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                                                                            Tense

Mainly there are three tenses, past tense, present tense and the future tense. It is important to note that according to time it is said to be three tenses but according to verb forms we have only two tenses. They are Present and Past tense.

Present Tense

  1. Simple Present Tense

  2. Present Perfect Tense

  3. Present Continuous Tense

  4. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
    Past Tense

  1. Simple Past Tense

  2. Past Perfect Tense

  3. Past Continuous Tense

  4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
    Future Tense

  1. Simple Future Tense

  2. Future Perfect Tense

  3. Future Continuous Tense

  4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense

1.            Simple Present Tense

Simple present tense is used to tell about the actions which would take place now, regularly takes place present time or in short period. The time indicators are every day, every month, always, usually, often, sometimes, occasionally, rarely and never.

Ex:

  1. She+ cooks+ food every day. (cook + s)
    Sub + V1 + Object

  2. Ravi + goes+ to college every day. ( go +es)

Sub + V1 + Object

Note: While writing simple present tense if the subject is third person singular then we have to add‘s’ or ‘es’ to the verb form.

Usage of Simple Present Tense

  1. It is used to express habits, general truths, repeated actions or unchanging situations, emotions and wishes:

  2. It is used to give instructions or directions:

  3. It is used to express fixed arrangements, present or future.

  4. It is used to express future time, after some conjunctions: after, when, before, as soon as, until:

  5. It is used for making announcements at railway stations and parks.

  6. It is used in news paper headlines.

  7. It is used in Conditional Clauses.

  8. It is used in Proverbs.

2. Simple Past Tense

Simple past tense is used to talk about a completed action in the past. The simple past is the basic form of past tense in English. It is used to express the past events when they took place in the past exactly and indefinitely. It is used for all actions in the past irrespective of the point of time and it is also used as like simple present to express daily actions and routine works in the past. The time indicators of past tense are ago, before, last week, in 1947.

  1. She + cooked + rice yesterday.
    Sub + V2 + Object

  2. I + went + to market one hour ago.
    Sub + V2 + Object

  3. We got Independence in 1947.

  4. I used to walk daily to the school last year.
    Usage of Simple Past Tense

  1. It is used to tell about past incidents which took place in the past.

  2. It is used along with a past perfect tense.

  3. It is used with another simple past tense.

3. Simple Future Tense

Simple future tense is used to express a thing which would take place in future in the sense later than now. It expresses the speaker’s opinions, assumptions and speculations about future.

  1. She + will + cook+ Biriyani tomorrow.
    Sub + will / shall + V0 + Object.

  2. I +shall + go + to market next Sunday.

Sub + will / shall + V0 + Object.

Future time indicators are tomorrow, next week, next year etc. The simple future is used:

  • To predict a future event: It will rain tomorrow.

  • With I or We, to express a spontaneous decision: I'll pay for the tickets by debit card.

  • To express willingness: I'll do the washing-up. He'll carry your bag for you.

  • In the negative form, to express unwillingness: The baby won't eat his soup. I won't leave until I've seen the manager!

  • With I in the interrogative form using "shall", to make an offer: Shall I open the window?

  • With we in the interrogative form using "shall", to make a suggestion: Shall we go to the cinema tonight?

  • With I in the interrogative form using "shall", to ask for advice or instructions: What shall I tell the boss about this money?

  • With you, to give orders: You will do exactly as I say.

  • With you in the interrogative form, to give an invitation:

Will you come to the dance with me?

Will you marry me?

Note: In modern English will is preferred to shall. Shall is mainly used with I and we to make an offer or suggestion. With the other persons ‘shall’ is only used in literary or poetic situations. If we use ‘will’ beside ‘I’ it means it is sure and it would take place in the sense. Ex. I will come to your sister marriage. Here in the given sentence ‘will’ is used in place of ‘shall’ it means it tells about confidence and assurance of the subject ‘I’ .

4. Present Perfect Tense

Present Perfect Tense is used the action which has just been completed and that it is in a completed condition

at the present time.

Ex.1. Rekha + has + written + a letter.

Sub + have/ has + V3 + Obj.

2. They + have + finished + their home work.

Sub + have/has + V3 + Obj.

Present Perfect time indicators words like lately, recently, ever, never, always, occasionally, often, since, this

week, this year etc. also indicate an incomplete period of time.

5. Past Perfect Tense

Past Perfect Tense is used to denote an action which is in a completed state at a given time in the past. It is used to denote an action which was completed earlier than another action in the past and when two actions took place in the past one after the other, the one which took place first for that Past Perfect Tense and the one which took place later for that Simple Past tense should be used.

Ex. 1. She + had + visited +Gujarat.

Sub + had + V3 + Obj.

  1. They had left Gujarat before the earthquake occurred. Past Perfect Tense + before + Simple Past

  2. The earthquake occurred after they had left Gujarat. Simple Past + after + Past Perfect Tense Note: Past Perfect Tense time indicators are before, after, when.

6. Future Perfect Tense

Future Perfect Tense is used an action which would be completed by a certain future time. It is expressed with ‘B y’ and ‘Before’.

Ex.

  1. Raju + will have + completed + his home work by 6 ‘0’ clock in the evening. Sub + will/shall have + V3 + Obj.

  2. He will have reached Bangalore before the strike begins.

  3. They will have finished the construction by the end of next year.

7. Present Continuous Tense

Present Continuous Tense is use to denote an action in progress at the time of speaking and an action that will take place in the near future.

Ex.

  1. They + are + watching + match.
    Sub + is/am/are + V4 + Obj.

  2. Lalitha is writing a letter.

  3. I am leaving for Ethiopia next week.

  4. The President of India is visiting Pakistan shortly.

Note: Certain verbs are not normally used in the continuous tense:

  1. Verbs of perception: see, smell, hear, feel.

  2. Verbs expressing feelings and emotions: love, like, hate, dislike, desire, fear, detest, wish, want, value,
    mind.

  3. Verbs of mental activity: know, understand, remember, recollect, believe, expect.

  4. Verbs of Possession: owe, own, possess and belong.

Some of these verbs are used in the continuous tense with special meaning.

  1. The Principal is seeing the candidates tomorrow.( Interview)

  2. They have been hearing all about the accident.( Receiving news)

  3. Rekha is feeling for the lighter.( Trying to find by touching)

8. Past Continuous Tense

Past Continuous Tense is used to describe an action going on in the past, when two actions took place in the past at the same time; both the actions are described in the past continuous. Simultaneously when two actions took place in the past while one action was going on anther action took place. Then the action which was going on for that past continuous and for another simple past is used.

Ex.

  1. They + were + making + kites.
    Sub + was/were + V4 + Obj.

  2. While I was taking bath my mobile rang.

  3. When she was cooking food somebody knocked at the door.

  4. While I was writing exam my friend was asking for answers.

9. Future Continuous Tense

Future Continuous Tense is used to represent an action going on at some point in future time and also used to indicate future events that are planned.

Ex.

  1. I + shall+ be+ plying + cricket tomorrow by this time or 6 pm.
    Sub + will/shall + be + V4 + Obj.

  2. They shall be staying in Madanapalle till Sunday.

  3. We shall be travelling to Bangalore by this time tomorrow.

10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense

Present Perfect Continuous Tense is used to express an action which began in the past and still continuing in present and no one knows when it ends in future.

Ex.

  1. Rakesh + has + been + reading + for four hours.
    Sub + have/has + been + V4 + Obj.

  2. It has been raining since morning.

  3. We have washing car for 2hours.

  4. She has been cooking for 1 hour.

Note: Here in using Present Perfect Continuous Tense two things should be reminded that is usage of point of time and period of time. Point of time referred by ‘Since’ and Period of time referred by ‘For’. Ex. Since morning, since 1996, since Monday, etc. For 20 days, for one week, for 200 years, etc.

 

 

11.Past Perfect Continuous Tense

Past Perfect Continuous Tense is used to denote an action which started sometime in the past, continuous past another point of time in the past at which it is still seen continuing.

Ex.

  1. He + had + been + repairing + the radio. Sub + had + been + V4 + Obj.

  2. I had been repairing my mobile for half an hour before my mother reached home.

  3. We had been living in Gujarat for 10 years before the earthquake occurred.

12. Future Perfect Continuous Tense

Future Perfect Continuous Tense is used to denote a future action which is in progress over a period of time that will end in the future.

Ex.

  1. They + will + have + been + living + here for five years by the end of the month. Sub + will/shall + been + V4 + Obj.

  2. By the next month I shall have been working in this campus for ten years.

Note: However both Past Perfect Continuous and Future Perfect Continuous Tenses are not in modern usage.

Helvetica Light is an easy to read font, with tall and narrow letters, that works well on almost every site.

Fill the gaps with the correct tenses.

  1. I (learn)  English for seven years now.

  2. But last year I (not / work)  hard enough for English, that's why my marks (not / be)  really that good then.

  3. As I (pass / want)  my English exam successfully next year, I (study)  harder this term.

  4. During my last summer holidays, my parents (send)  me on a language course to London.

  5. It (be)  great and I think I (learn)  a lot.

  6. Before I (go)  to London, I (not / enjoy)  learning English.

  7. But while I (do)  the language course, I (meet)  lots of young people from all over the world.

  8. There I (notice)  how important it (be)  to speak foreign languages nowadays.

  9. Now I (have)  much more fun learning English than I (have)  before the course.

  10. At the moment I (revise)  English grammar.

  11. And I (begin / already)  to read the texts in my English textbooks again.

  12. I (think)  I (do)  one unit every week.

  13. My exam (be)  on 15 May, so there (not / be)  any time to be lost.

  14. If I (pass)  my exams successfully, I (start)  an apprenticeship in September.

  15. And after my apprenticeship, maybe I (go)  back to London to work there for a while.

  16. As you (see / can) , I (become)  a real London fan already.

Fill the gaps with the correct tenses- Answer

  1. I have been learning English for seven years now.

  2. But last year I was not working hard enough for English, that's why my marks were not really that good then.

  3. As I want to pass my English exam successfully next year, I am going to study harder this term.

  4. During my last summer holidays, my parents sent me on a language course to London.

  5. It was great and I think I learned a lot.

  6. Before I went to London, I had not enjoyed learning English.

  7. But while I was doing the language course, I met lots of young people from all over the world.

  8. There I noticed how important it is to speak foreign languages nowadays.

  9. Now I have much more fun learning English than I had before the course.

  10. At the moment I am revising English grammar.

  11. And I have already begun to read the texts in my English textbooks again.

  12. I think I will do one unit every week.

  13. My exam is on 15 May, so there is not any time to be lost.

  14. If I pass my exams successfully, I will start an apprenticeship in September.

  15. And after my apprenticeship, maybe I will go back to London to work there for a while.

  16. As you can see, I have become a real London fan already.

 

     Mixed Tenses Worksheet 2.1
 

Mixed Tenses - Put the verbs into the correct tenses:


1.    He  (usually/ spend) his holiday by the sea.

2.    It's 11 am. I  (do) plenty of exercises this morning.

3.    Jane  (send) the letters yesterday.

4.    While they  (walk) through the park yesterday, they met their neighbours.

5.    I  (hear) the news two hours ago.

6.    My father  (already / offer) me a new laptop.

7.    Look! Jimmy  (climb) over the wall.

8.    The boys are hot because they  (play) football for 3 hours.

9.    Maggie  (study) English before she moved to London.

10.    By this time next year, we  (leave) school.
11.    Yesterday, my mother  (go) shopping.

12.    I  (watch) TV now.

13.    (be) there any cinemas in Paris in 1951?

14.    Where  (be) you yesterday?

15.    I  (cook) when my father called me.

16.    What are you (do)?

17.    This morning, I  (make) my bed.

18.    What do you (do) for a living?

19.    Last weekend, I  (visit) my friend.

20.    The phone rang when I (play) video games.
21.    When I was a young boy, I  (meet) Santa Claus.

22.    Tony  (study) for his math test as we speak.

23.    Pat and Sean  (smoke) for the past three years. They would like to quit though.

24.    She sometimes  (lose) her temper. She scares me a bit when she does.

25.    I  (understand) your point now.

26.    I  (see) this movie about a dozen times already.

27.    We  (sleep) all day yesterday.

28.    I finally  (decide) to call her yesterday to ask her out.

29.    She  (be) never late. I wonder why she is missing.

30.    I  (be) in class very early this morning to study for my math exam.

31.    (be) you mad at me last night? I didn't hurt you on purpose you know !

32.    (you, see, ever) Le Cirque Du Soleil?

33.    We  (go out, sometimes) when we are not tired.

34.    What  (you, are, do) now? I'm cleaning my room.
35.    I  (visit) my uncle Bob in San Jose last year.

36.    They  (call, negative) me since last week.

37.    What kind of music  (she, like)?

38.    years ago, Doug completely  (change) his lifestyle.

39.    Who  (invent) the lightbulb? I really don't have a clue.

40.    I  (never, try) lobster in my life.
41.    My sister  (buy) him a dog for his birthday last week.

42.    Marceau and Yanis  (go) to the cinema last Monday.

43.    Brunella  (sit) behind the door when we were looking for her.

44.    Annelore  (break) her umbrella yesterday.

45.    They said they were tired and  (go) upstairs to sleep.

46.    Johanne  (just lose ) her keys on the pavement .

47.    Cécile  (ride) a horse when she went to the circus.

48.    The Scottish people  (build) their detached house near the beach years ago.

49.    Jean  (see) many boats over the see, when she was on holiday.

50.    I  (read) Romeo and Juliet when I was 10 years old.

51.    My mother  (go) shopping every Saturday.

52.    Where's Paul? He  (play) rugby with some friends.

53.    Last week, it  (be) my birthday.

54.    My horoscope is very good. It says I  (meet) a pretty girl.

55.    At the restaurant yesterday, we  (have) a delicious French dish.

56.    If they win the match, they  (play) the final.

57.    I can't go jogging with you, I  (break) my leg.

58.    She  (break) her leg last week in a car accident.

59.    I'm sorry sir but your train  (just leave).

60.    She  (have) a shower when she was killed.

61.    If I saw a big spider, I  (scream).

62.    When she  (be) 18, she will go to Harvard.

63.    Will he phone us before he (to arrange)  the situation tomorrow?

64.    As soon as he (to receive)  the parcel that day, he sent it to Peter

65.    He (to visit)  a lot of countries since he joined 'The Herald Tribune'

66.    I wish I (to have)  this conversation with you a few weeks ago

67.    By the time I complete my studies next month, I (to live)  In Benin for six years

68.    The doctor (to operate)  on the patient when he woke up

69.    We aren't used to people (to speak)  to us that way

70.    When they came home late at night, everybody (to go)  to sleep

71.    As long as you (to call)  me by that nickname, I will not answer you

72.    The programme  (cost) more than one billion since the beginning of the year.

73.    (you /ever/be) to London?

74.    It is the first time he  (take) the plane.

75.    She looks upset : she  (look) for her purse for over three quarters of an hour.

76.    How long ago  (you/place) that order?

77.    We  (not hear) from them for quite a long time, I hope there is nothing wrong with them.

78.    I  (be) ready for two hours when he finally phoned me to tell me he wasn't coming.

79.    We  (work) together for a long time now.

80.    She  (wait) for two hours when he finally arrived.

81.    John  (live) in New York ever since his wife was sent there on business.

82.    I  (never work) so far, but I am very motivated for this job.

83.    She  (study) English when she was at University, but she has forgotten most of it now : what a shame!

84.    He  (be) unemployed for 6 months when he received their offer.

85.    What did you do last night? We  (go) to the cinema.

86.    We have only been to the theatre once since we  (move) to London last year.

87.    We can't use room 145 at the moment because the painters  (redecorate) it.

88.    Unemployment  (rise) since last summer but it seems that the situation is going to improve in the near future.
89.    I  (start) school in 200

90.    What time  (you/go) to bed last night?

91.    Johny  (already/buy) a new car. He doesn't need another one.

92.    He  (just/spend) all his money.

93.    The baby  (sleep) ten minutes ago but he's awake now.

94.    She  (play) computer games when her mother called her to dinner.

95.    We  (not/eat) lunch yet. I'm starving.

96.    While he was riding his bicycle, he  (break) his leg.

97.    George  (throw) his ball when his father opened the door.

98.    While she was swimming, she  (see) a shark.

99.    Andy is tired because he (work)  all day.
100.    By 1960 most of Britain’s old colonies (become)  independent.
101.    David broke his leg when he (ski)  last week.
102.    (you/have)  a nice time in Rome?
103.    (you/finish)  your homework yet?
104.    He (be)  at his computer for six hours.
105.    How long (she/have)   that car?
106.    How many people (die)  in the fire yesterday?
107.    I (not/know)  much about art, but I like some artists.
108.    I (wait)  for ages when finally the bus arrived.
109.    I (receive)  a postcard from Jane yesterday.
110.    I (correct)  all morning, I’m exhausted.
111.    I (never/be)  sailing, what’s it like?
112.    It was late.  Most of the shops (close) .
113.    It (rain)  when I got up this morning.
114.    Janet (start)  a new job in September.
115.    Nelly (have) a great time in New York at the moment.
116.    She was cooking dinner when we (arrive) .
117.    She (just/come)  back from a Mediterranean cruise.
118.    My husband (be)  free for most of the afternoon.
119.    The children were tired because they (swim)  in the pool all afternoon.
120.    They (go)  to spend six weeks in the USA.
121.    We can use the car, I (repair)  it.
122.    We were tired because we (be)  to a party the night before.
123.    We (be)  too late for the train, it had just left.
124.    When I got the airport I realized I (forget)  my passport.
125.    As soon as they (arrive)  we had dinner.
126.    When they were driving home last night they (see)  a terrible accident.
127.    Where (Robert/live) now?
128.    Who (Mandy/talk)  to?

 

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