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Gender



In English grammar, gender refers to the classification of nouns and pronouns based on their sexual characteristics. It's a way of categorizing words into different groups according to their association with male or female attributes. This categorization extends beyond just nouns and pronouns to include verbs and adjectives, depending on the gender-related qualities of the words they modify.

There are four main types of gender:

  1. Masculine Gender:

  • Definition: This gender category includes nouns that represent male entities.

  • Examples: man, king, father, brother, tiger, etc.

  • Usage: The man was waiting outside for his food. My father is driving right now.

  1. Feminine Gender:

  • Definition: This gender type comprises nouns representing female entities.

  • Examples: queen, girl, mother, actress, lady, etc.

  • Usage: The girl was waiting for her mother. The queen of England will be leaving her throne soon.

  1. Common Gender:

  • Definition: This gender category includes nouns that can represent either male or female entities. The sexual identity of these nouns is not specified.

  • Examples: teacher, cousin, friend, student, etc.

  • Usage: My cousin will visit me on Wednesday. The student is not willing to give the exam.

  1. Neuter Gender:

  • Definition: This gender category includes nouns that are neither male nor female; they are inanimate objects.

  • Examples: table, book, pen, bus, etc.

  • Usage: I want a new pen. The school is opening tomorrow.



Forming the feminine of nouns with details:

1. By using an entirely different word:

Masculine

Feminine

Bachelor

Maid; Spinster

Brother

Sister

Bullock

Heifer

Colt

Filly

Drake

Duck

Father

Mother

Gentleman

Lady

Husband

Wife

Man

Woman

Nephew

Niece

Son

Daughter

Wizard

Witch

Boy

Girl

Bull (or ox)

Cow

Cock

Hen

Dog

Bitch

Drone

Bee

Gander

Goose

Horse

Mare

King

Queen

Monk

Nun

Sir

Madam

Stag

Hind

English man

English woman

He-mule

She-mule

Stallion

Mare

Sales man

Sales girl

Tutor

Governess

Drone

Bee

Brother-in-law

Sister-in-law

Son-in-law

Daughter-in-law

Maternal-uncle

Maternal-aunt

Step-son

Step-daughter

Hostess

Steward

Widow

Widower

Brother-in-law

Sister-in-law

Human Masculine and Feminine Gender

Human Masculine and Feminine Gender

2. By adding a syllable (-ess, -ine, -trix, -a, etc.):

Masculine

Feminine

author

authoress

count

countess

heir

heiress

Jew

Jewess

manager

manageress

patron

patroness

priest

priestess

baron

baroness

giant

giantess

host

hostess

lion

lioness

mayor

mayoress

poet

poetess

shepherd

shepherdess

Note: In the following, -ess is added after dropping the vowel of the masculine ending!

Masculine

Feminine

actor

actress

conductor

conductress

hunter

huntress

negro

negress

prince

princess

traitor

traitress

master

mistress

benefactor

benefactress

founder

foundress

instructor

instructress

emperor

empress

tiger

tigress

waiter

waitress

murderer

murderess

Note: The suffix -ess is the commonest suffix used to form feminine nouns and is the only one currently used in forming a new feminine noun.

Masculine

Feminine

hero

heroine

fox

vixen

sultan

sultana

3. By placing a word before or after:

Masculine

Feminine

grandfather

grandmother

manservant

maidservant

milkman

milk-woman

salesman

saleswoman

great-uncle

great-aunt

landlord

landlady

peacock

peahen





More Examples:

Masculine Noun

Feminine Noun

Actor

Actress

Waiter

Waitress

Lion

Lioness

Horse

Mare

Bull

Cow

Emperor

Empress

Monk

Nun

Policeman

Policewoman

Manager

Manageress

Fireman

Firewoman

Wizard

Witch

God

Goddess

Teacher

Teacher (female)

Prince

Princess

Priest

Priestess

Brother-in-law

Sister-in-law

Bull

Cow

Son-in-law

Daughter-in-law

Grandson

Granddaughter

Son

Daughter

Count

Countess

Father

Mother

King

Queen

Husband

Wife

Male

Female

Gentleman

Lady

Boy

Girl

Husband

Wife

Father-in-law

Mother-in-law

Groom

Bride

Prince

Princess

Duke

Duchess

Son-in-law

Daughter-in-law

Actor

Actress

Waiter

Waitress

Lion

Lioness

Horse

Mare

Bull

Cow

Emperor

Empress

Monk

Nun

Policeman

Policewoman

Manager

Manageress

Fireman

Firewoman

Wizard

Witch

God

Goddess

Teacher

Teacher (female)

Prince

Princess

Priest

Priestess

Brother-in-law

Sister-in-law

Bull

Cow

Son-in-law

Daughter-in-law

Grandson

Granddaughter

Son

Daughter

Count

Countess

Father

Mother

King

Queen

Husband

Wife

Male

Female

Gentleman

Lady

Boy

Girl

Husband

Wife

Father-in-law

Mother-in-law

Groom

Bride

Prince

Princess

Duke

Duchess

Son-in-law

Daughter-in-law



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