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PARAGRAPHS FOR JSC, SSC, HSC & OTHER EXAMINATIONS (H)


A Hartal Day: A suspension of regular activities

In modern civilisation most of the states of the world face hartal in season and out of season. So we are quite familiar with it. Hartal is the rightful demand of the political parties. It is observed at the call of a political party or parties to press their demand to the ruling party. Sometimes the opposition political party or parties call hartal against the corruption, misgovernment, misuse of power and the evil deeds of the ruling party. At times students and people of a locality call hartal to expose their demand. On a hartal day the usual course of life is hampered. The communication system of the country is broken down as all vehicles and the other transports cannot move. Rickshaws are seen few and far between. Picketers burn cars and others on the road to stop the movement of the vehicles. People are to face a lot of troubles on a hartal day. They go on foot. The road looks desolate. The economical activities of the country come to a stand still. Most of the mills and factories, markets and shops remain closed. The foreign investors lose their interest to the country. Often clashes occur between the police and picketers or between the hartal activists and the anti-hartal activists. Sometimes these clashes bring loss of lives. The police are engaged in important spots to control the situation and to avert unwanted events. Yet harassment of man and women often becomes a common scene. On a hartal day students suffer a lot. We hope the peaceful solution of any problem arisen between the government and the opposition. Above all, we should consider the suffering of the people while calling hartal. We also ought to consider that the would-be hartal is so necessary? So we should abstain ourselves from calling hartal as far as possible.

A hartal day

Hartal mainly refers the act of total shutdown of workplaces, offices, shops, courts of law as a form of civil disobedience particularly in political protest. In modern strife torn state hartal has become a common affair. It is observed at the call of a political party to press their demand to the ruling political party. The opposition political parties observe hartal to protest against the corruption, misuse of power and the evil deeds of the ruling party. Sometimes students and people of a locality call hartal to express their demands. On a hartal day normal course of life is stopped. All means of transport and vehicles do not move on the roads. People are to take a lot of troubles to attend their offices. They go on foot as vehicles are not available. As a result the attendance is very negligible in the offices, factories, industries and shops. The economy of the country suffers a heavy loss. Mills, factories and industries stop their work. All the business centers, markets and shops remain closed. The supporters in favour of hartal bring out procession. Often clashes occur between the police and the picketers. Sometime clashes take place between the supporters of the opposition and the ruling political partical parties which result in some deaths. On a hartal day the suffering of the people know no bounds. Actually, it is a mode of appealing to the sympathies of a government to change an unpopular or unacceptable decision.

Basic Human Rights: A global demand for establishing peace

In the present civilised world everybody has some rights to exercise. The rights to get food, shelter, education, medical treatment etc. are called fundamental rights. But the concept of basic human rights derives from the belief that a man cannot exist in this world without having certain rights in a particular tribe or in the society. The basic human rights are divided into different categories. They are social rights, civil rights, … .political rights, economic rights, religious rights and cultural rights. Social rights mean the rights to move freely, to arrange and attend any social function like meeting, conference, marriage ceremony, birthday party or any other social function. Civil rights refer to the rights of the citizens. Every citizen has the rights to be free from the interference, attack and disturbance of others. Political rights mean the rights to join trade union, to take part in the administration, to give vote and to have the freedom of speech including freedom of expression of opinions. An inhabitant will also exercise the cultural rights, religious rights and economic rights. A person can attend various cultural functions like Pahela Baishakh, carnival, jatra, snake charming, puppet show etc. as well as can arrange them at different times. In the same way people can enjoy various religious festivals like Eid-ul-Fitr, Eid-ul-Azha, Christmas day, Swarashati puja etc and all these are their religious rights. Moreover, people of different religions can independently say their respective prayers going to mosque, church, temple or pagoda, and perform other religious activities. Every person can possess properties, establish organisations, support others financially etc —– all these are some examples of economic rights. In the constitution all rights of the people have been obviously mentioned. All citizens are equal in the eye of law and justice. But in many countries of the world including Bangladesh basic human rights are being violated brutally. This violation must be considered crime. And this type of crime is usually committed by the law-enforcing agencies, miscreants and politicians. Definitely they should be punished for violating fundamental human rights. So, some pragmatic measures should be adopted by the govt. as well as by all leading NGO’s. All constitutional writings about basic human rights have to be materialised in no time. Moreover, we have to raise consciousness about the basic human rights among all people through different mass media like radio, television, cinema, newspaper, poster, internet etc. and through political activities, canvass and propaganda so that we can ensure the fundamental human rights for the overall betterment of all.

HOLIDAY


I love holidays. Who doesn’t love holidays especially when unexpected holidays come suddenly in the middle of the week? I really don’t know what happens to me on a holiday - one moment I am fast asleep dreaming of the homework I have not done. Again the next minute I am wide awake suddenly realising I need not touch my books, as the homework can wait another twenty-four hours. I love being outdoors, so before it gets too hot I put in half-an-hour’s jogging and some cricket practice with a few like-minded friends from the neighbourhood. I then have a huge breakfast revelling in the luxury of dawdling over my glass of my milk. The rest of the day is spent doing days-like finishing an exciting book, ringing up an old friend, cleaning my room, helping my father to clean his car and even trying my hand at painting. I like to watch television too and listen to some good music. Change of activity is very relaxing so I try to avoid being idle. Moreover it’s fun to do different things every little while. Hence I don’t get bored. Even on holidays, I believe in sleeping early to enable me to wake up fresh the next morning. This is how I pass my holidays with different activities.

HONESTY MUST BE REWARDED

Honesty is one of the noblest virtues of a human individual. Honesty is the best policy. It reveals the truth. A dishonest man may be successful for a time being. But an honest man is sure to succeed in the long run. The student who cheats in an examination may gain good marks. He learns thereby to adopt unfair means of passing his future examinations. Consequently he loses his confidence and self-reliance. He himself ruins his career and reputation. The bad effects of dishonesty can also be observed in the cases of civil service, business and trade, economy, politics, etc. Dishonest persons collapse all the spheres of our national life. A dishonest person suddenly makes himself rich by dishonest means but he is severely punished by his conscience. The dishonest man lives all through his life in dread. His misdeeds may at any moment be revealed in the broad light of day. On the other hand and honest man is a glorious ornament for a society. He brings the glory for men and nation. He can disperse his virtues throughout the nation. Everybody can rely on him undoubtedly. He becomes renowned and reputed everywhere. An honest man can overcome all the difficulties in the society by dint of his noble virtue. In the long run both an honest man and a dishonest man are evaluated. The honesty of an honest person is rewarded and a dishonest person is rebuked by everybody. The honesty of a man sparkles the flame of truth everywhere

A HARTAL DAY

In modern strife-torn state ‘hartal’ has become a common affair. We are quite familiar with it. On a hartal day normal course of life is stopped. All means of transport and vehicles do not move on the roads. Rickshaws are seen few and far between. Picketers are very active on a hartal day. They burn old tyres on the road to stop the movement of the vehicles. People are to take a lot of troubles to attend their offices. The attendance is very negligible in the offices, factories, industries and shops. The roads look desolate. The banks cannot operate any transactions. The supporters in favour of hartal bring out procession. The police patrol the towns. They are employed on important points through the cities and towns to prevent any sort of violence and avert unwanted events. Nevertheless, sometimes, untoward incidents take place. They charge batons and lob tear gases to disperse the agitated mob. Sometimes there is chase and counter chase. At times the sounds of crackers and bomb explosion are heard. The angry mob set fire on vehicles and shops. On a hartal day the sufferings of the people know no bound.

A Hartal Day

A hartal is nothing but a medium of protest. Generally opposition parties combined together call out hartal to protest against the unlawful activities of the ruling government. On a hartal day all types of educational institutions, the shops, the markets, the mills, the factories and the industries remain closed. But the government offices remain open. So the government employees are to go to their offices on foot. All types of vehicles are stopped by the picketers but some rickshaws are seen in the roads and streets. The picketers often damage some rickshaws by setting fire to them. The roads and the streets look vacant. The ambulance and the vehicles of the newspaper agencies have no restriction. The supporters of the hartal often attack the police to create disturbance. The police charge with stick and tear gas to disperse the hartal supporters. The picketers use crackers and bombs to frighten the passers-by. The police patrol often arrests the violent supporters. Processions are seen on the streets. Nowadays some processions are seen legally organized to recover the respective demands from the government as well as other institutions. However, the common people do not support the frequent hartals.

A HAWKER

A hawker is a common figure in Bangladesh. His long-drawn trade call draws the attention of the women-folk of the house. They respond to the call the send for him. There are two classes of hawkers. Some want to sell articles and some want to buy old and used articles. The hawker who sells articles is more in number. He moves from door to door. He is seen on almost all the streets. The hawker who wants to buy old and worn out articles from the houses has a peculiar way of declaring the list of the articles he wants. He comes to the house at noon when the male-folks are away from the houses. So he can easily cheat the women-folks in price and in weight. He buys food grains, worn-out clothes and shoes, old books and newspapers. The street hawker is perhaps one of the cleverest men. They know the art of winning the heart of his customers. His manners enchant them. He does not always make a very high profit. His only point is to sell something. In spite of his wit and art, the hawker is very poor. He is too poor to maintain his family

HOW I HAVE CELEBRATED THE BIRTHDAY PARTY


A birthday party is a matter of joy and merriment. A birthday is observed or celebrated to make one’s birthday memorable or to get amusement, or to give pleasure to others. One normally becomes very joyous to celebrate one’s birthday. There are much charms of a birthday party because the guests and the hosts get much pleasure from the birthday party. I have recently celebrated my 12 /13 /14th birthday. First I have invited my relatives and friends. Secondly I have decorated my house nicely. I have also put on my new dress. Thirdly I have arranged a birthday cake, which is the main attraction of the party. Fourthly after the arrival of the invited guests, I have lighted the candle, cut the cake chuckling merrily, followed by applause of friends, fans and well-wishers. Then the prepared delicious food is served to the guests. Thereafter, all joining it have felt interested to do something pleasant. So, a short cultural programme is arranged after the meal. Finally, the guests leave wishing me many happy returns of the day. Thus the celebration of my birthday party comes to an end with joy and merriment

HOW TO ARRANGE A PICNIC


A picnic is a pleasant diversion. It breaks the monotony of life. But holding a picnic is easier than arranging it. If a group of people want to go on a picnic, they are to do some particular things. First, they are to form a committee, choose a picnic spot and fix a date. These things give ample scope for discussion and argument and make things lively. Secondly the committee will be divided into some groups to do different kinds of things such as fund raising, purchasing food items, hiring transport, cooking, arranging games, cultural programme etc. Thirdly, the committee will collect the subscription from all the members within the fixed date. Meanwhile the group work starts. Some go for arranging conveyance, some purchase eatables and some collect other items. Thus everyone performs his or her assigned duties. This shows up the efficiency and resourcefulness of individual member of the party. Finally comes the picnic itself. All the members will start for their picnic spot on the fixed day from a place fixed before. And full-blooded young people then enjoy the picnic.

HOW I HAVE ENJOYED MY LAST RELIGIOUS FESTIVAL

This time I along with our family have visited our village home and spent the Eid festival there. We had reached the village two days before. My two cousins with their families also visited the village. On the eve of the Eid we passed the night in excitement, and made various preparations. Some of us used fireworks and decorated and illuminated our houses. As soon as the day dawned all rose from our beds. We had our bath. Then we dressed ourselves in the best clothes. This being over, we all proceeded towards the ‘maidan’ to offer prayers in congregation. At the end, we embraced one another. Then we came back to our houses and we wished our grandmother, mothers and sisters. Meanwhile mother and aunts prepared ‘shemai’ and other kinds of sweets. Then all of us took sweets with great joy and merriment. Sweets were also distributed among the poor, friends and relatives. Poor people gathered at the lawn of the houses and my grandfather gave them money and clothes. In the evening we visited the houses of our relatives and passed our time in merry-making. Everywhere we were received with utmost cordiality and hospitality. Then we came back our home. Sumptuous dinner was arranged in our home. At night we all got together and had a gossip for a long time. There we sang songs, cut jokes etc. Thus the day passed through great excitement and bustle.

HOW TO ARRANGE BOOKS IN A LIBRARY


Library is a place where there are plenty of books to read or borrow. It is the store-house of knowledge where many ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions of many kinds are imprisoned in the block letters of the books. There are rules of borrowing and using the library books. Most libraries are arranged in a systematic way that makes it possible to locate any book quite easily. All of the books in a library are organised into categories or classes and then arranged alphabetically within their class. There are two systems for organising books in a library. One is called the Dewey Decimal System and the other is known as the library of the Congress System. Most of the libraries follow the Dewey Decimal System. Under this system, the books are grouped into ten major categories or subject areas. Each category is assigned a range of numbers and every book in the category is assigned its own special number within that number range. For example, Science is assigned numbers from 500 to 599. A particular science book can have a number such as 542.46 or 581.93. The number that is assigned to a book is called ‘call number’. The books of libraries are arranged in an orderly way and it helps the readers to get their desired book easily.

THE HOUSE I LIVE IN / A PLACE WHERE I LIVE

A house is a dwelling place for anyone. There is nothing like a house. The house I live in with other members is a one-storeyed building. It is situated in an open place with good space on all sides. It has wide windows and doors to let in sufficient light and air. It has as many as seven rooms. Of them, three are bedrooms-----one for guests and the other two for the members of the family. The remaining four rooms are a reading room, a store-room, a drawing room and a dining room. The reading room is furnished with shelves containing books on different subjects. The drawing room is furnished with comfortable modern furniture. Some nice pictures, photographs and handiworks are hung on the walls. The bedrooms are simple and are arranged in different ways. A bathroom, a sanitary latrine and a kitchen are at some distance from the bedrooms. A flower garden with various seasonal flowers is the chief attraction of our house. We keep our house neat and clean. We are quite happy to live in our house.

HOW TO BOARD A PLANE


A journey by air is a pleasant experience for anyone. If anyone wants to make a journey, he is to go through some formalities for boarding a plane. One is to arrive at the airport about an hour before the flight. Then he is to be checked in and wait in the lounge. Then he is given a boarding card on which the number of his seat is written. When the flight is announced, the passengers are asked to board the plane. Next he is to get on board and find his seat. When all the passengers are in, the door is closed. As the plane is ready to take off, the passengers are asked to fasten our seat belts. The passenger is also given instructions about what to do in case of an emergency. Then the plane takes off smoothly. Shortly after taking off, the captain’s voice was heard. He welcomed us and wished us a happy journey. A few minutes later we were given newspapers. We were also served soft drink. I looked through the window and saw clouds flying past the plane. Following the example of others, I unfastened my seat belt. I felt a thrill of joy when I noticed below the rivers appeared to be thin lines drawn on a sheet of paper. Suddenly it was announced that we were very close to Dhaka Air Port and we would be landing in a few minutes. We were again asked to fasten our seat belts. The plane began to lose height and soon landed softly. Thus my first flight came to an end and I was again on mother earth.

HOW TO CELEBRATE A BIRTHDAY PARTY


A birthday is observed or celebrated to make one’s birthday memorable or to get amusement, or to give pleasure to others. One normally becomes very joyous to celebrate one’s birthday. There are much charms of a birthday party because the guests and the hosts get much pleasure from the birthday party. First he is to invite his relatives and friends. Secondly he is to decorate his house nicely. He will also put on his new dress. Thirdly he will arrange a birthday cake, which is the main attraction of the party. Fourthly after the arrival of the invited guests, he will light the candle, cut the cake chuckling merrily, followed by applause of friends, fans and well-wishers. Then the prepared delicious food is served to the guests. Thereafter, all joining it feel interested to do something pleasant. So, a short cultural programme is arranged after the meal. Finally, the guests leave wishing the host many happy returns of the day. Thus the celebration of a birthday party comes to an end with joy and merriment.

HOW TO DO GARDENING

We can use our leisure period by some productive work like gardening. To make a flower or vegetable garden at first we have to select a fertile piece of land where water does not stand. Then we have to plough the land well to make it suitable for sowing seeds or planting little seedlings in it. In the mean time we also have to remove all the unnecessary grasses from the land. Then we can sow seeds or plant seedlings of flower as we want. Then to protect the garden from, cattle, goats hens and naughty boys, we have to make a strong fence around the garden. And, to get good harvest from the garden we have to give times of one or two hours daily to take proper care of the garden. During gardening we have to make the soil loose and water the plants regularly. In this way we can make a good garden. This gardening not only refreshes our body but also keeps our mind sound. At last we can say that by gardening we can use our leisure or idle time in a useful way.

HOW TO DO WELL IN THE EXAMINATION

An ambitious student aims at doing well in the examination. S/he always follows a strategy to achieve brilliant results. A student should study regularly right from the beginning of the school term. Students should try to understand the lessons instead of cramming to develop their creativity. They should prepare their own notes which will help them avoid giving almost the same answers in scripts. They should revise their lessons frequently. It is important for an examinee to check and double-check the dates and times of ensuing exams and be aware of carrying the necessary things along with to the examination hall. In the examination hall, students should go through the whole question paper before starting to write and take the mental preparation of attempting to answer all the questions. While having a glance at the question paper, it is better to underline the key words in the questions. Moreover, during answering ‘half way’ check is important to be in proper track. Care should be given to the hand writing so that it is legible to the examiner. By following aforesaid things, a student can comfortably reach his / her definite goal of success.


HOW TO DO WELL IN THE EXAMINATION


Every student tries to do well in the examination. There are certain things one must do and there are certain things one should avoid to make brilliant results. A student should study regularly right from the beginning of the school term. Regular work right from the very beginning makes one thorough. S/he should try to understand the lessons instead of cramming to develop creativity. S/he should not learn answers by rote taking from a common source. S/he should prepare her/his own notes which will help her/his to avoid giving almost the same answers in scripts. S/he should revise her/his lessons frequently. Again, a student has to have a fairly good command of the language to answer unexpected questions offhand. Besides, S/he should keep a diary and write a few pages on any topic to improve her/his writing skill. By understanding the lessons and regular reading and writing, a student can comfortably reach her/his definite goal of success

HOW TO GREET A FRIEND


A friend is a great blessing upon us. A friend usually expects from us good reception and good behaviour. Friendship which is a celestial relationship teaches us how to greet a friend. Accordingly, the greetings towards a friend usually come from the heart. When a friend comes to visit us, we should greet him cordially. We should give him a warm reception. At the commencement we can greet him with a bouquet of flowers. Our welcoming note should be sweet and loving. We should let him come and have his seat in our residence. We are to allow him feel relaxed and homely. When he gets his seat, he should be offered light refreshment. We should not have any sort of meanness to entertain him. We are to show such behaviour as he can consider himself one of the members of our family. We should introduce him to our parents and other members of the family. As the friend is guest to our residence, we should also give him enough time. We have to always look after him. Care has to be given so that he can’t feel shy or embarrassed in any situation. We have to be careful about his well-being till he is my guest. We should exchange our opinions freely. Above all, we have to give more and more care so that he may not get hurt in any situation. Thus we can greet a friend warm-heartedly.

HOW TO HAVE A GOOD COMMAND IN ENGLISH

English is regarded as the international language because of socio-political reasons. For better worldwide knowledge English should be learnt duly. One needs to follow certain things to have a good command in English fluently. First of all we should try to increase our vocabulary. We should read more and more English stories, novels, features, newspapers etc. Whenever we find an unfamiliar word, we should look up the word in the dictionary. Secondly we need to learn the method of sentence construction. Then we should try to think aloud in English. Besides, we should keep a diary and write a few pages everyday to improve English. We can communicate with out friends and relatives through writing letters in English. We should regularly listen to different English programmes, such as TV news and conversations among people. Again, we can arrange programmes like debate in English. Finally we should always keep in mind that we should not feel shy to speak in English among ourselves. Thus we can have a good command in English.

HOW TO IMPROVE THE STANDARD OF ENGLISH

English is regarded as the international language because of socio-political reasons. For better worldwide knowledge English should be learnt duly. One needs to follow certain things to enrich one’s capacity in English fluently. First of all we should try to increase our vocabulary. We should read more and more English stories, novels, features, newspapers etc. Whenever we find an unfamiliar word, we should look up the word in the dictionary. Secondly we need to learn the method of sentence construction. Then we should try to think aloud in English. Besides, we should keep a diary and write a few pages everyday to improve English. We can communicate with out friends and relatives through writing letters in English. We should regularly listen to different English programmes, such as TV news and conversations among people. Again, we can arrange programmes like English. Finally we should always keep in mind that we should not fell shy to speak in English among ourselves. Thus we can improve the standard of English.

HOW TO KEEP FIT


A sound health in a sound mind is the root of all happiness. A man can maintain a sound health if he knows how to keep fit. At first we should take a balanced diet. This balanced diet is to contain each item of food item in right proportion. A handsome breakfast is also important regarding this food habit. Secondly, we should take regular physical exercise according to the need of the body. Thirdly, we should take proper rest and sleep for the preservation of our health. We should be very particular about the bed-time and leaving the bed. Next emphasis should be given on cleanliness. We should follow the rules of cleanliness in every sphere of life. We must keep ourselves clean everybody. Then we should keep our surrounding areas clean. We must also be very much careful about having clean food and drink. Finally, we have to control our emotions for keeping away mental anxieties. These are the ways that help us to keep fit.

HOW TO KEEP IN GOOD HEALTH

A sound health in a sound mind is the root of all happiness. A man can maintain a sound health if he knows how to keep in good health. At first we should take a balanced diet. This balanced diet is to contain each item of food item in right proportion. A handsome breakfast is also important regarding this food habit. Secondly, we should take regular physical exercise according to the need of the body. Thirdly, we should take proper rest and sleep for the preservation of our health. We should be very particular about the bed-time and leaving the bed. Next emphasis should be given on cleanliness. We should follow the rules of cleanliness in every sphere of life. We must keep ourselves clean everybody. Then we should keep our surrounding areas clean. We must also be very much careful about having clean food and drink. Finally, we have to control our emotions for keeping away mental anxieties. These are the ways that help us to keep in good.

HOW TO KEEP MY ROOM TIDY

My room is like a temple to me. This is the place where I spend most of my time. Sometimes, my room is at sixes and sevens. The condition of the room makes me uncomfortable when I find my room in complete disarray. So, I always try to keep my room tidy. My room serves two purposes-----a reading room and a bed room. In order to make my room tidy, I have to manage some free time and become active. I collect a broom to sweep the room from one end to the other. I dump the dust and waste into a waste-paper basket. Sometimes, I mop the floor of the room to make it clean. The furniture are regularly cleaned. There are one reading table, one book-shelf, one chair and a bed. I put my books on the shelf. I keep my text books isolated from other books and magazines. On the small cane rack I keep all my magazines. On the table, there is a flower vase in which I regularly put some fresh flowers and it gives me a divine happiness. After my studies, I always set my table so that the books can be arranged well. I always keep my bed clean. It gives me a fresh feeling when I go to bed. In this way my room, which is my heaven, is kept neat and tidy.

How to Learn English

Learning and improving English is very essential and important in our life because today English is an international language. Now it dominates over all the languages of the globe. In the world, there is hardly any country where English is not taught, spoken and used. At present English is widely spoken and used almost every corner of the globe. In order to improve and learn English one has to develop four language skills like listening, speaking, reading and writing. Listening and speaking skills are important and useful means of acquiring a language.To develop listening skill one must listen to the radio and TV programs and news in English regularly. One has to listen or enjoy meetings. seminars, debating discussions and programmes in English. Besides, in order to improve listening skill, one should listen or enjoy the conversation of the English speaking people and listen to English news on TV and Radio regularly. In order to develop speaking skill, a student should speak with his teachers and classmates in English, participate in English debating competitions and speak loudly in English while he or she is alone To develop reading skill, a learner should read English news papers and magazines and English story books regularly. In order to develop writing skill, the learner should practise freehand writing on any topics. For this purse, he or she has to learn more new words daily and the rules of grammar. If a learn, practises in this way regularly he or she can learn and improve his knowledge over English.

HOW TO LEARN ENGLISH


English is regarded as an international language because of socio-political reasons. For better worldwide knowledge English should be learnt duly. One needs to follow certain things to have a good command in English fluently. First of all we should try to increase our vocabulary. We should read more and more English stories, novels, features, newspapers etc. Whenever we find an unfamiliar word, we should look up the word in the dictionary. Secondly we need to learn the method of sentence construction. Then we should try to think aloud in English. Besides, we should keep a diary and write a few pages everyday to improve English. We can communicate with our friends and relatives through writing letters in English. We should regularly listen to different English programmes, such as TV news and conversations among people. Again, we can arrange programmes like debate in English. Finally we should always keep in mind that we should not feel shy to speak in English among ourselves. Thus we can have a good command in English

HOW TO LOOK FOR A BOOK IN A LIBRARY

Library is a place where there are plenty of books to read or borrow. It is the store-house of knowledge where many ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions of many kinds are imprisoned in the block letters of the books. One may find difficulty in finding books in a library unless he knows the rules of borrowing and using the library books. Most libraries are arranged in a systematic way that makes it possible to locate any book quite easily. All of the books in a library are organised into categories or classes and then arranged alphabetically within their class. There are two systems for organising books in a library. One is called the Dewey Decimal System and the other is known as the library of the Congress System. Most of the libraries follow the Dewey Decimal System. Under this system, the books are grouped into ten major categories or subject areas. Each category is assigned a range of numbers and every book in the category is assigned its own special number within that number range. For example, Science is assigned numbers from 500 to 599. A particular science book can have a number such as 542.46 or 581.93. A science book would never have a number such as 800 or 200. The number that is assigned to a book is called ‘call number’. This is the way through which one may look for a book in a library and find it easily.

HOW TO MAKE A BURGER

A burger is a kind of junk food. It is the combination of different food items with bun. It is not very difficult to make a burger. Food making a burger one has to arrange various nutritive food items such as lettuce, burger meat, tomatoes, sauce, cucumber, cheese, onions etc. At first the bun is cut into two halves------the upper half and the lower half. Secondly, a leaf of lettuce is spread on the lower half of the bun. Meanwhile, spices are mixed with grinded meat and the meat is to be fried. When the burger meat is ready, it is to be put on the lettuce. Then the slices of tomato, cucumber, onions and cheese are put on the meat one after one. For the better taste, a coating of butter and sauce can be smeared inside the bun. Next the upper half of the bun is to be put on the top. Finally a tooth pick is to be pierced from the top to bottom of the bun so that the ingredients can be stuck. In this way a burger is made. And the burger is ready to be served.

HOW TO MAKE A CUP OF TEA

A cup of tea gives us vigour in the moment of dull and dreary. Making a cup of tea is a very simple and easy thing. First, one has to take some drinking water in a kettle and boil it for a few minutes. The water has to be sufficiently boiled, or else the tea will not be as good as it can be. When the water is sufficiently boiled, it is to be poured into a tea-pot and a measure of tea-leaves is to pour into it. The measure depends on the quantity of water. The usual ratio is one tea-spoonful of tea-leaves to a cup of water and a tea-spoonful extra. Under no circumstances should the water be boiled after tea-leaves have been poured into it. The tea-leaves must be allowed to soak in the hot water for a few minutes or the liquor will be too weak. When the leaves have been allowed to soak in the water long enough, the tea liquor is prepared. Finally, it is poured through a strainer into a cup and milk and sugar are added to it. One may add ginger or lemon juice instead of milk according to one’s taste. And then a stimulating cup of tea is prepared to serve.

HOW TO MAKE A FLOWER GARDEN

A flower garden is a place of heavenly beauty and serenity. In order to make a flower garden we should have a good planning. First of all, we have to select a suitable piece of land. Secondly, the fields should be ploughed properly to lose the soil. When it is done, we break the soil into small pieces. Then we use a leveller to level the ground. The field is to be weeded out. Next, the flower seeds or plants are sown in rows in the seed-bed. After a period of time, the tender plants are to be transplanted in the main ground. Sometimes we need to make shades on the tender flower plants so that the excessive heat cannot make any harm of the growing plants. Then after, we do the most vital thing that is to make a fence to protect the garden from the attack of cows, goats and other animals. Sometimes, it is necessary to dig a small drain for the easy flow of the water. In order to protect the plants from the attacks of various diseases, we should take care of them everyday. The gardening is completed here but the process goes for some more days as need to be vigilant for taking care of the plants. In a few days the garden is in full bloom of beautiful flowers.

HOW TO OPEN A BANK ACCOUNT

A bank account is a safeguard for any person for his evil days. Opening a bank account is quite easy. People who are thrifty and want to keep their money safe and secured, open an account with the bank. One has to maintain a certain procedure to open a bank account. There is a provision of an application form. First, the client or the account-opener has to fill in the form. Secondly, he or she has to be introduced by someone who has an account with that particular bank. The introducer must put his signature and write his address and account number in the relevant part of the application. Next, there is a signature card on which the client has to put his or her specimen signature and attach two passport size photographs. The photographs must be attested by the introducer. Then the account opener is given a deposit book and a withdrawal book. At last the client requires a reasonable amount of money to deposit for opening the account. Thus a person can easily open a bank account with the help of a bank manager or any other bank authority.

How to plan for your future career


planning and specialization is the motto of the present age. An aim is essential for every individual. A person with a fixed aim runs towards success. There is a proverb that a person without an aim is like a ship without a rudder. So it is necessary for every individual to have a proper plan for the future. Without a proper plan one cannot achieve any prosper in life. A planned life is full of success. On the other hand, a person who leads an unplanned life and who is negligent of the future can not touch the stair of success. Here we can mention the name of the farmers, Mr. Ant and Mr. Grasshopper. Mr. Ant was a laborious man. He planned for his future. According to his plan, he was very busy in his fields in the hot summer. As a result, he didn’t face any kind of food shortage in the winter. On the other hand, Mr. Grasshopper was in an adverse position. He was a very lazy man. He was thoughtless about his future and didn’t work hard in the summer. Due to his unplanned life, he had to face food shortage, while his friend Mr. Ant was enjoying his life. From the above discussion we can say that an unplanned life is full of sufferings. And without a proper plan a man’s life will become valueless. And to make a proper plan we need to concentrate on our surroundings. We need to know our lacking as well as our positive sides. Firstly, we need to know what we want to be in future. Secondly, we need to fix up our choice and work properly to attain success in our way of ascending. Thirdly, we need to be persistent on our plan like Mr. Grasshopper. And, following these steps we can earn success.

HOW TO PLAY CRICKET

Cricket is one of the popular games of the world. Cricket is very popular in Bangladesh also. It is played between two teams -- each consisting of eleven players. A large stretch of perfectly flat and smooth ground is necessary for this game. A cricket field must have a turf which has to be kept soft by means of watering. The wickets are pitched opposite and paralleled at a distance of 22 yards. Other requisites of the cricket game are two wooden bats, a ball and two sets of stumps. The umpire’s signal marks the beginning of the game and the bowler starts bowling. After every six balls the bowler’s over ends. The batsman saves the wickets against the ball bowled by a player of the opposite side. The fielders either catch or stop the ball. The wicket keeper stands just behind the wicket. The batsman hits the ball. He scores four runs for a boundary, six runs for an over boundary and a run for each change of place with his partner. The batsman cannot give a catch and leave the stamps unprotected. If he does so, he may be caught or stamped out or run out. The batsman may be out in many ways, such as ‘bowled out’, ‘run out’, ‘stumped out’, ‘caught out’, ‘leg before wicket out’ and ‘hit-wicket out’. Moreover fairness, which is the very essence of this game, is to be maintained. Following all these rules make the game a successful and exciting one.

HOW TO PLAY FOOTBALL


Football is one of the popular games in our country. Football is played in a large field. It is 120 years long and 80 yards broad. Two goal posts are placed at the end of the opposite sides with a cross bar. The game is played between two parties. Each party consists of eleven players. There is a referee to conduct the game. The ball is placed in the centre of the field. The players of each party stand face to face in their respective side. When the referee blows the whistle, the striker of one party first kicks the ball and the game begins. Each of the players tries his best to pass the ball inside the goal of the opposite party. The party who can score a large number of goals is called winner. The game is played for one and half an hour. An interval of short period between two halves is allowed. Football is a very interesting game. The spirit of co-operation among the players and the orderly organisation of the teams foster a feeling of brotherhood and develop a methodical habit. It makes the players strong and active. The tactics, presence of mind, speed, and pluck required for a football-player at every step are seldom to be seen in any other game. The best feature of the game is the sports manlike spirit with which defeat is, as a rule, borne.

HOW TO USE INTERNET


Internet is the key media of the telecommunication system that spread out all over the world. Total combination of numerous tiny networks is called the Internet. Receiving and sending various types of information is the main function of the Internet. Before using the internet one must know how to use a computer. In using the internet one has to use particular software. Data move through Internet in packet form. The destination and address is involved with these packets, and accordingly, these packets reach the destination. By this time, these packets pass through mid level or regional network. If we click on the icon of browsing such as the Microsoft Explorer or Netscape Navigator we will automatically get logged on the Internet. Now we will find a space for writing the address of the web page we want to see. If we write the address we will get to see that page. We can also go to a search engine for finding a particular page or a piece of information. A search engine is a system through which we can search for information on web pages containing information. Yahoo and Microsoft Network are such engines. Through this way we will be able to look for our desired information on the Internet. The learning of the Internet system will positively bring good result in the fields of our education and business. We hope that all will enjoy this wonderful fruit of modern science in future.

HOW TO USE A LIBRARY


Library is a place where there are plenty of books to read or borrow. It is the store-house of knowledge where many ideas, thoughts, feelings and emotions of many kinds are imprisoned in the block letters of the books. There are rules of using a library. Most libraries are arranged in a systematic way that makes it possible to locate any book quite easily. All of the books in a library are organised into categories or classes and then arranged alphabetically within their class. There are two systems for organising books in a library. One is called the Dewey Decimal System and the other is known as the library of the Congress System. Most of the libraries follow the Dewey Decimal System. Under this system, the books are grouped into ten major categories or subject areas. Each category is assigned a range of numbers and every book in the category is assigned its own special number within that number range. For example, Science is assigned numbers from 500 to 599. A particular science book can have a number such as 542.46 or 581.93. A science book would never have a number such as 800 or 200. The number that is assigned to a book is called ‘call number’. With the help of a call number one can easily find out a book in a library. Thus the books of a library are arranged in an orderly way and it helps the readers to use it conveniently.

HOW TO PREPARE FOR A TOUR

Tour is a part of education. It gives us first hand knowledge of the places through which we pass. It also brings us into contact with different people of different ways of life. The lessons we collect from a tour are more interesting and more effective than what we get from books. A tour helps us to dispel our monotony and renew our zeal for study. This is why tours are encouraged everywhere. Before making a tour one has to prepare for it. One is to remember not to make haste while preparing for the tour. First of all one needs to ensure about the tourist spot, transportation system, total cost etc. Then for personal packing one is to have a suitcase to carry everything. Dresses for the purpose are important. One should carry one’s personal usable things such as, brush, toothpaste. Camera is an essential thing which helps one to take all the important sights. A diary is also very essential during one’s visit. It may help one to note down everything one experiences. First aid arrangements are also to be carried for covering the security. Last but not the least one should carry a substantial amount of money for personal expenses. This is how one can prepare for a tour.

HOW TO TAKE CARE OF HEALTH / PRESERVATION OF HEALTH

A sound health in a sound mind is the root of all happiness. A man can maintain a sound health if he knows how to take care of health / preserve health. At first we should take a balanced diet. This balanced diet is to contain each item of food item in right proportion. A handsome breakfast is also important regarding this food habit. Secondly, we should take regular physical exercise according to the need of the body. Thirdly, we should take proper rest and sleep for the preservation of our health. We should be very particular about the bed-time and leaving the bed. Next emphasis should be given on cleanliness. We should follow the rules of cleanliness in every sphere of life. We must keep ourselves clean everyday. Then we should keep our surrounding areas clean. We must also be very much careful about having clean food and drink. Finally, we have to control our emotions for keeping away mental anxieties. These are the ways that help us take care of health / preserve health.

HOW TO STAGE A DRAMA

ON YOUR ANNUAL CULTURAL PROGRAMME

Cultural programmes are the ground of building up the students in a balanced way. In a school every year the students arrange annual cultural programme. Staging a play is one of the activities of the cultural programme. In our school we arrange cultural programme every year. Accordingly this year we have arranged our annual cultural programme in our school premises. We, the students of class eight were selected to stage a drama in this programme. First of all we discussed with our cultural teacher, Mr. Amin regarding the playing on a drama. We selected the drama ‘Kabar’ by Munir Chowdhury. The teacher approved it and helped us a lot by giving us advice. Some of us were selected to take part in the drama. We rehearsed the drama for some days before staging it. Just before the scheduled day a stage was erected in the school auditorium. In the meantime, all the students of the school and the honourable guardians and teachers were invited. On the particular day the spectators took their place before the performance. At the fixed time the drama started. The participants performed well in the drama. At the end of the play we were greeted with applause. The Chief Guest and the Headmaster praised us with high admiration. The next day our fellow mates appreciated us and thanked us a lot for presenting them a drama on our annual cultural programme.

HOW WE CAN HELP OUR FAMILY


Family is an institution in which a person is born, grown up and he passes his life. Our family is the provider of all sorts of comforts and facilities towards us. All our sorrows and anxieties are erased by the soft touch of the family members. This family consists of our father, mother, brother and sisters. Here we all share our joys and sorrows. Similarly we can share our responsibilities. We can co-operate our family by extending our helping hands. Our parents are busy all day long for our comforts and well-being. In case of our household chores, we can help our mothers. We can help mother prepare our food, wash clothes, dust the furniture. We can make our bed by myself. Before or after having meal, we can set the tables, wash the dishes and other utensils. Sometimes we can wipe the floors of the house for maintaining the cleanliness. When our father comes back from work, we can offer him food. While our mothers are busy with their work, we can look after our younger brothers and sisters. We can also go shopping, run errands for the family. Moreover, we have to carry on with our studies regularly and maintain our health properly so that our parents need not worry about us. By following all these things we can help our family to a great extent.

HOW TO WRITE ANSWERS IN THE ANSWER SCRIPTS

Writing answers in the answer scripts may be an awful experience. However, a little organisation and discipline will help remove this fear. First, when the answerscripts are distributed, we must write down every detail (name, roll number, registration number, subject, subject code, name of the board) on the first page. Second, when the question paper is handed out we must give it a thorough reading. Then we should select and tick those questions for answering which we have learnt well. Next we should answer the questions one by one according to our choice. Then gradually we take up the questions which are less easy. Thus, in answering scripts we should follow an easy-do-difficult method. We should also be very careful of time and our handwriting. Moreover, we should answer all the questions in full, that is, we should leave no question unanswered. We should write offhand using our instant creations in case of answering uncommon questions. In writing answer scripts, we have to bear in mind that the answers should be in short and precise language. Besides, the answers must always be to the point. After writing all the answers, we should revise them whether we have to forgotten to write any major point or done any sort of mistake. Maintaining all these things, a student is sure to achieve a good result in the examination.

HOW TO PREVENT ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION

Our total environment influences our life and our way of living. The main elements of human environment are man, animals, plants, soil, air, and water. There are relationships among these elements. These relationships are disturbed because of pollution. Air pollution and water pollution are the main factors which contribute to the pollution of our environment. All things that produce heavy smoke pollute air. Railway engines, mills and factories and power houses use coal and oil. Buses, trucks and cars use petrol and diesel. This air pollution causes pneumonia, bronchitis and other respiratory diseases. Again water is polluted in many ways. Farmers use chemical fertilisers and insecticide in their lands to grow more food. The rain and floods wash away some of the chemicals. They get mixed with canal water and river water. Mills and factories pollute water by throwing the waste materials into the rivers and canals. Steamers, launches and even sail boats pollute water by throwing oil, food waste and human waste into the big canals and rivers. Unsanitary latrines in the countryside standing on the banks of the rivers and canals also pollute water. This water pollution causes poisoning and water-borne diseases such as cholera and diarrhoea. To prevent this pollution we must take some steps. The government must be active as well as the common people should come forward to resolve this problem. Mills and factories must be set in particular places. Industrial wastes cannot be thrown here and there. Dumping of oil in the water must be stopped. Unsanitary latrines cannot be set beside river or canal. Overuse of chemical fertilizer must be stopped. Last but not the least, we must plant more and more trees to prevent environment pollution.

HOW TO PREVENT DIARRHOEA


Diarrhoea is a common disease in our country. It is an epidemic. When people are attacked by diarrhoea, they suffer from the deficiency of water, which is called dehydration. Diarrhoea spreads through contaminated food and water. So drinking unsafe water or eating contaminated food causes diarrhoea. People attacked by diarrhoea feel thirsty and suffer from malnutrition. If this situation continues, the patient gradually grows weaker. Sometimes the condition becomes so fatal; it even causes the patient death. To recover from illness, primarily rehydration mixture is prescribed to the patients. Along with the oral saline, patients are advised to take all types of food items regularly. To prevent diarrhoea people should drink safe water, eat fresh food and keep the environment safe and healthy. They should wash hands with soap or ash before eating and after using the toilet. Using sanitary latrine is indispensable for keeping the environment healthy. Above all, Maintenance of cleanliness is a must for a patient of diarrhoea.

HOW TO MAKE A SCHOOL GARDEN

A school garden is a beautiful sight. It adds to the beauty of a school. A school garden may be in front of a school or behind it. Generally a teacher of a school is in charge of the garden. He helps and guides the students. The students with the help of teachers and advisers first choose a suitable piece of land for a school garden. To prepare the land, they use different tools namely spade, hoe, rose leveller etc. They dig deep into the soil and prepare it for sowing different seeds. After sowing the seeds when the seedlings grow up they make the soil loose and pull out weeds and put fertiliser on it. And finally they water the garden and put up a fence around it to keep cattle out of it and grow different kinds of flowers and vegetables. Then the students make their own school garden. As for instance, here we can refer to the class 8 students of Nurpur High School and how they made their own school garden. One day some students of Class 8 looked out of their classroom window. They found a piece of fallow school land. They thought that they could make a garden on that fallow land. Accordingly they told Mr. Anis, the general science teacher about their idea. They told him that they would grow flowers and vegetables on a piece of school land. Mr. Anis liked the idea. The Headmaster also agreed with Mr. Anis with the result that they got a piece of land for making a garden. And they started their works on the land. Using different tools they prepared the land properly for gardening and they finally grew more beautiful flowers and lovely vegetables in the garden. The garden increased the beauty of their school and they felt proud of it. In fine, we may say that a school garden is a source of joy to the students. It develops their creative powers. It does not hamper their studies because they work during leisure and after school.































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