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¨ Using the negative adverbs:

Not only                              Never

Not until                              Seldom

Not once                             Rarely

At no time                           Scarcely

By no means                       No sooner


If these adverbs are used at the beginning of the sentence auxiliary verb comes before the subject of that sentence.

Negative  Auxiliary  Subject       Verb        Ext.

Never      have           we          traveled    so long way


Not once was he on time.

Seldom have I heard such beautiful music.

Not only did the company lose profits, but it also had to lay off workers.



INCORRECT: Very seldom a movie can hold my attention like this one.

CORRECT: Very seldom can a movie hold my attention like this one.

INCORRECT: Not one paper she has finished on time. CORRECT: Not one paper has she finished on time. INCORRECT: Not once Monju and Rony have invited us to their house.

CORRECT: Not once have Monju and Rony invited us to-their house.

INCORRECT: Only rarely an accident has occurred. CORRECT: Only rarely has an accident occurred. INCORRECT: Never again an accident may occur. CORRECT: Never again may an accident occur.


Part A-1:Not until the Triassic Period –

  1. the first primitive mammals did develop.

  2. did the first primitive mammals develop.

  3. did develop the first primitive mammals.

  4. the first primitive mammals develop.

  5. Any of them can be used.

Part A-2: Never again

  1. they will come to my house.

  2. the come early in the morning.

  3. will they come with a dog.

  4. she will go there rapidly.

  5. every body tell a lie.


Part A-3: Not until they will come.

  1. I have done it

  2. I tell them to come

  3. she offers a banquet

  4. have I done the job

  5. their father allow them


Part A-4: Not until the seventeenth century – to measure the speed of light.

  1. did anyone even attempt

  2. anyone did even attempt

  3. did anyone attempt even

  4. did even attempt anyone

Inversions are used when the mentioned expressions beginning with only occur at the beginning of a sentence the subject and verb in that clause are inversed.


Only in an emergency should you use this exit.

Only recently did she return from abroad

Only by asking questions can you learn.

A. Only if               B. Only when

C. Only because      D. Only after

E. Only until

In the cases of mentioned expressions auxiliary verb of the 2nd clause comes before the subject of that clause. Examples:

Only if you have a serious problem should you call Mr. Franklin at home.

     Only when you are satisfied is the sale considered final.

     If expressions like so+ adj or so+ participle are used at
    the beginning of the sentence inversion also occurs,


So rare is this coin that it belongs in a museum.

So confusing was the map that we had to ask a police officer for directions.

However, in the cases of adverbs of place or adverbs of order, auxiliary as well as the main verb come before the subject.


In front of the museum is a statue.

Off the coast of California lie the Channel Islands. First came a police car, then came an ambulance. Sample Item:

1. Most southern states had set up primary schools systems by the late eighteenth century, but only in New England – and open to all students.

  1. primary schools were free

  2. were primary schools free

  3. free were primary schools

  4. were free primary schools.

2. Across the Chesapeake Bay from the rest of the state –, whose farms produce beans, tomatoes, and other garden vegetables.

  1. there lies Maryland's Eastern Shore

  2. lies Maryland's Eastern Shore

  3. Maryland's Eastern Shore lies there

  4. Maryland's Eastern Shore lies.

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