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PARAGRAPHS FOR JSC, SSC, HSC & OTHER EXAMINATIONS (D)

Updated: Sep 9, 2023



Deforestation: An unwise act leading to disasters

Deforestation means cutting down trees in large number. The causes of deforestation are many. Bangladesh is one of the most densely-populated countries in the world. Her population is much more in proportion to its area. This huge number of population needs more food, shelter, agricultural land, fuel, furniture, medicine etc. People cut trees for various purposes. Most of the villagers cut down trees to use them as fuel. Some of them use trees as wood, wooden furniture and some sell trees for getting quick profit. There are some dishonest people who cut trees in the forests to make money. The effects of deforestation are too many to describe. This destruction disturbs our ecological balance. The existence of wildlife is going to be threatened. Due to deforestation carbon dioxide is increasing worldwide. As a result, the world is becoming warmer. The sea level is rising and many parts of the world are going to be engulfed by the sea in near future. On the other hand, new areas of the world are turning into deserts as a result of deforestation. The removal of trees causes birds and other animals living on them to leave the place. It also causes serious damage to the soil, as trees give protection to soil as well. Aftermaths, the soil gets sediment in the riverbed and causes frequent floods. So, if we destroy trees at random, one day the country may turn into a great desert. All living animals and birds will not find any food or shelter to live in. That’s why they will be destroyed. There will be no rain and as a result our agriculture will face a great crisis. The temperature will rise and it will cause green house effect. The country will be unsuitable for living and various natural calamities like flood, drought, storm, earthquake etc. will visit our country. Immediate measures should be taken to prevent deforestation. People should be made aware of tree plantation through mass media. And tree plantation programme should be extended throughout the country so that we can make our country evergreen, fruitful and prosperous.

CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF DIARRHOEA


Diarrhoea is a common disease in our country. It is an epidemic. It usually breaks out after the visitation of floods and in scorching summer season. People who do not maintain the cleanliness are often attacked by diarrhoea. Every year many people including children are attacked by diarrhoea in our country. When people are attacked by diarrhoea, they suffer from the deficiency of water, which is called dehydration. Diarrhoea spreads through contaminated food and water. So drinking unsafe water or eating contaminated food causes diarrhoea. In some areas people live in congested houses and drink contaminated water. Such people are often attacked with diarrhoea. The patients feel weak and vomit every now and then and emptying of bowels are frequent. People attacked by diarrhoea feel thirsty and suffer from malnutrition. If this situation continues, the patient gradually grows weaker. Sometimes the condition becomes so fatal; it even causes the patient death. To recover from illness, primarily rehydration mixture is prescribed to the patients. Along with the oral saline, patients are advised to take all types of food items regularly. To prevent diarrhoea people should drink safe water, eat fresh food and keep the environment safe and healthy. They should wash hands with soap or ash before eating and after using the toilet. Using sanitary latrine is indispensable for keeping the environment healthy. Above all, Maintenance of cleanliness is a must for a patient of diarrhoea.

THE EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION

Tree is one of the most mentionable gifts of nature. In many ways it is very useful to us. Trees produce oxygen which is the vital ingredient for life. Besides, we need them for many more reasons. Trees make the land fertile. They save the land from erosion. They provide us with wood and other products. They give us shade and they help to prevent droughts and floods. They cause rain. They save our houses from cyclone and tidal bore. They also provide us different types of crops and nutritious fruits which are full of food values. Above all, trees make a balance in the environment. So life cannot be imagined without trees or forest. On the other hand, we know ‘deforestation’ means removing trees or forest from one place. A very few people care to plant new trees. Our country is now at a deficit in necessary timber. One of the main reasons is that people in rural areas indiscriminately cut trees for getting firewood. They use it as fuel. But our people are simply careless for planting new trees in the place of the old one. If there are no trees, there will be little or no rainfall. Then there will be a great change in the whole atmosphere. As a result the whole country may turn into a desert. So, Rabindranath, the great poet rightly said, “Give back the forest, take your town.” Hence we have to realize the bad effect of deforestation and plant more and more trees in the roads and highways, in the houses and there where a land remains unused.

Diaspora

The term diaspora is used to refer to the movement of people who have left their ancestralhomelands and settled in other parts of the world, either because they were forced to do so or because they wanted to leave on their own. The word is increasingly used for such people as a collective group and/or a community. Its origin is traced in thousands years back. In the Bible there is reference of diaspora. In the history of human civilization, we find a number of events of it. The world has seen many diasporas but scholars have been studying the phenomenon with great interest only in recent decades. They have distinguished between different kinds of exoduses based on its causes such as imperialism, trade or labour migrations or by the kind of social coherence. Among the great diasporas of history is that of the Jewish people, who were forced to leave their lands in ancient times. Their ancestor Abraham was forced to leave Iraq and took shelter in Egypt. Then his offspring Jews were forced to leave Egypt and settled themselves in Palestine. In twentieth century history, the Palestinian diaspora has attracted a lot of attention and been a cause of concern for world leaders because of the plight of Palestinians. The movement of Aryans from Central Europe to the Indian sub-continent thousands of years ago is also a noteworthy diaspora, although the causes of this diaspora are unclear. There have been massive diasporas in Africa, too, over the centuries, either because of war or because of the ravages of nature. But the chief reason why the phenomenon of diaspora is attracting so much attention now is globalization.

DIARRHOEA

Diarrhoea is a common disease in our country. It is an epidemic. It usually breaks out after the visitation of floods and in scorching summer season. People who do not maintain the cleanliness are often attacked by diarrhoea. Every year many people including children are attacked by diarrhoea in our country. When people are attacked by diarrhoea, they suffer from the deficiency of water, which is called dehydration. Diarrhoea spreads through contaminated food and water. So drinking unsafe water or eating contaminated food causes diarrhoea. In some areas people live in congested houses and drink contaminated water. Such people are often attacked with diarrhoea. The patients feel weak and vomit every now and then and emptying of bowels are frequent. People attacked by diarrhoea feel thirsty and suffer from malnutrition. If this situation continues, the patient gradually grows weaker. Sometimes the condition becomes so fatal; it even causes the patient death. To recover from illness, primarily rehydration mixture is prescribed to the patients. Along with the oral saline, patients are advised to take all types of food items regularly. To prevent diarrhoea people should drink safe water, eat fresh food and keep the environment safe and healthy. They should wash hands with soap or ash before eating and after using the toilet. Using sanitary latrine is indispensable for keeping the environment healthy. Above all, Maintenance of cleanliness is a must for a patient of diarrhoea.

DEFORESTATION

‘Deforestation’ means removing trees or forest from one place. This is the problem haunting the whole world. According to the ecologists, for liveable environment there should be forest on the 25% land of the total land area. In Bangladesh there is 16% forest of the total land. To meet up the basic needs of food and housing, man is destroying forest without caring for the ecological imbalance. Our country is now at a deficit in necessary timber. One of the main reasons is that people in rural areas indiscriminately cut trees for getting firewood. But our people are simply careless for planting new trees in the place of the old one. Green patches of land are no more green. New areas of the world are getting deserts as an immediate effect of deforestation. The removal of trees causes the birds and other animals living on them to leave the place. It also causes serious damage to the soil, as trees give protection to soil as well. Moreover, the soil gets sediment in the river bed and causes frequent floods. In absence of trees carbon-di-oxide is increasing worldwide. As a result, there is global warming. The sea level is rising. Any time in future the earth may be engulfed by seas. Hence we have to realise the bad effect of deforestation and plant more and more trees in the roads and highways, in the houses and there where land remains unused.




The Curse of Deforestation

Deforestation denotes the indiscriminate cutting down of trees and the burning down of forests. Today it is a global problem too. It is getting very acute form all over the world day by day. Everyday huge fire wood is used as fuel in brickfields and for cooking food. Besides, a lot of wood is used for making furniture, houses, boats, ships, shops and many other purposes. Illiteracy is the root cause of defore8tation. Population explosion and acute poverty are the major reasons of deforestation in our country. Public unawareness is the another principal reason of this unwise act. As a result of deforestation, carbon-di-oxide is increasing in the air rapidly. It causes global warming. It hampers ecological balance. It brings about various natural disasters .It affects our agriculture drastically. It also causes acute river-erosion which engulfs huge cultivable land, many houses, roads. culverts, schools and colleges etc. every year. Deforestation endangers the wild life and our decent life on earth. As a result of deforestation, the sea-level is increasing at an alarming rate. Random destruction of trees and forest must be stopped by enacting new and strict law and by creating social awareness and by removing illiteracy from the society. Population problem must be controlled and early marriage must be banned. The widespread use of wood must be stopped and the danger of deforestation should be telecast widely through mass media. Tree plantation programme must be made successful to subdue deforestation.

Drug addiction

Drug addiction refers to such state of not being able to stop taking illegal harmful substances like heroin, opium, marijuana, morphine, cocaine, phensidyl etc that people take through smoking, inhaling or injection. It being a brain disease leads to changes in the structure and function of the brain. It can lead to a range of both short-term and long-term mental and physical health problems. Unemployment problem, environmental factors, political unrest, family feud, lack of love and affection lead a man to frustration which is the main cause of drug addiction. It destroys us morally, physically and financially. Dependence on drugs can create a number of dangerous and damaging complications. People who are addicted to a drug are more likely to get an infectious disease, such as HIV, either through unsafe sex or by sharing needles. Young people involved in crimes to get money for taking drugs. Behavioral changes may cause marital or family conflict and custody issues. It can also cause declining performance at work, absenteeism and eventual loss of employment. The best way to prevent an addiction to a drug is not to take the drug at all. Drug-addicts must be treated with love and kindness. A strong, stable bond between you and your child will reduce your child’s risk of using or misusing drugs.The society should take strong measures to control the dishonest businessmen and drug-traffickers. The highest punishment of dealing in or smuggling drugs is death in Bangladesh. There are laws of drug-control all over the world, yet drug-addiction is increasing gradually. What is needed an anti-drugs consciousness among the youth of the different countries.

Dowry System: A heinous social curse

The most heinous system prevalent in our country is the dowry system. We often read in newspapers that wives especially newly married girls are tortured by their husbands in all possible ways. It is, therefore, regarded as a social evil and has become pressing problem to be solved. To eradicate this social evil, we must find the loophole and one should remain satisfied with mere laws and by-laws or enactment of some rules. Total change in the outlook of the society is the crying need at this moment. As it is a social evil, we are to tackle it socially. Society must be free from the idea of disparity and false feudal values, which do not recognise woman as the equal partner of man. Social and public boycotts are two of the main weapons that may be used. Additionally, strong legal measures should be taken against the erring parents who are indulging in this practice. Young men and women must come forward to put an end to this disgraceful system. Very often we move from one seminar to another, but there is no co-ordination between our words and our actions. We are not evaluating our movements, nor monitoring actions. While on one hand the dowry-related crimes continue to increase, on the other hand the programmes aimed at stopping dowry also continue to flourish. Of course, we should not belittle the struggle that has been continuing against dowry. As the problem of dowry springs from a male-dominated, poor and backward society, the movement against this issue must include socio-economic, cultural, political forces and women’s organisations. The political parties and government must match word with action. General inequality is a major cause of dowry. Improving women’s position in society would be an effective measure against dowry. The over-extravagant expenses for weddings and marriage-related functions must be curtailed as the bridegrooms often take dowry so as to meet these costs. The girl’s guardians must also be conscious about the issue. A girl should be brought up to be self-dependent. There is a tendency for the girl and the girl’s family to simply tolerate the oppression because of risk the marriage’s breaking up. The families must resort to legal action rather than encourage the girl to bear the oppression due to social shame and honour. Educated girls are also asked for dowry, but the poor illiterate girls have no alternative if abandoned by their husbands for dowry. Unfortunately in the rural areas, the daughters of poor farmers often study and work in order to earn enough money to pay dowry. The activists of all spheres against dowry must keep these factors in mind to eradicate dowry effectively.

Dowry System

Dowry means property or money brought by a bride to her husband when they get married. Nowadays the system of giving and taking dowry in marriage is more prevalent in Bangladesh. To eradicate this social evil, we should remain satisfied with mere laws and by-laws or enactment of some rules. Total change in the outlook of the society is the crying need at this moment. Young men and women must come forward to put an end to this disgraceful system. The political parties and government must match word with action. General inequality is a major cause of dowry. Improving women’s position in society would be an effective measure against dowry. The girl’s guardians must also be conscious about the issue. A girl should be brought up to be self-dependent. There is a tendency for the girl and the girl’s family to simply tolerate the oppression because of risk the marriage’s breaking up. The families must resort to legal action rather than encourage the girl to bear the oppression due to social shame and honour. Educated girls are also asked for dowry, but the poor illiterate girls have no alternative if abandoned by their husbands for dowry. Unfortunately in the rural areas, the daughters of poor farmers often study and work in order to earn enough money to pay dowry. The activists of all spheres against dowry must keep these factors in mind to eradicate dowry effectively.

Digital Bangladesh

Digital Bangladesh means digitalizing Bangladesh by ensuring an ICT based society where information will be available on line. Here all the possible tasks of government or semi-government will be performed using digital technology. The motto of digital Bangladesh is to establish technology based digital governance, e-commerce, e-agriculture, e-production, e-education etc. The benefits of digital Bangladesh are many. If we can establish a digital Bangladesh, corruption will be reduced radically. It will make people think globally and connect them with the whole world economically, socially, politically, academically and even culturally. It will improve our banking and financial activities. Agriculture, health, education, commerce – all these sections will be highly benefited by making Bangladesh a digital one. To make our country digital first of all, uninterrupted power supply has to be ensured and we have to develop computer network skill and ensure equitable access. Finally, our education should be computer based and in primary and secondary schools students should get easy access to the computer. Some products like software and TV programmes are also amenable to digital transmission. We will be able to buy and sell goods through the electronic screen if we can make a Digital Bangladesh. Undoubtedly, encouraging development towards digitalization of Bangladesh by 2021 can be possible. The ambitious dream for a Digital Bangladesh will remain a dream if the government can not equip the people with the technology needed for establishing the digital era.

Duties of a Student Or, Students and Social Service

Students are the greatest force as well as the future leaders of a Country. They can build or destroy a nation. The primary duty of students is to acquire knowledge and to make themselves worthy citizens. It is needless to say that they get much time for merry making, playing, amusements, touring etc. apart from their routine life of study.Then they should pay attention to the welfare of the society. Students have no worries about earning their livelihood. They have strength and capacity. Students should go to the villages and serve the villagers during vacation. They can make the illiterate masses aware of their rights and duties. Hence the students can guide the people of digging canals or constructing educational institutions. Sympathy and fellow feeling should be imparted the students to do some noble works for the people. Students can co-operate with people on matters of public interest such as education, sanitation, trade and commerce. Students can participate in cleaning drains, ponds during the leisure hours. They can help people during natural calamities such as earth quake, flood, drought, cyclone by collecting funds from different sources. Students have a spirit to work but the guardians and, teacher should guide them in the right way. Student must be the servants of humanity. The aim of all true education is to teach a man how to live and lot others live. A student can learn this though social service. He gains experience, courage and confidence. Thus social service makes him fit for the greater world.

DENGUE FEVER

Dengue fever is a disease of Aedes mosquito-borne infection. Aedes mosquito bites during day and transmits dengue virus. It breeds in clean stagnant water both indoor and outdoor. If a person is infected, its symptoms become apparent in four to six days. Dengue virus originating from Africa, is now endemic in most tropical countries of Asia. According to the information of medical science at first dengue fever was experienced at Philadelphia in 1780. Death due to infection of dengue fever occurred in Australia in 1837. Dengue fever has broken out in Bangladesh in recent years. There are two types of dengue fever. They are classical dengue fever and Dengue Haemmorrhagic fever is fatal and it causes death with bleeding. There are four serotypes of dengue virus, such as DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4. DEN-2 and DEN-3 are more serious. Dengue mosquito is about 5 millimetres in size with stripe on the body and legs and can fly up to about 50 metres at a time. It breeds in small pots, jars, drums and discarded plastic containers and tyres. It lives on blood and it Aedes female mosquitoes cannot breed without blood. There is no antidote of dengue virus. So we should take immediate action to prevent this disease.

DRUG ADDICTION

Drug addiction is a social problem. But it is no longer a social problem of specific society, it has become a global issue. The number of drug addicts has increased all over the world. Especially, in the under-developed countries the picture is very alarming. Many young people have become addicted to drugs in our country. Reasons for this addiction are many. Of them political interest, unemployment, lack of family ties are some of the main reasons which make them addicted to drugs. Out of complete frustration they become drug addicts. Drug traffickers also play a major role to instigate the young generation to this fatal habit. Once anybody takes to this habit he can hardly give it up. Many young people who suddenly become drug addicts find difficult times to buy the costly drugs marketed by the organized drug dealers. When their financial sources to buy drugs become exhausted, they commit many social crimes. Their crimes include looting, hijacking, killing, robbery and abduction. Drug addicts also become a burden for the society. They never enjoy sound health and become crippled, in most cases die, very shortly. Drugs have serious bad impacts on the human mind and body. It is a serious national issue of utmost importance. The government, the police, the local civil administration, the political parties, the parents and the common people must respond to the issue with concerted efforts to stop this fatal practice among the young generation of the country.

The Curse of Drug Addiction Or,

Drug Addiction

Drug addiction means strong attraction for taking harmful drugs such as

wine, opium, morphine and heroine etc. It is the most injurious habit of a man's life. It is a curse to human civilization Today it has become the global problem too. When a person once starts taking drugs, he cannot stop taking it. It is an alarming news that many students in our society have already addict to drug-addiction. Bad association is one of the prime causes of this henious habit. Unemployment problem, restless politics and lack of family ties are liable for this dangerous habit. Some people take drugs to forget their past painful and sorrowful memories, some for amusement and some as a fashion. In order to collect money, the addicts commit various social crimes and sinful acts such as hijacking, smuggling, stealing, snatching, looting, killing etc. An addict always feels drowsy (sleepy) and suffers from severe headache. He totally loses his dignity in the society. He also loses the love and affection of his near and dear ones. Various natal diseases engulf him. He suffers from physical weakness, s, high blood pressure and many other fatal diseases. His kidneys and livers also get damaged seriously. This dangerous habit leads an addict to death. It is high time we started a strong campaign against drug addiction to save our young society as well as the nation. Illiteracy and ignorance must be driven away from the society. Social awareness can play a vital role in eradicating drug addiction. If we fail to stamp out this terrific habit, our all development plans and efforts will be fruitless and meaningless.

DUTY TOWARDS PARENTS

Duty towards parents is a great virtue. Indeed parents are second to none in this world except God. They are the only source of our lives on earth. Parents are our best friends and well-wishers on earth. When we were born first, we were quite helpless. They tenderly brought us up and looked after us during our infancy. So to speak, there is none to love us more like them. We have many duties to be done for our parents. As parents sacrifice everything for our happiness, it is our bounden duty to serve them and look after them in all possible ways. Particularly we should look after them when they become old, helpless as we were in our childhood. We should supply their needs properly. When they become weak, sick and infirm in old age, we should look after and nurse them with tenderness and care. We should fulfill all their wishes. We should not do anything that may hurt their feelings. A son who is not obedient to his parents can never prosper in life. On the contrary, obedience and performing duties to parents bring happiness, pleasure and satisfaction in life. In short, duty to parent is endless. So, every son every son and daughter should serve parents by obeying their orders, their advice and by looking after them with due care and heartfelt love.

DUTY TOWARDS ELDERLY PERSONS


A common saying goes that childhood is a dream, youth a blunder and old age a regret. Many of the old, aged, elderly persons continue to be battered, strangled to death, rendered homeless and forced to live the last few years of their life in loneliness and despair. Elderly persons are the people of greater age, experience and authority. They were the strength of our civilisation. In every locality there are lots of elderly persons. We can take many effective measures for them. We can extend helping hand to elders. We can raise a fund for the welfare of the older persons. By this fund we can establish an older persons’ inn. All the helpless older people of the locality will be able to stay there free of living cost, medical treatment cost etc. With the help of the wealthy section of society we can provide them all kinds of human rights for their recreation and reminiscence. We can arrange gathering for them. Whenever they are in any kind of trouble we can come forth to help them. We can let them know the current information of the world. We can include them in our working opportunity. Social awareness can be raised for the welfare of the elderly persons. We must be kind to them. We must treat them as they treated us when we were helpless babies creeping upon the earth. In a word, the elderly persons should not be neglected anyway.

Dengue

Dengue is one of the commonest mosquito-borne viral diseases in human.It causes 50-100 million infections every year in tropical countries of Asia, South America and Africa. It is caused by dengue virus, which is transmitted by the daytime-biting of an infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. Dengue mosquito lives in cool, dark places and around homes, schools and other areas in towns and villages. The female mosquito lays her eggs in clean, stagnant, exposed collection of water like barrels, drums, pots, flower vases, plant saucers, tanks, discarded bottles/ tins, tyres etc. and a lot more places where rainwater collects. The first symptoms of the disease occur about 5-7 days after the infected bite. Symptoms of dengue include fever, headache, severe backache, flushing of the face. If anyone suspects dengue, he should consult with a physician. In a fraction of people bleeding from nose, gum, skin occurs, they can also develop shock. Those patients need hospitalisation for intensive care. To prevent dengue, people should be advised to use mosquito coils, sprays and other mosquito repeliants during the daytime. Babies, old people and others who may rest during the day should use mosquito nets. Curtains can also be treated with a suitable insecticide and hung at windows or doorways to kill or repel mosquitoes. Since mosquitoes which spread dengue breed in stagnant water, all water containers should be kept covered at all times. Discarded containers in which water collects e.g. bottles, cans, bags, tyres etc. should be destroyed. Water from air coolers, tanks, drums, buckets etc. should be drained out. Control measures should be taken by the city corporation along with NGO's & citizen to eliminate adult mosquitoes and eradicate their breeding sites.

Dengue Fever: A disease due to unhygienic environment Dengue fever has become the ‘talk of the country’ of Bangladesh at present. It has spread throughout whole Bangladesh in an epidemic form. It is a virus fever. There are four different antigenic varieties of dengue viruses and all are transmitted by the daytime biting of adies aegypty mosquito. They are DEN-1, 2, 3 & 4 serotypes. From these viruses, two forms of dengue are recognised. One of them is classical dengue fever and the other is dengue haemorrhagic fever. Classical dengue fever is characterised by the abrupt onset of fever, malaise, headache, facial flushing, troubles pain. This pain is worse on eye movements, conjunctival suffusion and some backache that is a prominent symptom. Lymphadenopathy, petichae on the soft palate and skin rashes may also occur. This classical dengue fever is recovered by seven days. The patient of classical dengue fever should drink adequate water, take complete rest, drink a lot of liquid food, wash whole body with wet-cloth and finally should take the tablets of paracitamol group to decrease the fever. Dengue haemorrhagic fever is very severe. It is believed to be the result of two or more sequential infections with different dengue serotypes. If the symptoms of dengue haemorrhagic fever of a patient are found, we should take him to the hospital and consult with a doctor immediately. We have to wash the patient’s body again and again with a wet-cloth to mitigate fever. At the extreme case, it may be bleeding. The patient may be given paracitamol but never should be given aspirin group. It is a disease of children and has been found in South Asia and Africa. Adies lays its eggs on standing or stagnant water in the holes of trees, plastic bottles, plastic cans, tin-pots, tyres, green coconut plates, polythene bags etc. All of us should be conscious about the eradication of adies mosquitoes and should take necessary steps for that. Besides, government should highlight it through different media and should take essential measures to protect dengue fever.

DEBATING

Debating is a part of education. It is not only interesting and amusing but also has an educative value in sharpening people’s wits and brightening their intelligence. The students of the reputed school form a society for the purpose of carrying on debates on various subjects. It is known as debating society. In a debate a particular subject is chosen first. The persons of a debating society divide themselves into two groups. One group supports in favour of the subject and another opposes the subject. Both sides try to charm the house by their arguments. The discussion brings out the merits and demerits and ascertains through argument whether it is acceptable or not. At the end, the President clearly explains for and against the subject and closes the debates. Debating develops the power of thinking and expressions of the students. Through this, students get practical training to cultivate reasoning power and the power of thinking. Debating develops a student’s power of speech. It helps pupils to speak logically and relevantly. Debating widens the domain of knowledge. Above all, debating itself is a good education.

DANGER OF SMOKING

Smoking is a very dangerous habit. People addicted to smoking often suffer from heart attack, chronic bronchitis and some other fatal diseases including cancer. One puff of cigarette smoke contains fifteen billion particles of injurious matters. Nicotine is one of them. Nicotine is so bad that it obstructs the flow of blood through the veins. This reduces the supply of oxygen in the body. It causes the rise of blood pressure and increases the heart beat thereby. Secondly, tobacco tar inside the lungs slow down the action of the cilia and at last destroys them. But cilium is important for sweeping out the germs, mucuses and dirt from the lungs. Thirdly, the presence of carbon mono-oxide in the tobacco smoke drives out the oxygen from the blood and it is equally bad for health. It also harms the nerves, damages the brain and sometimes spoils character. People addicted to smoking lose their appetite for food and energy for power. Smoking can cause irritation in the eye, offend the nose and unsettle the mind. Besides, it also pollutes the environment and air. Smoking is so dangerous that the stench of cigarette is repulsive to a non-smoker. Moreover, it wastes a lot of money. So, smoking needs to be given up and it can be done with a bit of determination.

DOWRY SYSTEM

Dowry is a social curse that has centered into every comer of our country. Dowry system refers to the system or custom in some societies in which a wife or her family must pay money or property or the both to her husband when they get married. The money or the property given is known as dowry. This abominable system is very disgraceful for any woman of self-respect. Women are the victims of his heinous system. The whole family of the bride is to suffer because the parents or brothers of the bride are to arrange the money to give the bridegroom or to his family. Socio-economic, cultural and religious factors are responsible for this detestable system. In some societies it is established as a social norm and they have accepted it normally. A poor husband wants to get a sum of money from his in-laws to start a business or to spend. In some societies it has been a culture to give and take dowry. But Islam does not support taking or giving dowry. The Hindu law withdraws the right of a woman's paternal property when she gets married. For this reason she along with her husband does not hesitate to take dowry. Due to this system the father's family of a bride often gets bankrupt. Dowry system also demeans women. A social awareness against dowry system is a must to stop this evil practice. The conscious and respected people should come forward to stop it. We should even adopt a law against this system.



The Curse of Dowry

Dowry is the most inhuman and alarming custom in our society. It is a social curse . But this evil social custom was more severe in the early age. A wife or her family is forced to pay money or jewellery or furniture to her husband when they get married. The money or property given is known as dowry. A poor family in our society having a maiden (unmarried girl) faces a severe problem owing to this evil custom. The poor parents can't arrange a marriage ceremony of their unmarried daughters due to dowry. Today this heinous custom is very common in our society. The poor and the illiterate girls are the worst victims of this vicious and heinous custom. Almost everyday the grim picture of this brutal sight is seen on TV screen or in newspapers. Gender discrimination is the root cause of it. Illiteracy and ignorance is another root cause of dowry. Extreme poverty and social unawareness are also great causes of this evil custom. Social superstition is another reason of it. The poor parents have to suffer much to meet up the illegal demand. This evil practice harms the dignity of the women society. It hampers severely peace and order in the society. It commits various crimes and sinful acts in the society. Owing to dowry system many parents have already become helpless and landless. In order to get rid of this evil custom social awareness must be raised. Illiteracy, ignorance and social superstition must be removed from the society. True female education should be ensured and new and strict law must be enacted and enforced against this brute custom.

DRUG ADDICTION

Drug is usually used as medicine to cure diseases. But sometimes it is taken by some people for stimulating effect. This habit of taking harmfuldrugs is called drug addiction. Heroine, opium, morphin, cocaine, phensidyl etc are some of the drugs. The person who once starts taking drugs cannot stop taking it. There are some reasons behind people's getting addicted to the detrimental drugs. Some people take drugs to forget their painful past or memories. Some people take drugs as a pursuit of pleasure. There is also another type of people who at first take drugs as a fun but it turns into an addiction later on. The aftermaths of drug addiction is very dire and despicable. The health of the addicts breaks down. The addicts lose their mental power and courage. He feels drowsy and loses appetite. They lose their social status and the love of their near and dear ones as well. Various kinds of diseases grasp them. They suffer from amnesia, insomnia, nausea, physical weakness, blood pressure and from many other lethal diseases. Their kidneys and livers also get damaged. Drug addiction is not only a national problem but also a global problem. So, it should be stopped by any means. I can save myself from it by self-consciousness, by keeping myself aloof from bad companies and by being strict. minded against it.

THE LIFE OF A DAY LABOURER

A day labourer is he who has no land of his own and thus earns his bread by the sweat of the brow. He may work as a sweeper, a mason, a carpenter, a goldsmith, a peasant and an earth digger. His service is essential for the country. He produces crops by his hard labour. He cleans dirty places and makes them habitable. He builds houses, skyscrapers. He sets railway lines and builds highways. He works in the dockyard. He helps making launches, steamers and barges. He carries heavy loads of earth and digs canals. It is he who also works in ports. He works in mines. Drilling in gas-fields is made possible by his labour. In this way he performs many kinds of works to earn his livelihood. A day labourer is very poor. He can hardly make his both ends meet. He has no fixed income. He gets wages if he can hardly buy clothes or fancy things. He lives in slums. In some cases, he is found passing his time in gambling and drinking. He does not think of the future. So, he leads a hard and miserable life. We should find out ways and means to raise his position.

My Daily Routine

Without maintaining a daily routine our life can not be successful and fruitful . A daily routine is a must to everyone to make a decent life. So, everyone should maintain a daily routine. A daily routine/ life denotes ("M) the dally activities of our life. I am a student of class xi. I maintain/ follow a daily routine properly. I get up from bed before sunrise. I wash my face and hands and say my morning prayers at mosque in time. Then I walk in the open field for half an hour. Then I have my breakfast go to my reading room and learn my lessons for two hours. Next, I take bath and my meal. I start for college at 9 ann. Our Language Day has been recognized as the International Mother Language Day on the 30th General Assembly of the USNESCO on November 17 in 1999. Different organizations and institutions chalk out different programmes on the day to pay proper homage to our language martyrs. On the day thousands of people of all ages and classes assemble at the Central Shaheed Minar on bare footed to show respect and love to the language martyrs. February 21 reminds that these who died for mother tongue are always alive in the hearts of the country men.

DAILY ROUTINE


My day starts just before the cock crows. I leave my bed early in the morning and take preparation for my morning prayer. After saying my prayer, I walk in the field adjacent to our house for half an hour. As I return from my walk, I feel like a second spell of sleep. But I have to get up soon because mother never allows me to remain in bed after sunrise. I start my studies at 6-30 and prepare my lessons till 9-30. I go to bathe then. I finish my bath and breakfast quickly. I start for school. Our school sits at 10-30 a. m. and breaks up at 3-30 p.m. I always listen attentively to what my teachers say and teach in the class. I go home straight after school. Then I spend the afternoon with friends in the playground or in the house of one of our friends, then home again as darkness starts falling. I wash my hands, feel and mouth. Mother brings me some light refreshment. Then I sit at my desk and do my study for at least three hours. When it is time for eating, all the members of our family meet in the dining room. We eat together and exchange our day’s experience with one another. Then we pass some of our time in watching television. This is the time when we have some fun and feel absolutely relaxed. I generally go to bed before it is 11 o’clock. This is, in short, the description of a usual day in my life. But I don’t follow this routine all the days of the week. There are departures from it on holidays. On holidays, I am very busy with my personal sundry tasks. But I perform my daily activities smoothly and enjoy equally everyday of the week.




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