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Sentence

A sentence is a grammatical unit of language that typically consists of a group of words expressing a complete thought. A sentence must contain a subject and a verb (although one may be implied). It is one of the fundamental building blocks of written and spoken communication, and it serves as a way to convey information, express ideas, ask questions, or make statements.

A sentence generally contains the following key elements:

  1. Subject: The subject is typically a noun or pronoun that performs the action or is the focus of the sentence. It tells you what or who the sentence is about.

  2. Verb: The verb is a word that expresses an action or state of being. It tells you what the subject is doing or what is happening in the sentence.

  3. Object: An object is a noun or pronoun that receives the action of the verb. It tells you what or whom the action is directed toward.

  4. Additional elements: Sentences can also include various other elements like adjectives, adverbs, prepositional phrases, and conjunctions to provide more information and structure.

Kinds of Sentences

Sentences come in five different types:

  1. Assertive Sentence

  2. Interrogative Sentence

  3. Imperative Sentence

  4. Optative Sentence

  5. Exclamatory Sentence

1. Assertive Sentence An Assertive Sentence is one that makes a statement or assertion. Assertive Sentences can be categorized into two types: Affirmative Sentence and Negative Sentence.

  • Affirmative Assertive Sentence: These sentences affirm a proposition.

    • Nasima reads attentively.

    • I know him very well.

    • We have a nice garden.


  • Negative Assertive Sentence: These sentences negate a proposition.

    • Zaman does not read attentively.

    • I do not know him very well.

    • We do not have a nice garden.


2. Interrogative Sentence An Interrogative Sentence is used to ask a question about a person or thing. Interrogative Sentences typically begin with an auxiliary verb or an interrogative word such as "who," "which," "what," "how," "where," etc.

  • Which pen do you like?

  • Are you going to school?

  • What are you doing now?

  • How old are you?

Interrogative Sentences are further classified into two types:

  • Affirmative Interrogative: e.g., "Did you go home yesterday? What does he want?"

  • Negative Interrogative: e.g., "Did you not go home yesterday? Is he a brilliant student?"

3. Imperative Sentence An Imperative Sentence conveys orders, requests, advice, commands, or other similar expressions. It can be either affirmative or negative.

  • Imperative Affirmative:

    • Do it at once.

    • Please tell us a story.

    • Let him do the work.

    • Don't go there.


  • Imperative Negative:

    • Don't do it.

    • Don't let him go home alone.


Note:

  • In imperative sentences, the subject in the second person 'you' remains implicit, e.g., "Take care of your health," "Do the work at once."

  • In the case of 1st person and 3rd person imperative sentences, they begin with 'let.' For example, "Let me go home," "Let the boy do the sum," "Let them finish the work."

  • For proposals and suggestions, imperative sentences begin with 'let,' e.g., "Let us go out for a walk," "Let us discuss the matter."

  • To indicate a request, imperative sentences begin with "please" or "kindly," e.g., "Please lend me some money," "Kindly tell him to come immediately."

  • Sometimes, the question form of a sentence beginning with "will you," "would you," and "could you" may indicate the imperative mood, e.g., "Would you mind taking a cup of tea?" "Will you please take your seat?" "Could you help me?"

4. Optative Sentence An Optative Sentence expresses a wish, desire, or prayer. These sentences typically begin with "may" or "would that."

  • May Allah bless you.

  • May you be happy in life.

  • Would that I were the president of Bangladesh.

  • Would that I could be a child again.

  • Long live our president.

5. Exclamatory Sentence An Exclamatory Sentence conveys a sudden feeling or emotion and is typically punctuated with an exclamation mark.

  • What a nice bird it is!

  • How beautiful the rose is!

  • Hurrah! We have won the game.

  • Alas! I am undone.


Exercise


Making Sentence out of jumbled words


Jumbled Words:

  1. Tomorrow / we / to / are / the / going / movie.

  2. Red / the / playing / ball / is / in / the / boy / yard.

  3. Listening / her / favorite / to / music / she / is.

  4. At / the / beach / building / sandcastles / the / children / enjoy.

  5. Homework / he / doing / diligently / is / his.

  6. Shopping / for / new / clothes / they / are.

  7. Breakfast / morning / enjoys / a / she / big.

  8. His / playing / guitar / brother / the / is.

  9. The / with / friends / went / they / hiking / last / weekend.

  10. Carefully / the / chef / preparing / the / ingredients / is.

Answers:

  1. We are going to the movie tomorrow.

  2. The boy is playing with a red ball in the yard.

  3. She is listening to her favorite music.

  4. The children enjoy building sandcastles at the beach.

  5. He is diligently doing his homework.

  6. They are shopping for new clothes.

  7. She enjoys a big breakfast every morning.

  8. His brother is playing the guitar.

  9. They went hiking with friends last weekend.

  10. The chef is carefully preparing the ingredients.

Jumbled Words:

  1. The / playing / children / are / happily / in / park / the.

  2. A / on / reading / is / man / a / bench.

  3. Rain / movie / the / when / watching / began, / they / were.

  4. Pizza / favorite / her / is / Italian / food.

  5. Homework / finished / before / play / he / outside / likes / to.

  6. Dog / chasing / a / squirrel / the / in / the / yard.

  7. Running / are / the / fast / athletes / track / on.

  8. School / to / she / walks / every / day.

  9. Night / at / beautiful / stars / the / are / shining.

  10. Cake / chocolate / favorite / her / is.

  11. Lunch / a / he / sandwich / made / himself.

  12. Beach / seashells / collecting / is / children / the / at / the.

  13. Flowers / in / the / garden / blooming / are / brightly.

  14. Playing / with / friends / games / enjoys / he / video.

  15. Happy / to / see / is / the / finally / sun.

  16. His / painting / a / masterpiece / an / artist / creating / is.

  17. Night / a / beautiful / sleep / under / stars / the.

  18. They / to / eagerly / go / the / amusement park / want.

  19. Time / best / their / the / at / the / beach / had / kids.

  20. Morning / a / jog / takes / he / every / in.

Answers:

  1. The children are playing happily in the park.

  2. A man is reading on a bench.

  3. They were watching the movie when the rain began.

  4. Her favorite food is Italian pizza.

  5. He likes to play outside before finishing homework.

  6. A dog is chasing a squirrel in the yard.

  7. The athletes are running fast on the track.

  8. She walks to school every day.

  9. The stars are shining beautifully at night.

  10. Her favorite is chocolate cake.

  11. He made himself a sandwich for lunch.

  12. The children are collecting seashells at the beach.

  13. Flowers are blooming brightly in the garden.

  14. He enjoys playing video games with friends.

  15. The sun is finally happy to see.

  16. An artist is creating a masterpiece with his painting.

  17. A beautiful night to sleep under the stars.

  18. They want to go to the amusement park eagerly.

  19. The kids had their best time at the beach.

  20. He takes a jog every morning.


Identify the type of sentence (declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory) for each given sentence:

  1. What is your favorite color?

  2. She will arrive at 3 o'clock.

  3. Please pass me the salt.

  4. How beautiful the sunset looks!

  5. I enjoy reading books in my free time.

  6. Close the door before leaving.

  7. It's raining heavily outside.

  8. May you have a wonderful day!

  9. Tell me a story.

  10. Don't forget to call your parents.

Answers:

  1. Interrogative

  2. Declarative

  3. Imperative

  4. Exclamatory

  5. Declarative

  6. Imperative

  7. Exclamatory

  8. Optative

  9. Imperative

  10. Imperative


Identify the type of each sentence (declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory):

  1. The sky is clear and the stars are shining brightly.

  2. Would you like to join us for dinner?

  3. Don't forget to bring your umbrella.

  4. How delicious this cake tastes!

  5. She plays the piano beautifully.

  6. Please be quiet during the exam.

  7. Can you pass me the salt, please?

  8. The view from the mountain is breathtaking!

  9. Let's go for a walk in the park.

  10. It's such a beautiful day!

  11. He is the captain of the soccer team.

  12. Finish your homework before going out to play.

  13. Wow, you've done an excellent job!

  14. Tell me a joke.

  15. The train will depart at 2:30 PM.

  16. May you have a safe journey!

  17. Turn off the lights before leaving the room.

  18. What a wonderful surprise!

  19. She will arrive at the airport at 6 AM.

  20. Go straight, then take a left at the intersection.

Answers:

  1. Declarative

  2. Interrogative

  3. Imperative

  4. Exclamatory

  5. Declarative

  6. Imperative

  7. Interrogative

  8. Exclamatory

  9. Imperative

  10. Exclamatory

  11. Declarative

  12. Imperative

  13. Exclamatory

  14. Imperative

  15. Declarative

  16. Optative

  17. Imperative

  18. Exclamatory

  19. Declarative

  20. Imperative



Sentence types according to their structure


There are four main sentence types according to their structure:

1.Simple Sentence:

  • A simple sentence consists of one independent clause, making it the most basic sentence structure. It expresses a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence.

  • Examples:

    • She plays the piano.

    • The sun is shining.

    • He loves to read books.



2. Complex Sentence:

  • A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one dependent (subordinate) clause. The dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence.

  • Examples:

    • When the rain stopped, we went for a walk. (Independent clause: "We went for a walk." Dependent clause: "When the rain stopped.")

    • Although I like pizza, I'm going to have a salad for dinner. (Independent clause: "I'm going to have a salad for dinner." Dependent clause: "Although I like pizza.")


3.Compound Sentence:

  • A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (such as "and," "but," "or," "so") or a semicolon.

  • Examples:

    • She likes pizza, and he prefers pasta. (Two independent clauses: "She likes pizza" and "he prefers pasta.")

    • The sun is shining; the birds are singing. (Two independent clauses: "The sun is shining" and "the birds are singing.")



4.Compound-Complex Sentence:

  • A compound-complex sentence combines elements of both compound and complex sentences. It includes two or more independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.

  • Examples:

    • While I was studying, the phone rang, so I answered it. (Independent clauses: "The phone rang," "I answered it." Dependent clause: "While I was studying.")

    • She went to the store because she needed groceries, and he stayed home to cook dinner. (Two independent clauses: "She went to the store" and "he stayed home to cook dinner." Dependent clause: "because she needed groceries.")


Exercise




Exercise: Identify the Type of Sentence

  1. The sun sets in the west.

  2. After the show ended, the audience gave a standing ovation.

  3. He studied for the exam, yet he didn't perform well.

  4. Who won the race?

  5. Despite his reluctance, he agreed to participate.

  6. She enjoys dancing, and her brother loves playing the guitar.

  7. Please pass me the salt.

  8. When the teacher entered the room, the students greeted her.

  9. We wanted to go to the beach, but it started raining.

  10. Why are you so late?

  11. She sings beautifully.

  12. I have to finish this report, or I'll get in trouble.

  13. Since it's his birthday, we should throw a party.

  14. After she completed her degree, she got a job in her field.

  15. What time is the movie starting?

  16. I need to buy groceries, so I'm heading to the store.

  17. The cat purrs, and the dog wags its tail.

  18. Would you like a cup of tea?

  19. While I was at work, she cleaned the house.

  20. He forgot to lock the door, and the house got robbed.

Answers:

  1. Simple

  2. Complex

  3. Compound

  4. Interrogative

  5. Complex

  6. Compound

  7. Imperative

  8. Complex

  9. Compound

  10. Interrogative

  11. Simple

  12. Compound

  13. Complex

  14. Complex

  15. Interrogative

  16. Compound

  17. Compound

  18. Interrogative

  19. Compound-Complex

  20. Compound


Exercise: Identify the Type of Sentence

  1. The sun is shining brightly.

  2. When I got home, my dog greeted me enthusiastically.

  3. She loves ice cream, but she's lactose intolerant.

  4. Did you finish your homework?

  5. Despite the traffic jam, we arrived at the concert on time.

  6. Take out the trash, please.

  7. The book is on the shelf; I can grab it for you.

  8. What a beautiful sunset!

  9. After the rain stopped, the children went outside to play.

  10. He enjoys playing soccer, and his sister prefers basketball.

  11. May your dreams come true.

  12. She sings beautifully, and her brother plays the piano.

  13. We're going to the beach this weekend. Are you coming?

  14. Although he's busy with work, he always finds time for his family.

  15. Let's go for a walk in the park, shall we?

  16. The cat purrs softly, and the dog barks loudly.

  17. I can't believe we won the game!

  18. While I was cooking dinner, the phone rang, and I dropped the spatula.

  19. He forgot his lunch, so his mom brought it to him at school.

  20. You should always be polite and respectful.

Answers:

  1. Simple

  2. Complex

  3. Compound

  4. Interrogative

  5. Complex

  6. Imperative

  7. Compound

  8. Exclamatory

  9. Complex

  10. Compound

  11. Optative

  12. Compound

  13. Compound-Complex

  14. Complex

  15. Imperative

  16. Compound

  17. Exclamatory

  18. Compound-Complex

  19. Compound

  20. Compound

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