearing a school dress is not mandatory in every school.


16.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Dinajpur Board-2019]
People usually want to have their own way. They want to think and act (a)--- they like. (b)--- one cannot have one' s own way all the time. A person cannot live in an environment without considering the interest of others (c)--- his own interest. People in society may take their own decision. (d)--- these decisions ought not to be unjust (e)--- harmful to others.

 

SSC Examination -2018 all board question


17.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [All Board 2018]
a)--- taking food we should bear in mind b)---we do not eat just to satisfy hunger or to feel the belly. We eat c)--- we can preserve our health. some people living in the midst of plenty, do not eat the food they need for a good health d)--- they have no knowledge of the science of health and nutrition. e)---, they suffer from various diseases.

 

SSC Examination 2017 all board question 


18.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors: [Dhaka Board-2017]
We know that trees are essential for all kinds of creatures. They give us not only food (a)--- oxygen. They protect us from natural calamities. (b)--- they are called the saviour of our environment. (c)--- many people are not aware of this. They cut down trees randomly. (d)---, forest lands are shrinking. (e)--- people go on cutting down trees, one day there will be no trees left for us.

 

19.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors: [Rajshahi Board-2017]
Ripa is a student of class ten. (a)--- she is meritorious, she never takes pride in her merit. She is helpful to all. (b)--- any week student comes to her with any problem, she tries to help him. She is respectful to the senior (c)--- affectionate to the junior him. She is simple in behaviour (d)--- strict in principle. (e)---, everyone loves her.

 

20.     Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Cumilla Board-2017]
21 February is a red-letter day in our national history. It is our pride a)--- no nation of the world has ever fought for its language some countries the way we fought. So, it has been now declared as the International Mother Language Day. The proposal has been passed unanimously in the General Assembly of the UNESCO b)--- pointed out c)--- the incident of 21 is related to the Bangalees only. d)----the recognition of the day, e)---the International Mother Language Day by UNESCO has upheld the prestige of Bangalees all over the world.

 

21.    Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Jashore Board- 2017]
Trees are very important (a)--- they produce Oxygen (b)--- is must for man and all living beings. We must realize (c)--- they help us in many ways. (d)---trees are less in number, there will be an increased amount of carbon-di-oxide in the atmosphere (e)--- it will enhance the Greenhouse effect.

 


22. Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Sylhet Board-2017]
None can deny the importance of tree plantation (a)--- our lives on earth directly or indirectly depend on it. (b)--- it is a matter of sorrow that we are cutting down trees indiscriminately. (c)--- trees are planted, soon our country will turn into a desert (d)--- there will be an adverse change in the climate. (e)--- we should plant more and more trees for our own sake.

 


23.  Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Barisal Board-2017]
Rural life and urban life have many common sides. a)--- differences between them are greater. Rural people do not have adequate educational and medical facilities. b)---, they face the problem with their communication network. c)--- the urban people enjoy a lot of educational and medical facilities. d)--- the people of cities and towns enjoy a smooth and easy communication system. e)--- there is a rush of people to come to cities from villages every year.

 


24.  Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Chittagong Board-2017]
Global warming is increasing day by day (a)--- deforestation. We cut down trees (b)--- never think of planting more trees. (c)---- human and other living beings are in the threat of extinction. Time is coming (d) there will be no tree left for us. (e)--- have to face the bitter consequences of deforestation.

 

25.  Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Dinajpur Board-2017]
Globalization is a term (a)--- is commonly used by man (b)--- it is a process of expanding trade and commerce all over the world creating global development, we have conquered we can learn what is happening in the borderless market. (c)--- global development, we have conquered the time (d)--- distance. (e)---, we can learn what is happening in the farthest corner of the world.

 


SSC Examination -2016 all board question


26.  Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Dhaka Board-2016]
Gold is a bright precious metal. There are many metals cheaper (a) ---gold but look like it. They glitter well (b) ---fade in course of time. Actually there are many people in our society (c) ---are outwardly gentle and nice. But (d) ---a period of time, their real identity is revealed. (e) ---, all that glitters is not gold.

 


27.  Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Rajshahi Board-2016]

Honesty is a divine virtue. The man (a) ---possesses this quality is the happiest person in the world. To be honest, man should have trustworthiness (b) ---nobody trusts a liar. (c) ---. Allah helps the honest people. (d) ---children should be taught honesty from the very beginning of life. (e) ---they should be taught discipline.

 

28.  Complete the passage with suitable connectors. [Cumilla Board-2016]
Student life is the best time in life (a)--- almost every student is free from cares (b)--- anxieties of life. He has nothing to do (c)--- study. (d)--- a student, he should read novels, magazines, newspapers (e)---textbooks.

 

29.  Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Jashore Board- 2016]
(a) ---Population problem is one of the greatest problems in our country. (b) ---Bangladesh is a small country, it has a huge population. The government finds it difficult to provide basic necessities. (c) ---it has become a great concern to all. (d) ---solving this problem some necessary steps should be taken. In this regard, general people should help the government. (e) ---the population growth is controlled, people will lead a happy life.

 

30. Complete the passage using suitable connectors: [Chittagong Board-2016]
Every citizen has some duties and responsibilities for his nation. (a)--- most of the people are careless in this respect. People of this country have achieved national identity at the cost of a great sacrifice (b)--- is still evaluated nationally. (c)--- some selfish people never want to give them recognition. d)--- we all should do some benevolent activities. e)--- we will be guilty to the nation.

 

 

31. Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Sylhet Board-2016]
a)---I were a rich man I would help others. People living under the poverty line have the hope of better days b)--- they do not get c)--- they dream of. d)--- their condition is getting from bad to worse. The only thing e)--- they need is nothing but education.

 


32. Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Barisal Board-2016]
A hare is a very speedy animal. (a) ---, a tortoise moves very slowly. (b) ---, it has a heavy shell on its back. (c) ---, its legs are short. (d) ---, it cannot move as fast as other animals. One morning a hare laughed at a tortoise for its slow motion. The hare asked the tortoise to run a race. (e) ---‘the tortoise felt hurt, It agreed to the proposal of the hare.

 

33.  Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Dinajpur Board 2016]
An idle man does not do his work in right time. He puts off work of today for tomorrow. A student (a) ---neglects his daily lessons is sure to fail. A young man who idles away his time becomes a burden to the family (b) ---the society. His brain becomes the workshop of devils. It is said (c) ---the devil tempts the busy man (d) ---the idle man tempts the devil. (e) ---everyone should make the best use of time.


SSC Examination -2015 all board question


34. Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Dhaka Board-2015]
The foods that we eat can be divided into six kinds (a)--- what substances they contain and (b)--- benefits they do to us. Fish, meat,, peas and milk provide us with protein (c)--- builds our body and helps us grow. (d)--- we do not take all these, we cannot grow well. Vitamins and mineral salts protect us from diseases (e)--- keep us fit for work.

 


35. Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Rajshahi Board-2015]
(a) ---, there are some differences between practical knowledge and bookish knowledge. (b) ---often they are thought to be the same. (c) ---a man is educated in the truest sense, he will be able to lead a life completely different from others. (d) --he can distinguish between right and wrong. (e)---Education is very important.

 

36. Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Cumilla Board-2015]
Once upon a time, there lived a fox (a) ---was very clever. He lived in a jungle in a very hot country (b) ---Bangladesh. One day, (c) ---Mr Fox was walking through the jungle, he fell into a trap. After trying very hard he could get out of the trap (d) ---lost his tail. Without his tail, Mr Fox looked very strange (e) ---he felt very sad and ashamed.

 

37. Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Sylhet Board- 2015]
It is known to all that gold is a valuable metal. (a) ---, there are many metals cheaper than gold though they look like it. (b)--- they glitter for sometime, they fade away in the long run. In our society there are also many people (c)--- are outwardly very gentle and polished. Later on, their real identity is revealed (d)---they do not exercise moral values. That's why, people say, "All (e)---glitters is not gold" 

 


38. Complete the passage with suitable connectors. [Chittagong Board-2015]
Women are, nowadays as important as men in society. They constitute nearly half of our total population. a)--- there can be no denying the fact b)--- they too possess equal rights and duties c)--- men do. They have a noble mission to fulfil as men. d)--- they get the opportunity, their genius, powers e)--- capacities will bloom fully.

 


39. Complete the passage using suitable connectors. [Barisal Board-2015]
A healthy man can do any work. (a) ---he can eat any food he likes. (b) ---, he can enjoy life in every way. (c) ---an unhealthy man is unhappy, for he cannot eat and do what he likes. (d) ---he lives and dies poor. He may have intelligence, merit, learning and power, but he cannot put them to use and reap their benefits. (e) ---health is the source of all happiness in life.

 


 

                                       SENTENCE CONNECTOR/ LINKERS 5.1

1.    Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


There are a good number of reasons why the students in Bangladesh fail in English. (a) — English is a foreign language. (b) — the students do not have the right approach to English. (c) —    very few of them are earnest in
learning English. (d) —, the students seek to cross the barriers of examinations, (e) —, learning English is unpleasant to most of them. (f) — Teaching a foreign language becomes very difficult when the learners are not keen on the subject. (g) —, a teacher of English can hardly find out a technique suitable to all. (h) —, they fail to motivate the learns that they must master the four skills of language. (i)—, textbooks for different classes are not suited to the stages and the standard of the learners. (j) — the form of the questions in the public examination induces cramming rather then learning the language.

2.    Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


In Bangladesh, the retirement age for govt. employees is 57 years. (a) — In the United States, the retirement age is 65 years. (b) — this does not mean that after this age people suddenly become useless and unfit for work. (c) — these people are an asset to society with knowledge and experience, they need to feel useful. (d) —, in the developed countries, social security is provided by the government in the form of post retirement and old age benefits. (e) —, these people get free medical facilities, (f) — in Bangladesh, government in the form of post retirement and old age facilities. (g) —, the majority of our female populations who are mainly housewives are not eligible for any pension or gratuity. (h) — The National Bureau of Bangladesh are aged people. (i) — Their physical health has started deteriorating — the government still does not have any system to meet their health and economic needs. (j) —, we ourselves must ensure that the elderly among us are respected and cared for.

3.Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


(a) — the creation of living beings in the earth, man has a close relation with nature. (b) — man has established friendship with Nature. (c) —. Nature helps man in many ways. Among the elements of Nature, trees play an important role in human life and economy. (d) —, they are a great source of food, vitamins and money, (e) — they provide us with oxygen without which we can not survive. (1) —, trees keep the soil tight and save people from flood and other natural calamities. (g)    they keep balance of Nature, add beauty of Nature and provide habitation to many birds and beasts, (h) —, it prevents river erosion. (i) — dishonest people are cutting down trees randomly and indiscriminately leading the country to a desert. (j) — it is high time we all should come together to resist these inhuman beings for the safety and protection of our country.

4. Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


The aim of education is make a man fully equipped to be useful to him and to the society. (a) —, it is to develop the whole man; his body, mind and soul. (b) — it aims at providing a child with opportunities to bring out all 
the latent talents that it possesses. (c) —  he should be thoughtful, kind, creative, respectful, sympathetic and cooperative etc. (d) —  by cultivating these virtues, a human being becomes the most dignified creation of God. (e) —.7 our love and sympathy or such other human feelings must be aroused at the distress and suffering of a ag fellow human being, (f) - we should not believe that we have been properly educated. (g) - a person material-development alone is also not fully educated. (h) - a good education should aim at developing not only the body and the mind but also the soul,. (i) -, strictly speaking, education is not confined to schools, colleges and universities only, (j) — education a life-long process.

5. Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


Bangladesh is a land of rivers. (a) - at is crisscrossed by hundreds of big and small rivers. It is a delta. (b) —  hundreds of rivers with their branches and tributaries have zigzagged through the land. (c) - life and living of our people are inseparably related with these rivers. (d) - our rivers abound with fishes. (e) -, we can see fishermen's villages along the banks of rivers. (f)    our national fish the Hilsha' is found in plenty in the Padma and the Meghna. (g) - our rivers are also a good source of communication. (h) - large steamers and launches ply in the rivers. (i) - passengers making journey by these transports can enjoy the exquisite natural beauty of our country. (j) - in the rainy season, the rivers are in spate and overflow their banks.

6. Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


Newspaper plays a unique role portraying the social, economic, cultural and political situations of the whole world. , (a) - it is called the mirror of the world. (b) - by reading newspapers, the people of a country can know the details of different countries of the world. (c) - newspaper is called the store house of knowledge, Many of us are very fond of reading newspapers. (d) - we cannot think of a single day it out having a newspaper with a cup of hot tea. (e) - it is too much favorite an item for us. (f) - there are various types of news in it, (g) — the readers are inclined to satisfy their own choice. There are the writings of the remarkable writers in it, (h) - it beards family information, tragic and so on, (i) —  it has also some demerits. (j) —  it is not an unmixed blessing.

 


7. Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


Traffic jam is a common picture in cities and towns of Bangladesh. (a) - it has a negative impact on our life and economy. There are several causes behind traffic jam. (b) - many drivers are not aware of the rules and regulations of driving. (c) - many others are not willing to abide by traffic rules. (d) - most of the roads are narrow for various vehicles playing on the same road. (e) - it slows down the movement of vehicles, (f) - sometimes cause traffic jam. (g) - our cities and towns do not have sufficient roads. The consequences of traffic jam are very serious and manifold. (h) - office going people fail to reach their working places in time causing the loss of office time and hampering office work, (i) - students cannot attend their classes and thus it hampers their academic progress. (j) - ambulances carrying critical patients cannot reach the hospitals and clinic in time.

 


8.Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


Unemployment means the state of not having a job to earn one's livelihood. (a) — it is a curse and it has become acute in our country. In Bangladesh there are different reasons for unemployment problem. (b) — Bangladesh is an over populated country. (c) — our education is not capable of making skilled people. (d) there is a great difference between our education and professional proficiency. (e) — the mills and factories cannot provide employment for our large population. (g) — people of our country hanker after dignified jobs, (h) — some people just want to become officers. (i) — some people dislike laborious job and so they remain unemployed. (j) — that the government should take pragmatic steps in order utilise our human resource for our own improvement.

9.Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


Inhaling the smoke of burnt tobacco is called smoking and it has numerous bad effects on human body. (a) —  cigarette contains nicotine which prevents the free flow of blood. (b) — it contains huge quantity of arsenic monoxide and other particles which reduce the supply of oxygen in human body, (c) — smoking causes respiratory problems leading to bronchitis and asthma, (d) —, a smoker suffers from hypertension, digestion disorder and heart disease, (e) —it damages lungs and kidneys and harms the nervous system, (f) —, smokers run the risk of being attacked with lung cancer and cardiac arrest. (g) — a smoker loses appetite for food. (h) ¬smoking irritates one's eyes and offends nose, (f) — smoking causes wastage of money. (j) — the government and mass media should, work hand in hand to raise public awareness against the bad effects of smoking.

 


10.Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


(a) — the purpose of football and cricket is the same, but there are some differences between the two games. (b) —, a football match is played/held between two teams. (c) — two opposite teams are a must to arrange a cricket match. Football, is a short time game. (d) —, cricket is a long time game. A football match is conducted by a referee in the middle of the field and two assistant referees in the side lines. (e) —, a cricket match is run by two field umpires and a third umpire known as TV umpire. (f) — a football ground is square or rectangular in shape. (g) — a cricket ground is round.. There are two goal posts in a football ground. (h) — there are two wicket in a cricket ground. A football is a must to play football. (i) — a stamps with bells are needed to play cricket. (j) — ¬both the games are entertaining.

 


11.Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


Bangladesh is a developing country, (a) —, here most of the people live in villages. (b) —, the development of the entire country depends on the development of these villages. (c) — the development of village areas is called rural development. (d) — there are different reasons for the underdeveloped state of our villages. (e) most of the people in the rural areas are illiterate. (f) —, they are not conscious about their duties, rights and responsibilities. (g) —, most of the farmers use the ancient agricultural tools and techniques. (h) —, there are different false beliefs, superstitious and malpractices among the villagers. (i) —, our rural societies are lagging behind. (j) — the people of all walks of life along with the government should take proper initiatives for rural development.

12.Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


Deforestation means cutting down trees or destruction of trees at random. (a) — it endangers our life. There are many factors behind this destruction. (b) — our population is increasing by leaps and bounds. (c) — there is excessive pressure on land. (d) — our carelessness is mainly responsible for this destruction. (e) — the additional population requires more land for settlement and agricultural cultivation. (f) — with the increase of population infrastructural facilities are getting increased. (g) — land areas are decreasing and land for trees and forests are getting decreased day by day. (h) — people are destroying trees for cooking food, making brick and melting pitch etc. (i) — deforestation causes increase of carbon dioxide; global warming and ecological imbalance, (j)— there are natural disasters including flood, cyclone, tidal surge etc.


13. Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


(a) — cell phones and land phones have the same purpose and they both work in the same away, they have many  differences as well, (b) — a cell phone has to have at least six service bars in order to talk and the battery has to be charged before it will work. (c) — a hard wired phone has to be installed through wiring within the home. (d) — it can be used any where inside the home maintained by telephone servicemen, (e) — a cell phone can be used anywhere carrying it in the pocket and without any telephone serviceman. (f) — some one can leave a message with the cell phone and the receiver can get it right on the phone, (g) — on a land phone message cannot be stored. (h) — a cell phone can be programmed for special rings but a land phone has only one ring tone, (i) — having many differences, they have some similarities as all. (j) — call phones and land phones may have different appearances but they both serve the same purpose.

14. Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


Population of a country is an asset. (a) — when it grows beyond limit, it becomes a problem. Bangladesh is a small country. But it has a large population which causes a lot of problems for us. There are many reasons of this problem. (b) —, most of our people are illiterate. (c) — they do not know the result of their problem. They give birth to many children in their life. (d) — there are many superstitions that Allah has mode us and He ill feed us. (e) — many parents want male child. (f) — our climate is another cause of the growth of population. (g) — many people do not know about family planning. (h) — it creates .many problems for us. (i) — we should control this growth of population. (j)— it will hamper Our development.
 


15.Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10=5


The part of life which we spend in schools, colleges and universities for learning is called student life. (a) -- it is the most important period of our life. The future of a student greatly depends on his student life. (b) — the student life is very important. Student life is the seed-time of life. (c) — he should make the best use of very minute, (d) — he needs to study in order to acquire more knowledge. (f) — he should take exercise regularly to keep his body and mind sound. (g) -- a sound mind lives in a sound body. (h)— he should have a good moral character. He should walkways speak the truth, obey his parents and superiors, (i) — he most have the qualities like sincerity, honesty, punctuality, courtesy and so on, (j) — he should be always ready to work for the country.

16.Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


Modern science has gifted us with many wonderful inventions. (a) —, the new inventions have made our, life more comfortable and easier, (b) — science has lessened the distance. (c) — the communication system has been easier. (d) — mobile phone is a new invention of modern science. Mobile phone is a very modern and useful means of telecommunication. (e) — it connects one person with others in a second. (f) -- one can converse at a cheap rate through mobile phone, (g) — camera, MP3, MP4, FM radio and internet service are also added to the mobile phones. (i) —, a mobile serves in various purposes. (j) —  mobile phone has some disadvantages.

17.Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


(a) — a village market plays a very important role in the life of the villagers, (b) — it sits in the morning. It is-401101
situated in the central place of the village so that men can easily come to buy and sell daily necessaries. (c) — it sits under a big banyan tree or in the open place. (d) — it sits by a canal or by the side of a river. Village markets are of two types-daily market and hat. (e) — the daily market sits in the morning and breaks up before noon. (f) — the hat sits in the afternoon and continues up to a few hours of the night. In a village market we find two kinds of shops. (g) — one is temporary and the other is permanent. The temporary shopkeepers sit in rows to sell their goods. (g) — the permanent shopkeepers sit in their own shops. A village market is the meeting place of the villagers. (i) — they exchange their news and views with one another.. (j) — they talk about village politics and other matters.


18. Use appropriate sentence connectors n blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


Modern science has giVen us a lot of speedy vehicles. The train is one of them. (a) — a train journey is interesting and exciting. (b) — it is refreshing-, to make a journey by train, One of my friends invited me to his home at Natore, (c) — I along with two of my close friends decided to go there by train. We made up our mind to start our journey on Friday morning.. One the fixed day, we started for the station early. (d) — we bought three tickets for Natore in first class compartment (e) — we waited for the train to arrive, (f) — the train arrived 15 Minutes late and we were all in a hurry to get into the train. I took my seat by a window so that. I could enjoy the journey to the full. We had clothes, refreshments -and camera with us. (g) — we also took drinking water and bought magazines and dailies. It was a sunny day and the weather was fine. (h) ¬everything favored us. We, three friends were gossiping or reading newspapers and magazines. (i) — I felt downs. A little jolt from my friend awakened me and I found that we had reached our destination. (j) — this journey gave us much pleasure and enjoyment.


   
19. Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


Computer is a new invention of modern science, (a) — it has made our life easy and comfortable. We cannot
think of a day without it. (h) — it can not work by itself. It works according to the command of the operator. lir Many scientists have worked for years to invent it. (c) — Charles Babes is called the father of modern computer. A computer has five major parts namely, the input unit, the output unit, the memory unit, the control unit and the arithmetic unit. A computer performs three functions. (d)    it receives data. (e) -- it processes data. (f) — it emits data. (g) — it helps us in education, commerce, communication, entertainment etc. Students prepare their study materials by using computer. (h) — they can use Internet through computer. (i) — doctors use computer to diagnose diseases. It is very essential in banking system. (j) — many documents and information can be stored in it.
   
20. Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5 


A village doctor is an important member in the village. (a) — he plays a vital role in village life. In every  village there are doctors. (b) — most of them are not well qualified. (c) — they are very important to the villagers. (d) — he is competent enough to deal with the common diseases of the villagers. A village doctor has 6,z‘ a dispensary with one or two admirals and a small stock of medicine. He has a chair and a table for his own use and a bench for the patients. (e) — a village doctor opens his dispensary in his house or in the market. When the patients come to his dispensary, he prescribes medicine for them. (f) —, he himself gives them medicine. He is always helpful to the villagers. (g) — he takes great dare of his patients. (h) — he is a good friend of the villagers. He may not have high degree as a doctor (i)-------the villagers have faith in him and depend on him. (j)— we can say that village doctor is a real friend of the villagers in their weal and woe.
 

                                   SENTENCE CONNECTOR/ LINKERS 5.1

1.    Use appropriate sentence connectors in blank spaces of the following passage.    .05 x 10 = 5


There are a good number of reasons why the students in Bangladesh fail in English. (a) — English is a foreign language. (b) — the students do not have the right approach to English. (c) —    very few of them are earnest in
learning English. (d) —, the students seek to cross the barriers of examinations, (e) —, learning English is unpleasant to most of them. (f) — Teaching a foreign language becomes very difficult when the learners are not keen on the subject. (g) —, a teacher of English can hardly find out a technique suitable to all. (h) —, they fail to motivate the learns that they must master the four skills of language. (i)—, textbooks for different classes are not suited to the stages and the standard of the learners. (j) — the form of the questions in the public examination induces cramming rather then learning the language.