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PARAGRAPHS FOR JSC, SSC, HSC & OTHER EXAMINATIONS (P)

Updated: Sep 9, 2023


Pahela Baishakh: A token of Bengali identity

Pahela Baishakh is one of our festival days. In our Bengali year we celebrate Pahela Baishakh on the first Baishakh every year. The day is celebrated with traditional festivities across the country. On this day different types of people of different social classes come out from their respective residence and enjoy the carnival enthusiastically and publicly because it is a public holiday. Traders and shopkeepers open halkhata (fresh account books) and offer sweets to their customers and clients with a view to satisfying them keeping the age-old tradition. Children, young, adults, aged —– all people of both male and female look forward to celebrating this day with great hope and aspiration. At the very dawn they go outside to celebrate Pahela Baishakh eating panta vath. Most of the girls adorn themselves wearing fresh dress and flowers in their locks. Young and adult boys like to sing with the traditional musical instruments like ektara, dotara, bamboo-flute, sarinda etc. and somebody likes to wear mask of different things. Different socio-cultural organisations draw up elaborate programmes to celebrate Pahela Baishakh. The day’s first programme begins at dawn at Ramna Batamul where Chhayanat, a leading cultural organisation, organises it. Bangla Academy, Shilpakala Academy, Bulbul Lalitakala Academy, Jatiya Press Club, Liberation War Museum, Bangladesh National Museum, Institute of Fine Arts of Dhaka University and many other organisations bring out colourful processions with festoons, placards, posters, banners, masks etc. Bangladesh Betar, BTV, ETV telecast different lively programmes describing and showing the festival activities of Pahela Baishakh. We can’t but memorise this day with great pleasure every year singing together —- “Esho hei Baishakh Esho hei Baishakh”

The Padma Bridge


The Padma Bridge stands as one of Bangladesh's visionary projects, representing a multipurpose road and rail bridge spanning the Padma River. It ranks as the 122nd largest bridge globally.The construction journey commenced on December 7, 2014, with the China Railway Major Bridge Engineering Company Limited at the helm. The entire bridge's construction reached completion by May 2022, followed by its inauguration by the esteemed Prime Minister, Sheikh Hasina, on June 25, 2022.This two-tiered steel truss bridge boasts dimensions of 6.15 kilometers in length and 18.10 meters in width. Its upper level accommodates a four-lane highway, while the lower level accommodates a single-track railway. The total project cost is estimated at US $3.868 billion, encompassing VAT and IT expenses.The initial stages were not without challenges, as funding and economic concerns arose when the World Bank canceled its credit agreement. However, Bangladesh persevered and secured its own funding.Environmental issues also loomed large, with the Padma River exhibiting two distinct personalities, tranquil in winter and treacherous in summer. Consequently, the construction process was divided into six segments.The first phase involved constructing the main bridge, followed by river training works spanning approximately 14 kilometers (1.6 kilometers at Mawa and 12.4 kilometers at Janjira) in the second phase. The third and fourth phases entailed connecting the main bridge to two highways, while the final stage centered on constructing the service area and overseeing the project.The bridge's significance lies in its capacity to link the southwestern region of the country with the capital and the eastern part, thereby enhancing regional cooperation and transportation management. Moreover, it is poised to catalyze substantial advancements in industrial development, while also facilitating improved access to medical and educational facilities.In essence, the Padma Bridge is set to play a pivotal role in Bangladesh's economic sector.


The Padma Bridge

The Padma Bridge is an outstanding engineering achievement, making it the longest bridge in Bangladesh and a massive project. This bridge stretches across the powerful Padma River and serves as a versatile pathway for both roads and trains, ranking as the 122nd largest bridge worldwide. Construction began ambitiously in December 2014 under the management of the China Railway Major Bridge Engineering Company Limited and reached its successful completion in May 2022. Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina officially inaugurated this significant accomplishment on June 25th of the same year. The Padma Bridge has a unique two-level design made of steel trusses. It extends an impressive 6.15 kilometers in length and has a substantial width of 18.10 meters. The upper level provides space for a four-lane highway, while the lower level accommodates a single-track railway, creating a multifaceted transportation network. The total cost of the project is estimated to be a substantial US $3.868 billion. Building the Padma Bridge was not without its challenges, including financial constraints and economic uncertainties. The situation became particularly complex when the World Bank withdrew its financial support. However, Bangladesh managed to secure domestic funding, overcoming these obstacles. Additionally, environmental challenges arose due to the Padma River's dual nature, transitioning from calm waters in winter to turbulent currents in summer. Consequently, the construction process was carefully divided into six distinct phases. These phases encompassed various aspects, from constructing the primary bridge to managing the river over approximately 14 kilometers, connecting the main bridge to two major highways, and meticulously developing and overseeing the service area. The Padma Bridge has now ushered in a new era of regional collaboration and improved transport connectivity, facilitating enhanced industrial development and expanding access to essential medical and educational resources for underserved communities in the country. By successfully overcoming numerous challenges and obstacles, Bangladesh completed the Padma Bridge within the expected timeframe. This accomplishment represents a significant milestone in the nation's internal communication, trade, and tourism sectors. The Padma Bridge serves as a symbol of the country's resilience and determination to overcome adversity while fostering growth and connectivity.


AN IMPORTANT PERSON WHOM I LIKE MOST

A good teacher is a blessing upon the students who have the fortune to get acquainted with. I have an experience of having close touch with such an important person. He is our English teacher, Mr.-----. He is a man of about 30/32/35. He is really a man of intellect and intelligence. He is the storehouse of knowledge and wisdom. I wonder how he has acquired so much of knowledge and learning. He teaches us sincerely and enthusiastically. He explains till every student is satisfied. His sound arguments, easy explanations and well-knit thoughts make the students listen to him most attentively. He keeps the class lively and in good humour. He does not allow any kind of boredom or idleness to descend upon the class. His witty remarks are really pleasing and delightful. He has mastery over various subjects. But his study of English literature is so deep and vast that he is held in high esteem by the students and the staff alike. He is an industrious teacher and takes pains while teaching. His lucid language, sound knowledge and a good background of the subject make him one of the most admirable teachers of the institution. He makes his students grow the qualities of discipline, punctuality, perseverance and self-reliance. Above all, I can say that he is a great philosopher, friend and guide as well. So, I like him most.

Banning of Polythene Bags: A step to avert hazard

The menace of polythene is regarded as a threat to our environment because it cannot be burned or destroyed. It is a matter of congratulation that Bangladesh Government has banned polythene bags at length. People were demanding to stop the production, uses and black-marketing of polythene bags. At last in a meeting, presided over by the Prime Minister in the presence of the Environment and Forest Minister, this decision was taken. In this decision it was banned firstly from Dhaka City from 01 January 2002 and from 01 March from the whole country. On an average, 6 million polythene bags were being used everyday only in Dhaka City. About eighty percent of these bags were thrown out into dustbin. Forty percent of these polythene bags find their way into the drain, sewerage line and manhole. As polythene remains unchanged like a strong curtain through which nothing can pass, the dirty water of drains and manhole is overflowed. As aresult, water clogs stagnantly in different places. About 5 million pieces of jute-bags were marketed as alternative immediate after the banning of polythene bags. These bags cost five to seven taka per piece. BJMC also delivers jute bags costing taka two only. After a few days multitude bags are marketed. People are now able to carry these bags in pocket. All types of polythene bags have many disadvantages. It cannot be mixed with soil and thus the fertility of cultivable land is lessened. It spreads skin diseases and causes harm to nutrition of trees. Besides, air is polluted while burning these polythene bags. It also causes some serious chronic diseases like tuberculosis and cancer. We should avoid using as well as producing polythene bags as early as possible with a view to liberating our natural environment from their disadvantages. The specialists think that it may take time to ensure not using the polythene bags anywhere. Now it has been a burning question for us all that we should stop the production, uses and marketing of polythene bags for our own betterment as soon as possible.



PASTIMES

The thing we do regularly for enjoymentrather than work is called pastime. In other words, pastime means one's activities in one's leisure. It differs from place to place. In our country pastime varies in respect of locality.-In the village, we see men pass their leisure by chatting. They also indulge in some games and sports, namely ha-du-du, boat race, kiting etc. Some village people have their pastimes by doing social activities. Some take part in cultural activities like 'Jatra', 'Jari-gan' etc. In the town, we see people have their pastimes by taking part in the discussion on political issues at tea-stalls. In this scientific era, their pastimes have changed. They are fond of spending their leisure before television. They watch programmes of different satellite channels. The younger generation are very much fond of cricket and hence they prefer sports channels. The women in the city area are fond of watching drama and films on television. The Chinese spend their time with their family members in parks. The Japanese love sports and spend their time in playing baseball, golf and practising martial arts. Students spend their leisure in English clubs or art clubs or doing skate boarding. Thus pastimes vary from region to region. The pastimes which are common all over the world are watching television, reading novels, collecting stamps, sight seeing, gardening, walking, gossiping, fishing, going on picnics etc. I have a keen interest in photography. That is why it is my favourite pastime.

Pastimes

Pastime refers to one's hobby or work during one's free time. It is not one's main business. Pastimes vary from person to person, society to society and country to country. In our country the village people pass their leisures by gossiping, playing outdoor and indoor games, fishing, boating, swimming, gardening, visiting neighbours and relatives and joining village cultural functions and by watching 'IV programmes. The city dwellers spend their free time by joining clubs, visiting parks, zoos, museums, international fairs and historical spots. They also enjoy their free time by swimming, boating and fishing in the big lakes, by reading magazines, newspapers and books, 1.y watching international sporting events at the stadium and travelling and gardening. Our children and the young community have a great fondness and interestfor band and pop music. The Chinese enjoy their pastimes by visiting parks and watching TV programmes at evening. Playing baseball, golf and practising martial arts are the popular pastimes in Japan. The Germans are fond of passing their leisures by travelling, walking, hiking, dancing, visiting families and friends. In Canada skiing, hiking, snow boarding, hunting, camping, bird watching, fishing, boating and swimming in large lakes or sea-beaches are common pastimes. Today watching TV programmes is the most common pastime all over the world. The value of pastimes is very great in our life. It helps to remove the monotony of routine life and keeps our mind cheerful and playful. I am a college student. I pass my leisures by travelling and by reading magazines and newspapers. One's life become dismal and cheerless if one does not enjoy one's free time and holidays properly.

PASTTIME//LEISURE

Man’s life is usually bound by routine. Pastime affords an opportunity to escape out of the prison or routine and breathe the tonic air of freedom. This, therefore, is always a source of joy whenever it comes. . Pastime is the sweetest of moments when a man has nothing to do. . Pastime is also important for the progress of civilisation. It is the basis of all culture. During pastime a person is his own master and can dispose of his time according to his own sweet will. In other words, it is a time when the mind is relaxed, and the body is at rest. Sometimes it becomes a problem to find out the way to get leisure. As a remedy for this, it is necessary for all of us to cultivate some hobby. Some people like to play cards, some to watch films, others to go shopping or visiting friends. Those who love the air of the countryside may surrender to the joy of standing out in the open and feed their sense with the sights and sounds that create beauty and music all around them. Yet there are others who just like to settle down with a good book. Whatever the concept of pastime is, one must derive enjoyment and happiness from it. Practising the hobbies during pastime time our minds may have rest and relaxation. Thus leisure is the essence of life.


Early Marriage/ Premature Marriage/Child Marriage

Early marriage is an act of getting married at a tender age when the individual is not fully mature to take responsible or not reaching the proper adult age. In Bangladesh the legal age for marriage is 21 for boys and 18 for girls. Despite this legislation, the average age for marriage of girls is 16.4 years. We find that illiteracy, poverty, selfish attitude, unconsciousness, religious misinterpretation, superstitions, social customs, discriminatory attitude towards girls, wrong idea about girls education, dowry system, etc. are some of the causes of premature marriage. Early marriage is seen as a way to “protect” a girl’s sexuality in an unsafe environment. The effects of premature marriage are, no doubt, harmful for health and mind of a female child. The girls cannot adjust with the new environment of their in-law’s house. They cannot serve their husbands’ families properly. In such a condition of their health, weak baby is born with different complications. As a result, it leads to family conflict and misunderstanding. Sometimes, premature marriage leads to divorce, suicide, and unnatural death. To encourage female education and to discourage early marriage our government has taken some positive steps, such as giving stipends to girls, recruiting more female teachers etc. To prevent thispunishable offense, the conscious people should come forward. The parents should be made aware of the bad effects of premature marriage. Different mass media can play an important role in solving the problem. Early marriage perpetuates an unequal society, increasing female vulnerability, powerlessness and assetlessness, as well as restricting personal and psychological development and having hazardous health effects. To sum up, because of negative effect on young people’s development as well as marriage itself, people should not get married early.

PHYSICAL EXERCISE

Physical exercise is regulated exertion of the limbs for their balanced development. It is as much important as nourishing food and recuperative rest. By taking regular physical exercise a man can invigorate his body and refreshes his mind. It makes a man strong and stout. It keeps the body and mind sound. A man with sound health is really happy. He can enjoy the world. He can take part in any work with happy mood. Physical exercise makes a man active, energetic and free from diseases. It brings all the muscles into play and strengthens them all. There are many kinds of games and sports, each of which is a good form of physical exercise. Some of them are cricket, football, walking, racing, rowing, riding on horseback, gymnastics and drills. Some people don’t take care of taking physical exercise because they cannot appreciate the importance of this. They should know that physical exercise helps a man possess sound health. They are not to suffer from various diseases if they are take physical exercise. So, we must realise the importance of physical exercise in our life.

A PICNIC I HAVE ENJOYED RECENTLY

A picnic is a pleasant pastime to break the monotony life. During the last Autumn holidays we enjoyed a picnic at Sitakunda. For the purpose, subscriptions of all the friends were collected and we hired a bus. We did all the shopping of rice, meat, chickens, spices, bread, eggs, banana, cold-drinks and so on. We also bought films for the cameras. On the scheduled morning we set out at 8 o’clock. It was a pleasant journey. We sang all the way to the spot, many of us cut jokes and we all burst out laughing. The spot was of scenic beauty surrounded by large trees with branches spreading to provide cool shade. We had our snacks. Some of us sat to prepare out dinner. There were lakes and hills. We ran up and down and it gave us immense pleasure. At midday our dinner was ready. We had a grand feast with different types of curry followed by sweets. Though the cooking was of no high order, yet our keen appetite made everything tasteful. After our lunch we sat together to enjoy a little function of fun. Before dusk we set off for home. It was a pleasant return journey. At last we reached home safe and sound. It was really a memorable day of my life.

Physical Exercise

Exercise of different parts of the body is said to be physical exercise. This is essential for keeping the body fit. There is a glaring proverb, "A sound mind in a sound body". That is, if the body is unsound, the mind must be unsound too. Indeed it is not possible to keep good health without proper physical exercise. It makes our muscles strong and active. It gives us immense pleasure and energy. It increases the power of digestion. It also keeps the body free from manifold diseases. In order to maintain good health, we have to take regular physical exercise. But physical exercise must be well regulated, systematic and balanced. Again, exercise after food is not suitable for health. There are different types of exercise, such as - walking, swimming, riding, rowing and jogging are the most common form of exercises. Games and sports particularly, outdoor games like Football, volley-ball, basket ball, badminton, and cricket meet the demand of physical exercise. Physical exercise keeps our body fit as well as offers ample opportunity for our longevity in this world. So, everyone should take physical exercise regularly.


A PICNIC I HAVE ATTENDED RECENTLY

A picnic is a pleasant pastime to break the monotony life. During the last Autumn holidays we enjoyed a picnic at Sitakunda. For the purpose, subscriptions of all the friends were collected and we hired a bus. We did all the shopping of rice, meat, chickens, spices, bread, eggs, banana, cold-drinks and so on. We also bought films for the cameras. On the scheduled morning we set out at 8 o’clock. It was a pleasant journey. We sang all the way to the spot, many of us cut jokes and we all burst out laughing. The spot was of scenic beauty surrounded by large trees with branches spreading to provide cool shade. We had our snacks. Some of us sat to prepare out dinner. There were lakes and hills. We ran up and down and it gave us immense pleasure. At midday our dinner was ready. We had a grand feast with different types of curry followed by sweets. Though the cooking was of no high order, yet our keen appetite made everything tasteful. After our lunch we sat together to enjoy a little function of fun. Before dusk we set off for home. It was a pleasant return journey. At last we reached home safe and sound. It was really a memorable day of my life.

A PICNIC I HAVE ENJOYED RECENTLY


A picnic is a pleasant pastime to break the monotony life. During the last Autumn holidays we enjoyed a picnic at Sitakunda. For the purpose, subscriptions of all the friends were collected and we hired a bus. We did all the shopping of rice, meat, chickens, spices, bread, eggs, banana, cold-drinks and so on. We also bought films for the cameras. On the scheduled morning we set out at 8 o’clock. It was a pleasant journey. We sang all the way to the spot, many of us cut jokes and we all burst out laughing. The spot was of scenic beauty surrounded by large trees with branches spreading to provide cool shade. We had our snacks. Some of us sat to prepare out dinner. There were lakes and hills. We ran up and down and it gave us immense pleasure. At midday our dinner was ready. We had a grand feast with different types of curry followed by sweets. Though the cooking was of no high order, yet our keen appetite made everything tasteful. After our lunch we sat together to enjoy a little function of fun. Before dusk we set off for home. It was a pleasant return journey. At last we reached home safe and sound. It was really a memorable day of my life.

A picnic you attended

During the last Winter vacation we enjoyed a picnic. It was a fine morning. I with five of my friends started for the journey at 8.00 a.m. We reached our expected place, Rangamati at 11.00 a.m. We had our cooking arrangements with us. We had also playthings and musical-instruments. Reaching there, all of us cooked the food. At midday our lunch was ready. We then sat together and ate to our fill, though the cooking was of no high order. After finishing our lunch, we cleaned the utensils and packed them into the baskets. We sang songs and played games. We roamed around here and there and saw many attractive things. The natural scenery of Rangamati beggars description. That is, we became spell-bound seeing the natural beauty of Rangamati. The setting sun was very beautiful to look at. At 5.30 p.m. we left the place and started for home with merriment. The memory of this journey will remain ever fresh in my heart.

A PORTER

A porter is a familiar figure in the railway station, at a bus stop, at a ‘ferry ghat’ or at a big market. He is strong and active. He is swift in moment. He has enough strength to carry heavy loads. He carries luggage and bedding of the passengers or the things bought by people. In a railway station he loads and unloads the goods train. He is very clever. He knows the art of exploiting his clients. When there is a crisis of porters he demands a much higher charge. He is not gentle but quarrelsome. He likes to bargain with the passengers for his charge. When there is higgling no other porter comes to the passenger. In this respect there is unity among the porters. Sometimes the passengers are harassed by the porter and his associates. In market places the porters are comparatively gentle in nature. There is not much scope to cheat people here. His work is hard and difficult but his income is very low. He has to live with his family from hand to mouth. His service to people is very great indeed.

A PORTER

A porter is a familiar figure in the railway station, at a bus stop, at a ‘ferry ghat’ or at a big market. He is strong and active. He is swift in moment. He has enough strength to carry heavy loads. He carries luggage and bedding of the passengers or the things bought by people. In a railway station he loads and unloads the goods train. He is very clever. He knows the art of exploiting his clients. When there is a crisis of porters he demands a much higher charge. He is not gentle but quarrelsome. He likes to bargain with the passengers for his charge. When there is higgling no other porter comes to the passenger. In this respect there is unity among the porters. Sometimes the passengers are harassed by the porter and his associates. In market places the porters are comparatively gentle in nature. There is not much scope to cheat people here. His work is hard and difficult but his income is very low. He has to live with his family from hand to mouth. His service to people is very great indeed.

ADVANTAGE OF PHYSICAL LABOUR

Physical labour is essential for our health. Those who are negligent and idle in doing their physical labour cannot prosper in life. Their lives become burden to them. There are a lot of advantages of physical labour. Physical labour makes our lives prosperous. It turns our hopes into reality. It takes us to the pinnacle of success. It brings smile on our face. It helps us to enjoy the bliss of life. Actually, physical labour plays a very substantial role in making our lives efficacious and pithy. Through physical labour we can have a nice appetite and have a good digestion and which help us to keep our body fit and strong. And our minds become cheerful and active. Apart from this, physical labour helps us to increase the power of antibody of our healthy. Therefore, through physical labour we can easily keep our body free from the attack of any severe disease. In fact, physical labour assists us to enjoy a sound health which is the precondition of leading an enjoyable life. In fine, we have to admit that the advantage of physical labour in our lives beyond description.

ADVANTAGE OF PHYSICAL WORKS

The works which are done with physical labour, considered as physical works. Physical work is a part and parcel of the existence of human beings. Those who are negligent and idle in doing their physical work cannot prosper in life. Their lives become burden to them. There are a lot of advantages of physical works. Physical works make our lives prosperous. It turns our hopes into reality. It takes us to the pinnacle of success. It brings smile on our face. It helps us to enjoy the bliss of life. Actually, physical works play a very substantial role in making our lives efficacious and pithy. Through physical works we can have a nice appetite and have a good digestion and which help us to keep our body fit and strong. And our minds become cheerful and active. Apart from this, physical works help us to increase the power of antibody of our healthy. Therefore, through physical works we can easily keep our body free from the attack of any severe disease. In fact, physical works assist us to enjoy a sound health which is the precondition of leading an enjoyable life. In fine, we have to admit that the advantage of physical works in our lives is beyond description.

PASTTIME//LEISURE



Man’s life is usually bound by routine. Pastime affords an opportunity to escape out of the prison or routine and breathe the tonic air of freedom. This, therefore, is always a source of joy whenever it comes. . Pastime is the sweetest of moments when a man has nothing to do. . Pastime is also important for the progress of civilisation. It is the basis of all culture. During pastime a person is his own master and can dispose of his time according to his own sweet will. In other words, it is a time when the mind is relaxed, and the body is at rest. Sometimes it becomes a problem to find out the way to get leisure. As a remedy for this, it is necessary for all of us to cultivate some hobby. Some people like to play cards, some to watch films, others to go shopping or visiting friends. Those who love the air of the countryside may surrender to the joy of standing out in the open and feed their sense with the sights and sounds that create beauty and music all around them. Yet there are others who just like to settle down with a good book. Whatever the concept of pastime is, one must derive enjoyment and happiness from it. Practising the hobbies during pastime time our minds may have rest and relaxation. Thus leisure is the essence of life.

A Postman

One who delivers letters, parcels, money-orders, telegrams etc. from door to door is called a postman. He generally puts on a khaki uniform. We know him from a distance. He always carries a bag full of letters, money-orders or parcels. He is a very reliable person. The duties and responsibilities of a postman are many. He has to work in his area from door to door as well as in his office. He sorts the letters according to the locations of the houses of the recipients. After that he puts them in his bag in a planned way. Then he goes out to deliver them from door to door. He has to maintain a record in case of registered letters, parcels and money-orders. He has to take the signatures of the addressee. He is a messenger of fate. He brings us both good and bad news. Yet he is welcomed by all. In fact, the life of a postman is miserable. He passes his days in a very simple way. Still he has to be honest and responsible. We should take care of a postman and his honesty should be rewarded. In fact, the postman is a real friend of our society.

POPULATION GROWTH IN BANGLADESH

Explosion of population is rightly identified as the number one national problem. The baby boom every year has become worrying. Bangladesh is small country but her population is great. The area of Bangladesh is about 55 thousand square miles, and it has a population of about 130 million. About 2000 people live per square mile. It means Bangladesh is one of the densely populated countries in the world. There are more people than there is food and space for them. Our population is growing in an alarming rate. The growth rate of Bangladesh is 27 per thousand. It is obviously a very high rate. Our population depends on cultivable land. But on an average, each person has 0.1 hectares of cultivable land. This cannot even produce enough crops to provide the bare necessaries for their existence. Besides, the additional people that are born every year need many additional things. So population growth in Bangladesh is undoubtedly a very great problem.



PRICE-HIKE A price increase, often seen as an unexpected rise in the cost of everyday necessities, has become a common issue in Bangladesh, steadily worsening over time. This problem can be attributed primarily to market syndicates that manipulate prices. Additionally, some unscrupulous traders deliberately create shortages in essential goods to maximize profits. Other factors contributing to price hikes include natural disasters leading to lower agricultural production, shortages of raw materials, the need for rapid communication, political instability, nationwide inflation, and various other elements.The consequences of rising prices are profound, causing social unrest and putting the lives of ordinary citizens in jeopardy. The cost of essential goods has surged to levels beyond the reach of low-income and fixed-income individuals, affecting the majority of the population. Unfortunately, this problem cannot be resolved overnight.To address this issue effectively, the government should implement both short-term and long-term strategies. Swift action is needed to curb the activities of business syndicates, and measures to control monetary inflation rates must be put in place. Prioritizing the agricultural sector in the annual budget can boost domestic production and stabilize prices. Furthermore, public awareness campaigns should be launched to educate people about the causes and consequences of price hikes. In doing so, steps can be taken to alleviate the burden of rising prices on the people of Bangladesh.

PRICE-HIKE

A price hike refers to an increase in the cost of goods or services, driven by factors like rising production costs, supply shortages, or shifts in market demand. It can have far-reaching consequences, affecting consumers and businesses alike by potentially causing inflation and reducing purchasing power. Nonetheless, it can also signal a robust economy and be necessary for companies to stay profitable. Price hikes can trigger a chain reaction in the economy, leading to higher prices across various sectors. This cycle of inflation can result in an increased cost of living and decreased consumer buying power. For businesses, managing price increases is a delicate balancing act. Overpricing may lead to customer loss and reduced revenue, while underpricing can erode profitability. Moreover, it can invite competition from other firms seeking to undercut prices, making pricing decisions critical. In Bangladesh, the issue of price hikes has become a pressing concern, particularly affecting essential commodities such as rice, oil, and vegetables. The rising cost of living is placing significant strain on ordinary citizens. Several factors contribute to this problem, including surges in fuel and energy prices, leading to higher transportation costs and increased overall expenses. Growing demand for essential goods due to population growth and supply chain disruptions caused by the ongoing pandemic have also played a substantial role in escalating prices. The government has implemented measures to address this issue, such as importing essential items and price controls on specific goods. However, these efforts have had limited success in curbing inflation. Effectively addressing price hikes is crucial to ensure that basic necessities remain affordable for the general populace, representing a significant challenge for both the government and the people of Bangladesh.

PRICE-HIKE

A price hike means that the cost of things and services goes up over time. This happens often in most economies and can occur for many reasons. Usually, a price hike is caused by things like inflation, higher costs to make things, or more people wanting to buy those things or services. The effects of a price hike are felt by many people, including individuals, businesses, and governments. When prices go up, people notice it right away. They have to pay more for things or services they used to get for less money. This can make it harder for them to buy things and might make their lives not as comfortable. Price hikes affect many areas of life, like housing, food, transportation, and education. These are important parts of life, and if their prices go up, it affects a lot of people. Price hikes also affect businesses, especially if they rely on things from other countries or raw materials. For example, if the cost of oil goes up, it costs more to move things around, so the prices of things and services go up. Sometimes, businesses have to pass these extra costs to their customers, and this can mean they sell fewer things. Governments also feel the impact of price hikes. They have to keep the economy stable, and when prices go up, they might need to raise taxes or print more money. This can lead to inflation, where money is worth less, and it can hurt the economy in the long run. Price hikes are a big problem for people, businesses, and governments. It's a complicated issue, and we need to find solutions. Governments need to make policies to control inflation, and businesses need to find ways to make things cheaper. As consumers, we should understand what causes price hikes and be ready for changes in the economy.

PRICE HIKE OF ESSENTIAL COMMODITIES

There was a big price hike of essentials in Bangladesh in the months of September and October. We all experienced it in the market while shopping. All the newspapers of the country published the news with great concern. The hike was a widely talked about subject everywhere in Bangladesh. The prices of almost all the essential commodities rose beyond the reach of the poor and the middle class people. The most expensive items were vegetables, specially brinjal and green chilli. The price hike was caused by the prolonged untimely flood in the country. The holy month of Ramadan also contributed a lot to it, because people, during this month, try to buy and consume some of these items more than in other months. The flood had damaged our crops and disrupted rail and road communication. This also worsened the problem. Some dishonest businessmen made the best use of the situation. They earned illegal and immoral profits at the cost of our suffering. The common people, who always bear the brunt of price hike, reacted patiently. They knew that they were helpless. I felt for the poor people, but I had nothing to do. The government formed monitoring cells to control the price hike. The law enforcing agencies were deployed to fight corruption. Import of essentials was encouraged by the government through tax-cuts. But nothing seemed to prove fruitful. The rich and the business class should come forward to ensure proper distribution of the commodities. Now we should do research work to overcome price hikes in future.



PRIZE GIVING CEREMONY OF MY COLLEGE

The last prize giving ceremony of our college is still very fresh in my memory. It was held on the first week of February last year. The DC of our district had consented to preside over the occasion. We decorated our college premises with flowers and festoons. When the DC arrived he was accorded guard of honour by the BNCC of our college. The proceedings began with the holy Quran Telawat. Then our national anthem was sung when all of us kept standing up. The principal read out his annual report. He recalled the progress that had been carried through during the past years, the achievements of our present and ex-students in various fields of activity. Then the main ceremony began. The principal called each recipient of award by name, announced the subject in which the award was made and the place of honour he occupied. I got two prizes -one for my standing first in the last annual examination and the other in sports. When the prizes were awarded, the cheering crowd greeted the recipients with applause which was loud enough to be heard miles away. With the complimentary speech of the president, the function came to an end. When I remember the day I feel very happy and wish to have the day again so that I can get prizes.

PUNCTUALITY

Punctuality means the habit of doing a thing at the right time. A punctual man gets ample time in his life. He can do many things. A punctual student learns his lessons in time and finds no difficulty in the examination. He never lags behind in the class. He can follow his lessons from beginning to end. It saves his time. He has not to labour so much. He need not work hard at the time of examination. He makes a better performance with a minimum amount of labour. Punctuality crowns him with brilliant success in life. An unpunctual man is an enemy to himself. He is a nuisance to everyone. He is disliked by all. He suffers for that. If he gives word to his friends and cannot keep it, he may lose his friends. An unpunctual clerk loses his job. An unpunctual man cannot even say his prayers in time. The habit of punctuality requires long careful training. So the habit should be practised quite early in life. Once the habit is formed its utility will be apparent in every sphere of life. So let us develop the habit of punctuality so that we can do the maximum work within the span of life.

POLLUTION

Our total environment influences our life and our way of living. Three things ---- objects, forces and conditions together make our environment. It includes both natural and man-made objects, forces and conditions. The main elements of human environment are man, animals, plants, soil, air, and water. There are relationships among these elements. These relationships are disturbed because of pollution and then life becomes difficult or impossible. Every year millions of people all over the world die unnecessary as a result of pollution. These unfortunate and avoidable deaths are brought about by four specific factors. Firstly, air pollution from factories, burning trash and vehicle fumes cause pneumonia, bronchitis and other respiratory diseases. Then, water pollution from industrial discharge, the indiscriminate disposal to toxic chemicals and the dumping of human waste into rivers and canals causes poisoning and water-borne diseases such as cholera and diarrhoea. The next factor is the noise pollution from vehicle horns and microphones that might cause aggression and damage hearing. Again, odour pollution from dumped or untreated human waste causes serious discomfort to our sense of smell, and attracts disease-bearing creatures such as rats and flies. Soil pollution is also another important aspect. Factory waste, nuclear explosion, oil etc pollute the soil. Polluted soil can’t grow crops. We should bear in mind that if the environment is polluted, none of us will remain safe. We should take determined action to control these problems and clean up the environment to avert these unnecessary diseases.


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