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Gerund

Updated: Jan 22

Definition and Formation:

A. Definition: 1. A gerund is a verb form ending in "-ing" that functions as a noun. 2. It represents the action or state expressed by the underlying verb.

B. Formation: 1. Regular verbs: add "-ing" to the base form (e.g., walk → walking). 2. Irregular verbs: undergo various transformations (e.g., go → going, sing → singing).


1. As Subjects of Sentences:

  • Swimming in the morning is a refreshing way to start the day.

  • Reading classic literature broadens your understanding of different cultures.

  • Running requires a good pair of shoes and proper form.

  • Solving complex puzzles challenges your cognitive abilities.

  • Learning a new instrument demands dedication and practice.

2. As Objects of Verbs:

  • I enjoy cooking new recipes for my family.

  • They avoid making the same mistakes over and over.

  • She imagines traveling to exotic destinations in the future.

  • We appreciate listening to live music performances.

  • He admitted forgetting to complete the assignment.

3. As Objects of Prepositions:

  • She is good at playing the piano in various styles.

  • We are interested in learning about different historical periods.

  • They are committed to working for the betterment of the community.

  • He is passionate about helping those in need.

  • She is worried about losing her job.

4. After Certain Verbs:

  • She started working on the project immediately after the meeting.

  • They consider traveling to different countries for cultural experiences.

  • He enjoys hiking in the mountains during the summer.

  • We can't imagine living without modern technology.

  • The team is dedicated to improving their performance.

5. In the Past and Perfect Gerund Forms:

  • Having finished her work, she decided to take a break.

  • I regret not attending the conference last year.

  • They celebrated their success by throwing a grand party.

  • He left the house without checking if he had his keys.

  • Having visited many countries, she has a broad perspective on global issues.

6. After Certain Adjectives:

  • He is afraid of losing the opportunity to study abroad.

  • She is excited about starting a new chapter in her life.

  • They are worried about falling behind in their coursework.

  • The children were disappointed at missing the school field trip.

  • He is interested in learning about different artistic styles.

7. Expressing Purpose:

  • I went to the store buying some groceries for the week.

  • She went to the park walking her dog to get some fresh air.

  • He spent the evening writing a heartfelt letter to his friend.

  • We traveled to the beach collecting seashells for a school project.

  • She joined the club meeting new people and making friends.

8. After Prepositions:

  • She succeeded in the exam by studying hard every day.

  • They celebrated the victory by dancing in the streets.

  • He calmed his nerves by taking deep breaths.

  • We express our creativity by participating in art workshops.

  • She coped with stress by practicing mindfulness meditation.

9. In Causative Constructions:

  • She had her son cleaning his room before the guests arrived.

  • He got his car fixed after it broke down on the highway.

  • We had the workers painting the office walls over the weekend.

  • She had her dog trained to follow basic commands.

  • They had the plumber fixing the leaky faucet in the kitchen.

10. In Compound Nouns:

  • I enjoy bird watching in the early morning.

  • She's into ice skating and participates in competitions.

  • Jogging is a great way to improve cardiovascular health.

  • He spends his weekends rock climbing in the nearby mountains.

  • Bungee jumping is an exhilarating but daring activity.

11. After Expressions of Time:

  • I spent the afternoon reading a fascinating novel.

  • He wasted his time playing video games instead of studying.

  • They passed the time chatting and sharing stories.

  • She invested her time volunteering at the local animal shelter.

  • We dedicate a portion of our day exercising for physical well-being.

12. In Informal Writing and Speaking:

  • I don't feel like cooking tonight; let's order takeout.

  • They ended up cancelling the event due to bad weather.

  • She admitted borrowing the book without asking.

  • He keeps interrupting the conversation with irrelevant comments.

  • We avoid discussing politics at family gatherings to maintain peace.




List of 50 verbs used as gerunds

  1. Adapt:

    • The company adapted using new technologies for efficiency.

    • She adapted to the changing circumstances with resilience.


  1. Admit:

    • She admitted making a mistake in the report.

    • He reluctantly admitted losing the game.


  1. Adore:

    • She adores spending time with her grandchildren.

    • They adore watching the sunrise on the beach.


  1. Appreciate:

    • They appreciate being acknowledged for their hard work.

    • She appreciates receiving constructive feedback for personal growth.


  1. Avoid:

    • He avoids eating fast food to maintain a healthy diet.

    • We should avoid making hasty decisions.


  1. Begin:

    • We began planning the event weeks in advance.

    • She began painting as a hobby when she was young.


  1. Consider:

    • We are considering buying a new car.

    • She considered quitting her job to pursue a new career.


  1. Continue:

    • He continues practicing the piano every day.

    • They continued working on the project despite the challenges.


  1. Delay:

    • They delayed announcing the decision until after the meeting.

    • She delayed responding to the email until she had more information.


  1. Discuss:

    • We discussed going on a road trip during the holidays.

    • They discussed changing the venue for the event.


  1. Enjoy:

    • She enjoys reading novels in her free time.

    • They enjoy traveling to different countries during the summer.


  1. Entertain:

    • We entertain guests by hosting dinner parties.

    • She entertains herself by watching comedy shows.


  1. Fancy:

    • She fancies exploring different cuisines when she travels.

    • They fancy trying out the latest gadgets on the market.


  1. Finish:

    • I finished writing the essay just before the deadline.

    • They finished decorating the house for the party.


  1. Hate:

    • He hates doing chores around the house.

    • She hates waiting in long lines.


  1. Imagine:

    • He can't imagine living without his smartphone.

    • I imagine traveling the world someday.


  1. Intend:

    • We intend traveling to Europe next summer.

    • She intends studying psychology in college.


  1. Like:

    • She likes playing basketball in her free time.

    • He likes listening to music while working.


  1. Love:

    • They love watching romantic movies together.

    • I love cooking for my friends and family.


  1. Mention:

    • I mentioned considering a career change in the future.

    • They mentioned traveling to Asia for their next vacation.


  1. Mind:

    • Do you mind helping me with this task?

    • She doesn't mind waiting for a few minutes.


  1. Miss:

    • I miss spending time with my family.

    • They miss living in the countryside.


  1. Practice:

    • He practices playing the guitar for an hour every day.

    • They practice speaking English with native speakers.


  1. Quit:

    • She quit smoking for the sake of her health.

    • They quit complaining and started taking positive action.


  1. Recommend:

    • I recommend starting the day with a nutritious breakfast.

    • They recommend trying new hobbies for personal growth.


  1. Regret:

    • She regrets not studying harder for the exam.

    • He regrets not taking the job offer.


  1. Resent:

    • She resents being treated unfairly in the workplace.

    • They resent having to work overtime without proper compensation.


  1. Resist:

    • It's hard to resist eating chocolate when it's in front of me.

    • He resists procrastination by setting strict deadlines.


  1. Risk:

    • She risked investing in the startup despite the uncertainties.

    • They risked trying a new adventure sport during their vacation.


  1. Suggest:

    • They suggested going out for dinner.

    • He suggested postponing the meeting until next week.


  1. Start:

    • She started learning Spanish last year.

    • They started working on the project early in the morning.


  1. Enjoy:

    • She enjoys reading novels in her free time.

    • They enjoy traveling to different countries during the summer.


  1. Favor:

    • She favors spending weekends in nature.

    • They favor implementing environmentally friendly practices.


  1. Imagine:

    • He imagines creating innovative solutions to global problems.

    • We imagine achieving our goals through hard work and dedication.


  1. Quit:

    • She quit smoking for the sake of her health.

    • They quit complaining and started taking positive action.


  1. Resist:

    • It's hard to resist eating chocolate when it's in front of me.

    • He resists procrastination by setting strict deadlines.


  1. Risk:

    • She risked confronting his fears to pursue his passion.

    • They risked investing in the stock market during uncertain times.


  1. Mention:

    • I mentioned considering a career change in the future.

    • They mentioned traveling to Asia for their next vacation.


  1. Entertain:

    • We entertain guests by hosting dinner parties.

    • She entertains herself by watching comedy shows.


  1. Anticipate:

    • They anticipated facing challenges but were prepared.

    • She anticipated receiving positive feedback for her project.


  1. Suggest:

    • He suggested going for a hike as a team-building activity.

    • They suggested adopting a more sustainable lifestyle.


  1. Favor:

    • She favors spending weekends in nature.

    • They favor implementing environmentally friendly practices.


  1. Encourage:

    • I encourage pursuing your dreams with determination.

    • They encourage adopting healthy habits for overall well-being.


  1. Practice:

    • He practices yoga for relaxation and flexibility.

    • She practices public speaking to overcome stage fright.


  1. Postpone:

    • They decided to postpone making a decision until the next meeting.

    • She postponed taking a vacation until the busy season was over.


  1. Fancy:

    • She fancies exploring different cuisines when she travels.

    • They fancy trying out the latest gadgets on the market.


  1. Resent:

    • She resents being treated unfairly in the workplace.

    • They resent having to work overtime without proper compensation.


  1. Start:

    • We started implementing the new policies for better efficiency.

    • He started learning photography as a hobby.


  1. Appreciate:

    • They appreciate being acknowledged for their hard work.

    • She appreciates receiving constructive feedback for personal growth.


  1. Encourage:

    • I encourage pursuing your dreams with determination.

    • They encourage adopting healthy habits for overall well-being.



Exercises:


Fill in each blank with the correct form of the verb provided in parentheses:

  1. The professor encouraged his students (explore) ___________ new theories in the field.

  2. Maria regrets (not, take) ___________ the opportunity to study abroad during college.

  3. The children sat silently, (watch) ___________ their favorite movie on TV.

  4. She is considering (learn) ___________ a new language to enhance her career prospects.

  5. After (finish) ___________ her degree, Susan decided to take a year off and travel.

  6. It's important to (exercise) ___________ regularly for maintaining good health.

  7. The manager asked his team (prepare) ___________ a detailed report for the upcoming meeting.

  8. The actor, (know) ___________ for his versatility, is rumored (star) ___________ in a blockbuster film next year.

  9. I can't believe I forgot (buy) ___________ tickets for the concert. Now it's sold out!

  10. The chef plans (introduce) ___________ a new menu featuring exotic ingredients.

Answers:

  1. exploring

  2. not to take

  3. watching

  4. learning

  5. finishing

  6. exercise

  7. to prepare

  8. known; to star

  9. to buy

  10. to introduce


Fill in each blank with the correct form of the verb provided in parentheses:

  1. The scientist was observed (conduct) ___________ experiments in the laboratory.

  2. She advised him (not, procrastinate) ___________ if he wanted to succeed in his endeavors.

  3. The novel, (write) ___________ by a renowned author, is said (become) ___________ a classic.

  4. The company decided (invest) ___________ in renewable energy sources to reduce its carbon footprint.

  5. After years of training, he succeeded in (master) ___________ the difficult art form.

  6. The committee discussed the proposal before (reach) ___________ a unanimous decision.

  7. The athlete was disqualified for (use) ___________ performance-enhancing substances.

  8. He admitted (forge) ___________ his signature on the document.

  9. The opportunity (travel) ___________ abroad presented itself unexpectedly.

  10. The team is determined (win) ___________ the championship this season.

  11. The professor, (know) ___________ for his expertise, offered (assist) ___________ the students with their research.

  12. The musician performed, (accompanied) ___________ by a live orchestra.

  13. We appreciate your efforts (complete) ___________ the project ahead of schedule.

  14. The manager is considering (implement) ___________ new policies to improve efficiency.

  15. The hikers, (guide) ___________ by an experienced mountaineer, reached the summit at dawn.

  16. He was excited about (attend) ___________ the international conference.

  17. The artist spent hours (perfect) ___________ her technique.

  18. I look forward to (meet) ___________ you at the conference next week.

  19. The students were caught (cheat) ___________ on the exam.

  20. The professor encouraged the students (question) ___________ traditional assumptions.

  21. The company decided (relocate) ___________ its headquarters to a more strategic location.

  22. The detective was skilled at (uncover) ___________ hidden clues.

  23. The team celebrated after (win) ___________ the championship.

  24. The chef is known for (create) ___________ unique and innovative dishes.

  25. She was determined (prove) ___________ her critics wrong.

  26. The manager apologized for (arrive) ___________ late to the meeting.

  27. The comedian had the audience (laugh) ___________ throughout the entire performance.

  28. The government is committed (address) ___________ environmental issues.

  29. The project, (delay) ___________ by unforeseen circumstances, finally resumed.

  30. He seemed (deep) ___________ in thought, contemplating his next move.

Answers:

  1. conducting

  2. not to procrastinate

  3. written; to become

  4. to invest

  5. mastering

  6. reaching

  7. using

  8. to forge

  9. to travel

  10. to win

  11. known; to assist

  12. accompanied

  13. completing

  14. to implement

  15. guided

  16. attending

  17. perfecting

  18. to meet

  19. cheating

  20. to question

  21. to relocate

  22. uncovering

  23. winning

  24. creating

  25. to prove

  26. for arriving

  27. laughing

  28. to address

  29. delayed

  30. deep



Fill in each blank with the correct form of the verb provided in parentheses:

  1. The artist was caught (paint) ___________ a mural on the city wall without permission.

  2. I can't imagine (live) ___________ in a city without any green spaces.

  3. The politician was accused of (accept) ___________ bribes from lobbyists.

  4. The film, (direct) ___________ by a famous director, is expected (release) ___________ next month.

  5. We were disappointed (hear) ___________ that the concert had been canceled.

  6. The students were excited about (participate) ___________ in the international competition.

  7. She was determined (succeed) ___________ in her chosen field despite facing numerous challenges.

  8. The chef recommends (try) ___________ the signature dish of the restaurant.

  9. The company is considering (expand) ___________ its operations to new markets.

  10. After (finish) ___________ her degree, she decided (pursue) ___________ a career in research.

  11. He apologized for (interrupt) ___________ the meeting but needed to address an urgent matter.

  12. The professor encouraged his students (think) ___________ critically about the complex issues discussed in class.

  13. The athletes are looking forward to (compete) ___________ at the international level.

  14. The detective was skilled at (analyze) ___________ crime scenes for evidence.

  15. The manager was hesitant (approve) ___________ the budget without further clarification.

  16. The author is known for (write) ___________ thought-provoking novels that challenge societal norms.

  17. The team members were exhausted after (complete) ___________ the arduous expedition.

  18. He admitted (make) ___________ a mistake and promised (correct) ___________ it immediately.

  19. The students were assigned the task of (research) ___________ the impact of technology on society.

  20. The photographer spent hours (capture) ___________ the beauty of the natural landscape.

  21. We appreciate your effort (organize) ___________ the charity event.

  22. The musician was interrupted while (record) ___________ the new album in the studio.

  23. The manager insists on (employees) ___________ a training program to enhance their skills.

  24. Despite (face) ___________ numerous setbacks, she remained committed to (achieve) ___________ her goals.

  25. The company decided (donate) ___________ a percentage of its profits to charitable causes.

Answers:

  1. painting

  2. living

  3. accepting

  4. directed; to be released

  5. to hear

  6. participating

  7. to succeed

  8. trying

  9. expanding

  10. finishing; to pursue

  11. interrupting

  12. to think

  13. competing

  14. analyzing

  15. to approve

  16. writing

  17. completing

  18. making; to correct

  19. researching

  20. capturing

  21. organizing

  22. recording

  23. employees to undergo

  24. facing; achieving

  25. to donate


Fill in the blanks with the correct form (gerund or infinitive) of the verbs in parentheses.

  1. He prefers __________ (work) independently rather than in a team.

  2. She offered __________ (help) me with the project.

  3. I need __________ (study) for my exams tonight.

  4. It's time __________ (make) a decision about your future.

  5. I can't stand __________ (listen) to that loud music.

  6. My dad taught me __________ (ride) a bike when I was a child.

  7. They agreed __________ (meet) at the cafe for lunch.

  8. I enjoy __________ (cook) dinner for my friends.

  9. We're planning __________ (visit) the museum this weekend.

  10. She tends __________ (talk) a lot in social situations.

  11. Would you mind __________ (close) the window? It's cold.

  12. The teacher advised __________ (review) the lesson before the exam.

  13. He promised __________ (call) me as soon as he arrives.

  14. I would like __________ (learn) how to play the guitar.

  15. They decided __________ (take) a road trip across the country.

  16. My goal is __________ (improve) my language skills.

  17. She hesitated __________ (tell) him the truth.

  18. I hope __________ (find) a good job after graduation.

  19. We are considering __________ (buy) a new car.

  20. It's important __________ (save) money for the future.

  21. I'm looking forward to __________ (see) the new movie.

  22. She deserves __________ (win) the award.

  23. Do you mind __________ (wait) for a few minutes?

  24. He seems __________ (be) upset about something.

  25. The doctor advised her __________ (take) vitamins regularly.

  26. They are excited __________ (visit) the famous landmarks.

  27. We can't afford __________ (eat) out every night.

  28. I regret __________ (inform) you that the event has been canceled.

  29. I enjoy __________ (read) science fiction novels.

  30. The children promised __________ (clean) their rooms before bedtime.

Answers:

  1. working

  2. to help

  3. to study

  4. to make

  5. listening

  6. to ride

  7. to meet

  8. cooking

  9. to visit

  10. talking

  11. to close

  12. to review

  13. to call

  14. to learn

  15. to take

  16. to improve

  17. to tell

  18. to find

  19. to buy

  20. to save

  21. to see

  22. to win

  23. waiting

  24. to be

  25. to take

  26. to visit

  27. to eat

  28. informing

  29. reading

  30. to clean

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