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COMPOSITIONS FOR JSC, SSC, HSC & OTHER EXAMINATIONS (R)

Updated: Oct 3, 2023

Radio / Importance of Radio Radio is a scientific invention. In our daily life, we use radio for different purposes. It is used not only the medium of entertainment but also the means of communication. Radio broadcasts different types of programmes such as songs, dramas, educational programmes, sports, commentary etc. It also broadcasts news, weather forecast, parliamentary debates, public notices etc. as a means of communication. That is, it works as a coordinator between the rulers and the public.

Sitting in our room, we can know the current news of the world through radio. The lovers of sports can get uncommon pleasure from sports commentary on radio. Hearing the commentary, we feel that we are actually watching the game. We also listen to different types of music programmes. Radio plays an important role in broadcasting weather forecast regularly. The farmers, fishermen and people of other professions listen to weather forecast eagerly, while they are working in the costal area. It warns signs about any natural disaster. The fishermen and people working in the coastal area cannot do without it. Commercial news and advertisements of businessmen are also broadcast to people through the radio. There are special programmes for women, children, labourers of mills and factories in towns and cultivators, fishermen and artisians of villages. If they listen to these programmes, they will be greatly benefited. However, radio is a boon to our modern civilization. We should utilize it for our propagation of knowledge and our radio stations should give a true picture of our national life. RECALLING SCHOOL DAYS School life is one of the most important periods in the life of a man. It is this period and place where one learns the basic principles of behaviour, speech and etiquette. School life, in fact, is a period of learning --training in all the aspects of life of a man. One gets training in many fields like the maintenance of physical fitness, increasing one’s mental powers, learning the proper mode of behaviour and understanding life. School life is a period for the formation of character, mind and body on sound lines. My school life was really an ideal one. It was ideal in the sense that this was a period of the training of mind. The impressions which I got during school life remain throughout life even if they are good, bad or indifferent. My school life prepared me to develop good habits, right and rational thinking. It made me duty-bound and obedient. The respect of teachers and elders was my abiding faith. I obeyed all my school teachers and parents and this was also one of the good habits which I developed during school life. During schooling, I developed interest in playing games, staging dramas, debating and other extra-curricular activities. I was a good debater and speaker, athlete and sportsman and at the same time hold positions in the class. All the qualities of head and heart earned for me a profound love and respect from my teachers and friends. My teachers encouraged me very much and helped me in all the possible ways. I was in the good books of all the teachers as well as of the Headmaster / Headmistress, because I won many medals, cups, trophies, shields and certificates for my extra-ordinary display in examinations, sports, athletics, debates, dramas and in many other events. Broadly speaking, school life is not merely a period for learning, reading of books or playing, but it is also the time, when all the good habits are acquired, bad habits are shunned, good conduct, fair play, sound thinking are developed and the ideas of patriotism and nationalism are imbibed Floods in Bangladesh Introduction: During the summer and the rainy seasons, the water of the rivers often rises so high that it overflows the banks and the earth goes under water. This sudden rise of water is called flood. Causes: Flood is mainly caused by heavy showers of rain during the rainy season. Rivers and canals cannot hold the water of rains and the water overflows the banks which causes flood. A river may overflow its banks If its bed is silted or Its course is too zigzag to allow free flow of water. In hilly regions floods may occur as a result of heavy down flow of water on account of melting of snow on mountains. Again, catastrophic flood may be caused by cyclones and tidal bores in the seas. Terrible aspect of flood in Bangladesh: Flood is a regular terror to our country which leaves behind a trail of ruins; it causes havoc to lives and properties. The granaries of the house holders are destroyed. The crop fields look like vast sheets of water. Cattle and even human beings are killed, houses are destroyed. People have to stay under the open sky. All communication with the outside world is cut off. They cannot meet the bare necessities for existence. Hence, the sufferings of the people know no bounds. To add to the misery, it leaves behind wide spread damages of crops and epidemic diseases. Aftermaths of flood after subsiding, flood leaves behind devastated land and crop-fields, epidemic diseases and scarcity not only of food but also of pure drinking water. Wide-spread damage of crops results in famine. A large number of men and animals die of starvation as well as diseases. To add to the sufferings the prices of all daily necessities increase by leaps and bounds. In fact, the after effects of flood are more terrible. Among the recent floods, the floods of 1984 and 1987 caused a huge loss to life and property. But the flood of 1988 has broken the previous records of losses. About ninety percent areas were under water for several days and it caused a great harm. The flood of 1998 is also an example of the most terrible floods in recent years. Blessings of flood Floods in an agricultural country like ours have often been looked upon as a blessing in disguise. Floods leave on the submerged areas a rich alluvial deposit that greatly increases the fertility of soil. Besides, it also washes away the garbage that accumulates on the surface of the earth. Relief measures and controlling: During flood, people come forward to help the sufferers. They are given shelter in the houses of their fortunate fellow-men or public places. There, they are clothed and fed by charitable people, different organizations and the government. Loans are granted to enable them to take up their work of life again. Many other countries in the world also extend their helping hands for survival of the distressed people. Means to control: A definite scheme should be adopted to prevent flood permanently. Proper dams and embankments should be constructed so that the water of the rivers cannot rise above the danger level. Obstacles to natural flow of water should be removed. The silted-up beds of the rivers have to be excavated for carrying more water. Conclusion: Due to her geographical position, Bangladesh is very much prone to floods. Unless this catastrophe is checked, our development Is Impossible. Therefore, we should find out a permanent solution to control floods to ensure our development. The Recent Flood in Bangladesh Introduction : Bangladesh is a low land. She has a lot of rivers, canals, beels and haors. Besides, the melting of the snows on the mountain causes floods too. Most of our rivers are shallow owing to silt so they can't hold enough water in the rainy season. Now this is the principal reason of floods in Bangladesh. She lies in monsoon area. Soievery year various natural disasters hit Bangladesh. Flood is one of there. So flood is very common in Bangladesh. Almost every year flood occur/ visit in our low-lying land. It is one of the greatest natural calamities in Bangladesh. But flood that occurred (swept over) Bangladesh in 1998 was the most devastating flood in our land in the recent years. Havoc, losses : The destruction of the devastating flood had no equal in the history of the last eighty years. At least 54 district were severely affected by the alarming flood. It had broken all the past records of the havoc and losses of crops, properties, lives, trees, houses, schools and colleges and animals. The, northern districts of Bangladesh were the worst affected. The devastating flood directly affected about six crores of people. About 9 lakh houses were totally damaged and another about 8 lakh houses were partly damaged. About the crops of 15 lakh acres of land were fully damaged/ destroyed. Countless cattle and another animals were washed away. The loss of wealth amounted over taker forty thousand crores. The sorrows and sufferings of the flood victims knew no bounds. Many roads, bridges, culverts, mills and factories were severely affected b~ the flood. Many hats, bazars, hospitals, mosques, schools, colleges, madrasahs, banks, offices and gas fields went under the flood water. The communication by road and.the- railway were cut off fora month. There was an acute scarcity of drinking water, food, medicines, clothes and shelter during the flood period and also after flood. People had. to pass their days with starvation in the open sky. In a word, the-loss and havoc caused by the devastating flood can't be described in words. The loss and destruction caused by the flood was so severe that it will take many years to regain the loss. Relief measures : The govt. of Bangladesh, all kinds of NGOs, organizations, politicalarties and many foreign countries came forward to rescue the flood soldiers,victims. Resides, our iers, policemen and the number of BIER also wholeheartedly Wok part in the relief operation /works. Many international agencies and organizations also extended their helping hands-. Many countries also sent their soldiers with relief materials and medicines to the affected areas. Conclusion : Our government should seek the advice and the suggestion of the foreign experts how to control and lessen the loss of property, lives and crops of every natural disaster. All preventive measures should be taken immediately against the natural disasters. RECYCLING Waste or rubbish is what we throw away every day. It includes everything from unwanted old cars to cigarette packets. As the amount of waste has grown rapidly all over the world and has started polluting the environment, time has come to think about it very seriously.

We cannot altogether get rid of our waste but a proper management of it can certainly reduce its quantity. If we think of burning, burying, recycling and thus reduce our waste, we can to a large extent save our environment. Our garbage consists of various kinds of things some are burnable and some are recyclable. In some countries, burnable waste is destroyed by incinerators. The non-burnable garbage is melted and refabricated. Some rubbish is not rubbish at all. For example, most textiles, glass, metal, paper and cardboard can be recycled. Some kinds of waste can be used as fuel. We can use and have been using vegetable waste to make compost to improve our soil.

Recycling mainly involves processing materials so that they can be used as raw materials for making other things. They may be used to produce the same product, for example, broken pieces of glass can be made into new glass. Or they may be very different, for example, iron and steel from cans and cars can be re-smelted to make electric poles and rods.

The only problem then is to find authorities to make it easy to reuse what we throw away. This is because we cannot recycle paper, or metal ourselves. It is a big procedure. In many countries it is now quite normal to collect old bottles and them. Again many manufacturers are now designing their containers and packaging in such a way that they are easy to recycle. Some companies are using biodegradable wrappers. More and more authorities should come forward to promote greater recycling and changes in consumption patterns to reduce the amount of rubbish we produce and help people conserve the environment. RICE Introduction: Man eats so that he can live. People eat many things. But something is the main food of them. Rice is the main food crops of Bangladesh and many other countries. It is the grain of a paddy plant. Rice is not the fruit of a tree. It is the seed of a paddy plant. Paddy plant is look like a long grass. The plant has a weak stem and paddy holds at the top of the plant. We get rice from the husking paddy.

Where grown: The main food rice grows in moist and hot climate. It requires plain and low land and heavy rainfall for its growth. Rice grows mainly in Bangladesh, India, China, Burma and Japan. Bangladesh is one of the producers of rice. The best quality of rice are grown in Barishal and Dinajpur.

Kinds: We get rice from paddy plant. So, there are many kinds of paddy plant. One kind of paddy grows is plenty in a place which goes under water in the rainy season. Bangladesh is the land of this nature. So, rice of superior quality grows here in large quantity. There are mainly of four types of rice in Bangladesh. They are Aus, Aman, Boro and Irri. When grown: Paddy is grown in hot and moist climate. Plenty of water necessary for the growth of rice. ‘Aus’ is sown in ‘Baisakh’ and reaped in ‘Shrabon’ and ‘Bhadra’. ‘Aman’ is sown in ‘Ashar’ or ‘Shrabon’ and reaped in ‘Agrahayana’ and ‘Pous’. ‘Boro’ grows in the spring season and ‘Irri’ grows all year ground.

Process of Cultivation / How Grown: The cultivation of paddy is not easy. The farmers at first plough the land and then it is harrowed. Seeds are sown. In a few days green plants come out. Within three to six mouth the paddy become in its proper height. When the paddy ripe, they are then cut and taken out of straw.

How obtained: After cutting the plant, farmers carry the plant to the trashing compound and finally trashed. Then the paddy is dried in the sun and husked for rice. We get two kinds of rice. One we get by husking and winnowed. That is called Atap. Another one is husking, boil, and then dried in the sun. That is called sidhya. Husking of rice is also done in two ways. It is done by a husking pedal or dheki and other is in rice mill. Uses of Rice and paddy: Rice is the staple food of our country. Above half of the people lives on it. In the food value it is inferior to wheat. Rice loses it quality when it is prepare for food by boiling. Chira, Muri, Khai are made of it. A few kinds of cakes called pitha are made from rice flower. Rice dust is good food for cattle. Chaff is used as a fuel.

Conclusion: The total production of rice is less than the demand of the rice eating countries. It is true that rice is the most popular food crop of Bangladesh. So, we should try our best to increase the production of paddy.


RIVERS OF BANGLADESH

Bangladesh is a riverine country. Anyone travelling through Bangladesh will surely by struck by its number of rivers. Perhaps no other country with equal area has so many rivers as Bangladesh. This land is criss-crossed by hundreds of rivers. They are the greatest natural wealth. Some of them are big and some are small. In fact, they are used for various purposes. The principal rivers of Bangladesh are the Padma, the Meghna, the Jamuna, the Brahmaputra, the Karnafully and the Surma. Besides, there are many small rivers like the Buriganga, the Gumati, the Tista, the Madhumati, the Sitalakhya, the Atrai, the Korotoa etc. They have tributaries as well.

The rivers of Bangladesh play a vital role in country. Our agriculture depends on these rivers. When the monsoon sets in, these rivers swell and overflow every year, they make the land fertile supplying alluvial deposits. Besides, these rivers are also used for irrigation. Our rivers are the best home for fishes, as they are neither too hot nor too cold. Fishes are the only protein diet that our people can get easily. Moreover, many people are engaged in fishing, which goes a long way to solve the unemployment problem of our country. Our rivers are important for transport, too. They are navigable almost throughout their whole length. The transport through river-ways is cheaper than by roads. So, these rivers help the development of trade, commerce and industry in the country. The rivers are also the great source of energy. The strong current of rivers which can be a great source of energy produces electricity. And this electricity is very important for development of industry and electrification of the country. Goalpara and Karnafully hydro-electric projects and used to solve electricity problem. The rivers of our country are used for domestic purpose. The river-water is purified by the Water Supply Authority for drinking, cleaning and bathing purposes in the urban areas. The natural beauty of the rivers cannot be ignored. The sunrise and sunset is pleasant to behold while taking a journey by boat. The boat race and long distance swimming is really reciting. The rivers of our country greatly influence the life of the people in many ways. There is hardly any man whose heart is not stirred at the sight of these rivers. The sight of numerous country-boats with sails of various colours has hardly and parallel. The influence of rivers can be seen in some of our finest poems and novels. The great poet, Rabindra Nath Tagore has immortalised the Padma and other rivers by enshrining them in his poetry and in our other writings. Most of the rural songs like “Bhatiali” and “Sari” with the rhythm of the rippling waves are born of the people’s love for the rivers. Thus the rivers of Bangladesh have enriched our literature --- both ancient and modern. Apart from the merits, the rivers of Bangladesh have their destructive side also. Sometimes they cause untold woe. During natural calamities the rivers take a terrible shape. Then they cause flood which washes away our crops. Sometimes they erode their banks, and towns and habitations are destroyed. All this causes untold sufferings to men and animals. This causes great loss as well. The benefits the rivers bring us far outweigh the destruction they cause. It is the rivers that have made our land so green and the land of the golden fibre. If we have the will and the money, we can tame the wild river and make them yield more benefit. So, all of our rivers are blessing to us.

THE RIVERS OF BANGLADESH Introduction: The river which rises from a hill and falls into the sea is basically a flow of waters. Bangladesh whose another name is ‘land of rivers’ is a large river basin country. A close network of rivers, streams, canals and other water channels has marked the landscape of Bangladesh. The rivers meander down word from north to south to the Bay of Bengal and have made our land most fertile and suitable for growing crops. Our rivers: There are two kinds of rivers in Bangladesh. They are the big rivers and the small rivers. The principal and big rivers are the Padma, the Meghana, the Jamuna, the Buriganga. Besides of these there are a large number of small rivers such as the Madhumati, the Gomti the Karnafully, the Tista, the Surma etc. Importance: As the rivers of our country are closely related to our economy and the prosperity of our country so they are of great use and importance to us. They help us in many ways: a) The source of power: Our rivers are the source of power. Those that have a strong current can produce electricity. The karnafully Hydro-Electric project is an instance of this. To produce more electricity we can use the rivers, especially the swift flowing ones in the north-east region. b) The source of fish: Fish is our main item of food after rice. Our rivers are the best home for many kinds of fishes, birds and plants that are rich in food value. The fish caught in the rivers meets our local need and we also export fish to foreign countries. c) The source of occupation: Our rivers are also the source of occupation. About half a million people of our country are engaged in fishing. So, fishing solves our unemployment problem to some extent. d) Its importance in the field of agriculture: The rivers are the heart of our agriculture. They can easily be used for the irrigation of our lands. During the rainy season by scattering silt over them our rivers make our lands alluvial and fertile. e) Importance for communication: The rivers are the easy means of communication in Bangladesh. People can travel to every corner of the country by boat or steamer or launch. They also help internal navigation, trade and commerce. Business commodities are easily moved from one part to another by boats, steamers and launches. f) The source of beauty: All the rivers of Bangladesh flowing through hills and paddy lands present a beautiful topographical spectacle to any who watches it from an aeroplane flying above. Their beauty is a great relief to the troubled hearts. They also have made Bangladesh rich, beautiful and happy. Its influence on the people: Most of the rural songs like ‘Bhatiali’ and ‘Jari’ are associated with the people living on the banks of the rivers. The rivers excite the imagination of the poets to contribute to literature. Demerits: Rivers have some drawbacks also. They sometimes overflow their banks and cause floods in the rainy season. It causes great sufferings and loss to us. Conclusion: But the rivers are the blessings of God for our country. They are also the source of our prosperity and happiness. They also play a significant role in our national economy.



RIVERS OF BANGLADESH Introduction: Bangladesh is a land of rivers. Many of these rivers are wide and long. The small rivers rise in the rains and dry up in winter. All these rivers can be used for various purposes. Principal rivers of Bangladesh: There are hundreds of big and small rivers in our country. The principal rivers are the Padma, the Meghna, the Jamuna, the Dhaleswari, the Teesta, the Mahananda, the Madhumati, the Kacha, the Pashur, the Surma, the Karnafuli etc. Gifts of rivers: The beautiful cornfields of Bangladesh are the gifts of her rivers. The rivers bring enough silt and make the soil fertile. Both irrigation and manuring are done by these rivers. A great source of wealth: our rivers are a great source of wealth. They are the best home for many kinds of fishes, birds and plants that are rich in food value. The Padma, the Meghna, the Kacha and some other rivers are the home of the proverbial Hilsha fish. The fish caught in the rivers meets our local need and we also export fish to foreign countries. Fishing solves our unemployment problem to some extent. A lot of birds like cranes, storks, sandpipers, ducks, Pankauris etc. live in the rivers. They make nice, enjoyable dishes. Our rivers also abound in other water foods like ‘shaluk’, ‘lotus’, ‘paniphal’ etc. Source of energy: Our rivers are also the source of energy. Those that have a strong current can produce electricity. The Karnafuli Hydro-Electric Project is an instance of this. We can use the rivers, especially the swift flowing ones in the north-east region, to produce more electricity. Important for transport: Our rivers are important for transport too. The few roads and railways that we have are not adequate for our transport. Moreover, the building of roads and railways on our soft and marshy land is not easy. Hence transport by river is much easier and cheaper than by land in our country. Again, on the banks of the rivers many towns and business centres have grown up. Some demerits: Rivers have some demerits also. In the rainy season they sometimes overflow there banks and cause floods. They also change their course washing away towns and villages. Conclusion: The rivers of Bangladesh help a lot in the progress and prosperity of the country. They also have a great role in our literature and way of life. Rivers of Bangladesh Bangladesh is a deltoid country. She has many small and big river So, Bangladesh is called the 'land of rivers'. These rivers are th gifts of nature and add to the eternal beauty of Bangladesh.

The Padma, the Meghna, the Brahmaputra, the Jamuna and th Karnafully are the principal rivers of Bangladesh. Other rivers likthe Buriganga, the Teesta,Sitalakshya and Dhaleswari, the Mahnanda, the Madhumati are not so large, but they are widely know Most of the rivers of our country rise from the Himalayas and fa into the Bay of Bengal.

Ours is an agricultural country. The rivers supply us water and silt. They also make the land fertile. Consequently, our peasants can produce maximum of crops with minimum amount of labour. Paddy and other food crops are easily grown on this land.

There are various kinds of fish in our rivers. Our fishermen catch huge quantity of fish from the rivers and sell them in the market an earn their livelihood. Moreover, Bangladesh earns much foreig exchange by exporting fish. The rivers are the main ways of communication. Boats, launche and steamers move on these rivers in all seasons with passengers and goods. All our important towns, industries, hats, bazars and trade-centres are on the bank of the rivers. The products of mills, factories an. industries can easily be transported to different places and markets through rivers. Thus our rivers help in trade, commerce and industry. The rivers are also used to produce hydro-electric power. During the natural calamities, the rivers take a terrible shape and wash away crops, houses and cattle. Floods destroy the econom of the country. The rivers should be dredged properly. The Government shoul­take necessary steps to preventing it. Otherwise, our golden coun­try of natural beauty and suitable climate will be a desert. The rivers of Bangladesh are very useful and significant in our life. They help a lot in the progress and prosperity of the country. That is to say, the rivers play a vital role in our national life. In a word, they are blessing to us.

THE RIVERS OF BANGLADESH Bangladesh is a riverine country. It is Criss-crossed by many rivers. In fact, the land-mass of Bangladesh is formed by the alluvial deposits carried by rivers. Some rivers are *big and some are small. All rivers of Bangladesh flow from the north to the south. Among the big rivers, mention may be made of the Meghna, the Jamuna and the Padma. The other important rivers are the Teesta, the Kobadak. the Modhumati. the Arial Khan, the Karatoa, the Atrai, the Brahmaputra and the Kushiara. the Guard, the Karnafuli and the Matamohuri are some of the other rivers. The smaller rivers are the tributaries and branches of the big rivers. The rivers of Bangladesh bear a great utility. They have made the soil fertile. During the rainy season, they leave silt deposits every year. The rivers constitute the main source of irrigation for agriculture. They abound with fishes which is a significant source of protein-rich food item that preserve our health. They provide employment avenues to a big chunk of our population. Besides, the rivers constitute the water‑ways of the country and play a very important role in transportation of men and goods. Their contribution to the economic activities and economic development as well as agricultural development and social life of the country can not be overstated. They are also a very important factor for generation of electricity. Rivers are Nature's gifts to us. They are a very important factor for our existence. They exert a great influence on our life and character. But the beds of some rivers have become silted. They need regular and systematic dredging. Sometimes they work havoc in the country by bringing about flood. Mills and factories set up on the river banks pollute water. Polluted water is unfit for human and animal consumption. It causes many fatal diseases as well. All-out efforts should be made by all concerned to harness these gifts of nature for beneficial purposes. ROAD COMMUNICATION IN BANGLADESH Road communication is an important part of the entire communication system of Bangladesh. But it cannot meet well the needs of modern life because roads and highways are not much developed in our country. There are two types of roads in Bangladesh. The highways are metalled but most of the roads in the countryside are mud-built. Bangladesh has twenty-five thousand miles of roads. Trucks, buses, cars, scooters ply on these roads. Besides, private persons or companies ply a large number of buses, trucks, and other vehicles along various routes of the country. The major highways connect Dhaka with other towns and ports in the country. Aricha road extends to the main towns in North Bengal and Chittagong highways connect Dhaka with Comilla, Noakhali, Feni, Chandpur, Brahmanbaria and Chittagong. There are ferry services to carry passengers, loads and automobiles to the other side of the big rivers where there is no bridge. Road communication is not much developed in our country. The roads and highways in most parts are narrow. Hundreds of trucks and public buses rush with an alarming speed. A journey along the highways is often unsafe and risky. Road accidents occur frequently and taka a heavy toll of human life. The unmetalled roads get muddy in the rainy season and are full of dust in the dry season. Road communication in Bangladesh is backward for a number of reasons. Our country is a delta region and in most places the land is low. A network of rivers, canals and marshy lands spread all over Bangladesh. Only major towns, sub-divisional towns, upazilas and ports are connected by roads. Moreover, existing road and highways are largely damaged and destroyed during the liberation war. The progress of a country largely depends on the development of roads and highways. Bangladesh does not have enough money to connect the remotest corners of the country with roads and highways. Still road communication is easy and quick. Hence the Government should pay more attention to the improvement of roads in the country. THE RADIO The radio is one of the wonders of modern science. It carries our feeble voice to the farthest corner of the world. It gives us news, song, dance, talk, play, poetry and what not. The radio is the system of sending messages, song, talk etc. through the space by means of electric waves. It is a combination of the telephone and the telegraph and is an improvement on the two, because it can do without wires or without any connection between the stations. The Italian scientist, G. Marconi, was mainly responsible for its invention. The radio is based on the science of sound. As soon as a word is uttered certain vibrations are produced in the air. These vibrations are called ‘sound waves’, because they are transmitted to the ear in a wave-like form. Anything that is uttered in the broadcasting station can be heard in all places where there are receiving sets. The main function of a broadcasting station is the amplification of the vibrations. The receiving sets are apparatuses for catching the sound of broadcast. The vibrations which are reproduced require some energy for the reproduction. This energy is supplied by electricity and as such in every receiving valve set, there is a battery charged with electricity. In the case of the valve set, there are loud-speakers. These resemble gramophone horns and enable any number of men to listen. When we listen to our all-wave set, the world becomes our neighbour. The radio is the world’s microphone. With its help our leaders may easily address the nation from a small room. They need not stand on a platform facing thousands of eager listeners under the blazing sun. if democracy means real bond between the government and the people, the radio is surely a grand instrument of modern democracy. Even the unlettered million get knowledge of the latest developments in the world through it. The uses of the radio are manifold. Those who have hunger for news are satisfied with the news broadcast. Those who are interested in sports find immense joy in the football match replay. The businessman gets his quotation of prices, the politician finds his political news, the lover of music has his favourite song, the sailors his weather forecast and the common man the latest food position of the country. To the patients ailing in the hospital the radio is a great source of enjoyment. The radio broadcasts special programmes for special listeners like the students, the children, the women, the labourers, the solders and so forth. The radio entertains as well as instructs. Humble people who cannot afford music and play at their own cost can easily listen to the radio and enjoy themselves. The radio now-a-days can mould the country’s taste refinement. The radio has broken the wall between the literate and the illiterate. Even the illiterate are being educated by the radio. The radio has been a great help in the drive for adult education. It has also made the fruits of culture available to all classes of people.The radio is one of the gifts of science to society. Even in a poor country like ours, the use of the radio is not limited. Our engineers have come forward and taken up the study of wireless in its practical aspects. At present cheaper wireless sets may be manufactured in our country. Modern civilisation without the wireless system cannot be imagined.


THE RAINY SEASON


Bangladesh is the land of six seasons among which the rainy season is the most prominent one. It is the rains which have made our land with luscious green and our soil fertile. Asharh and Sravana are usually said to constitute the rainy season. We experience heavy rainfall during this season.

The period of the rainy season corresponds to the time from the middle of June to the middle of August. But the hot and wet weather that characterises this season lasts for a longer period. This weather begins and ends with the wet monsoon. The wet or summer monsoon begins in the second half of summer and ends in September. There is heavy rain during the whole period, but the heaviest rainfall occurs in the period from the middle of June to the middle of August. [This paragraph may be excluded.]


The rains are caused by the monsoon wind that blows in from the south west of the Bay of Bengal over Bangladesh from April to October. The heat of summer turns a large quantity of water in the sea into vapour which mixes with the air above. When the monsoon breaks out in the months of May and June, this rain bearing wind is cooled by contact with the cooler currents of air and the vapour is condensed into cloud and this causes rain. [This paragraph may be excluded.]


During this season the sky looks threatening. Heavy black clouds, charged with rain, roll across the sky close to the earth’s surface. Violent blasts of wind blow. This sun remains hidden behind the clouds and rains fall in torrents. Sometimes it continues for days together. Tanks and ponds that dry up in summer are all filled up again. Rivers become full and overflow their banks. Some places remain under water for the greater part of the season and appear to be vast sheets of paper. Everywhere roads are covered with mud. In many villages one has to go about in boats. The landscape appears green. Dry leaves fall from the trees. When they finish gathering in their ‘Aus’ paddy their jute gets ready for separation from the stick. After a few days’ rest, they set about harvesting, washing and drying the ‘golden fibre’. They are about to plant their ‘Aman’ paddy.


The cool showers of the rain save the Nature from the scorching heat of shimmering summer. The rains wash away the filth that accumulates on the surface of the earth and purify the whole atmosphere. They stimulate the growth of vegetation and crops. Silt is scattered over the land when the rivers are in spate and makes the soil fertile. The joys of the tillers know no bounds, if there is sufficient rain in this season. In the first half of this season, ‘Rajshahi’ mangoes, jackfruits and pineapples are plentiful. In the second half we get more fish. Lotus and water lilies add colour to this season. For all its heat and wet weather, the rainy season is charming in many ways.


The rainy season, no doubt, does us immense good. But it brings in some inconvenience. The country roads get covered with mud. Some of them become impassable. Outdoor games and activities are rendered difficult. Sometimes heavy rain causes floods too. Huge volumes of water come rushing down the rivers. Water rises incessantly and menacingly and flows down over fields and human habitations. It carries away crops and cattle and washes away homesteads. Floods thus work great havoc and bring untold suffering and misery. Boats of various types are the only means of communication in many parts of the country. Men have to sit idle and pass much of their time in doors. So they lose their appetite. Moreover, many diseases such as malaria, diarrhoea and dysentery break out in most places during this season.

The rainy season is the most important and useful season in this country, because this is an agricultural country and it depends mainly on rain for agricultural operations. So the discomforts and inconveniences of this season sink into insignificance when they are compared with the immense benefit it confers. This is the most useful season in an agricultural country like ours.



THE RAINY SEASON

Introduction: Bangladesh is the land of six seasons among which the rainy season in the most prominent one. It is the rains which have made our land with luscious green and our soil fertile. Asharh and Sravana are usually said to constitute the rainy season. We experience heavy rainfall during this season.


Its duration: The period of the rainy season corresponds to the time from the middle of June to the middle of August. But the hot and wet weather that characterises this season lasts for a longer period. This weather begins and ends with the wet monsoon. The wet or summer monsoon begins in the second half of summer and ends in September. There is heavy rain during the whole period, but the heaviest rainfall occurs in the period from the middle of June to the middle of August.


How caused: The rains are caused by the monsoon wind that blows in from the south west of the Bay of Bengal over Bangladesh from April to October. The heat of summer turns a large quantity of water in the sea into vapour which mixes with the air above. When the monsoon breaks out in the months of May and June, this rain bearing wind is cooled by contact with the cooler currents of air and the vapour is condensed into cloud and this causes rain.


Description: During this season the sky looks threatening. Heavy black clouds, charged with rain, roll across the sky close to the earth’s surface. Violent blasts of wind blow. This sun remains hidden behind the clouds and rains fall in torrents. Sometimes it continues for days together. Tanks and ponds that dry up in summer are all filled up again. Rivers become full and overflow their banks. Some places remain under water for the greater part of the season and appear to be vast sheets of paper. Everywhere roads are covered with mud. In many villages one has to go about in boats. The landscape appears green. Dry leaves fall from the trees and ‘Aus’ paddy and reap their jute fields. When they finish gathering in their ‘Aus’ paddy their jute gets ready for separation from the stick. After a few days’ rest, they set about harvesting, washing and drying the ‘golden fibre’,. They were about to plant their ‘Aman’ paddy.


Usefulness /Blessing: The cool showers of the rain save the Nature from the scorching heat of shimmering summer. The rains wash away the filth that accumulates on the surface of the earth and purify the whole atmosphere. They stimulate the growth of vegetation and crops. Silt is scattered over the land when the rivers are in spate and makes the soil fertile. The joys of the tillers know no bounds, if there is sufficient rain in this season. In the first half of this season ‘Rajshahi mangoes, jackfruits and pineapples are plentiful. In the second half we get more fish. Lotus and water lilies add colour to this season. For all its heat and wet weather, the rainy season is charming in many ways.


Disadvantages /Curse: The rainy season, no doubt, does us immense good. But it brings in some inconvenience. The country roads get covered with mud. Some of them become impassable. Outdoor games and activities are rendered difficult. Sometimes heavy rain causes floods too. Huge volumes of water come rushing down the rivers. Water rises incessantly and menacingly and flows down over fields and human habitations. It carries away crops and cattle and washes away homesteads. Floods thus works great havoc and bring untold suffering and misery. Boats of various types are the only means of communication in many parts of the country. Men have to sit idle and pass much of their time in doors. So they lose their appetite. Moreover, many diseases such as malaria, diarrhoea and dysentery break out in most places during this season.


Conclusion: The rainy season is the most important and useful season in this country, because this is an agricultural country and it depends mainly on rain for agricultural operations. So the discomforts and inconveniences of this season sink into insignificance when they are compared with the immense benefit it confers. This is the most useful season in an agricultural country like ours.



THE RAINY SEASON IN BANGLADESH

Introduction: There are six seasons in Bangladesh. The rainy season is one of them. Asharh and shravana are the months of the rainy season. But sometimes the season lasts from the middle of June to the middle of September.

How caused: The south-west monsoon, a periodical wind, that blows over Bangladesh from the Bay of Bengal, brings in the rains. The heat of summer turns a large quantity of the sea water into vapour which mixes with the air above. When the monsoon breaks out in the months of May and June, this rain bearing wind is cooled by contact with the cooler currents of air and the vapour is condensed into cloud and this causes rain.

Description: During this season the sky often remains clouded. Violent blasts of wind blow. The sun remains hidden behind the clouds and it rains in torrents. Sometimes rain countries for days together. Tanks and pools that dry up in winter and summer are all filled up again. Rivers gradually rise till they overflow their banks. Some places remain under water for the greater part of the season and appear to be vast sheets of water. Everywhere roads are covered with mud. In many villages one has to go about in boats. The land scope appears green. Dry leaves fall from the trees and new ones sprout forth in their place.


Usefulness: The rains wash away the filth that accumulates on the surface on the earth and purify the whole atmosphere. They lessen the intense heat of summer and stimulate the growth of vegetation and crops. It is the time for gathering Aush crops and planting Aman paddy. The joy of the tillers knows no bounds if there is sufficient rain in this season. They merrily proceed towards the fields with their bullocks and ploughs, and till them.


Disadvantages: The rainy season undoubtedly does us immense good. But it brings in some inconveniences too. The country roads get covered with mud and many of them turn impassable. Outdoor games and activities become difficult. Floods in rivers cause serious damage by washing away houses and destroying crops. Boats are the only means of communication in many parts of the country. Men have to sit idle and pass much of their time indoors. Moreover, many diseases such as malaria, diarrhoea and dysentery break out during this season.


Conclusion: The rainy season is the most important and useful season in our country, because ours is an agricultural country and it depends mainly on rain for agricultural operations. If there is no

periodic rain there will be scarcity of food and that will result in famine. So the discomforts and inconveniences of this season sink into insignificance, when they are compared with the immense benefit it confers. This is the most useful season in an agricultural country like ours.


THE RAINY SEASON IN BANGLADESH

Bangladesh is a tropical country. It is the land of six seasons, and each season has its own marks and charms. A part of June, July and a part of August constitute the rainy season in Bangladesh. It is the season of profuse rainfall, the season of monsoon and the season of vegetation all around.


Summer is the first season in Bangladesh. During summer time the day becomes very hot. The scorching heat of summer evaporates the sea water, and the vapour being cooled and transformed into clouds brings in rain. The south-west monsoon, a periodical wind blowing over Bangladesh after the summer, causes heave rainfall and the rainy season.


Rainy season is both a blessing and a curse to the people in Bangladesh. The first few days of the season come as a relief to the people after the hot summer. Not only men. but nature also feel relieved. The dried up lands becomes lively again. The cultivators become busy in preparing their lands or sowing the seeds.

But it has its other side also. When the rainy days become continuous, the miseries of the people know no bound. The sky remains overcast with thick clouds. It rains and rains continually for days together. The sun remains covered for several days. Violent blasts of wind blow. Asa result many of the houses fall down, and many boats sink. In the country side, heavy rainfall causes great inconveniences to people. The whole field goes under water. The transport and communication system become disrupted. The works become stopped, throwing many persons out of work. Many diseases break out in epidemic form. Snakes and other insects swarm the areas. If rainfall becomes excessive, crops are destroyed. This season causes much hardship to the livestock and other domestic animals.


Despite all these inconveniences, the rainy season becomes very much helpful to agriculture. Jute and paddy, which are the two principal crops of Bangladesh, grow during this season. Heavy rainfall also cleanses the country and enriches soil. This season, however, is very much liked by the poets and writers. A large number of songs have been composed by the poets on rain and rainy season. The clouds, rains, the lush green nature and the landscapes are their favourite themes


The Rainy Season

There are six seasons in Bangladesh. They visit Bangladesh periodically. Each of this periodical change is called a season. The rainy season is one of them. It comes after summer. In Bangladesh, it begins from mid June and lasts up to mid August. Ashar and Shraban are the months of the rainy season.

During the rainy season, the sky remains clouded. The earth becomes cool and fresh. Sometimes it drizzles. The sun is seldom seen. Again it rains heavily for days together. Dry ponds, rivers and canals are filled with water upto the brim. The joy of fishes and frogs know no bounds. But the roads and streets remain muddy. In the town, roads and streets are flooded because of heavy showers of rain. Motor car, Jeep, Taxi etc. are seen to run through pools of water. It is, indeed, a beautiful sight to me.

In summer, the heat is unbearable. Nature seems to be lifeless. But with the rainy season, Nature seems to get a new life. Then we see green trees, green grass and green corn fields. Different kinds of flowers bloom and their sweet smell spreads in the air. The beauty of Nature in rainy season charms all, particularly the poets.


In this season, Jute and Paddy grow in plenty. Many sweet and juicy fruits are found in plenty. The flood washes away refuse things and dirt. It makes the country free from malaria and other diseases.

In the rainy season, many people can go from one place to another by boat. They can carry heavy things by boat. This saves expenses.


In the rainy season, people can not feel at ease to go out. Poor people suffer much. Their cottages become damp and wet. Sometimes, the flood washes away their cottages. Many people then become homeless and helpless. Cattle and crops are also destroyed. Diseases like cholera, malaria and dysentery break out.

It is doubtlessly true that the rainy season is very useful to us. Paddy and Jute grow welt. If there is not much rainfall then, these crops will not grow well. Its economic value is great. Considering all these, we welcome the rainy season. Indeed, it is a blessing to us.



The Rainy Season of Bangladesh

During the rainy season the sky often remains cloudy with patches of black clouds that hover across the sky close to the earth surface. Violent blasts of wind blow. Lighting, flashes and thunder roars. The sun remains hidden behind the clouds and it rains in torrents.


Sometimes there is continuous downpour for days together. This season is of paramount importance in an agricultural country like Bangladesh. It influences on our life and culture to a great extent. The rainy season is caused by monsoon. The south west monsoon that blows in over Bangladesh from the Bay of Bengal brings much vapor with it. As a result, she receives a heavy rainfall during the monsoon.


The rainy season undoubtedly does us immense good. The nature assumes a new appearance at the advent of rainy season. New leaves come out in the plants and trees. They begin flowering. The landscape appears green. The rain water washes away the filth and purifies the surface of the earth. It lessens the intense heat of summer and simulates the growing of vegetation and crops. It makes our land alluvial, fertile and suitable for growing better crops. Hilsha and other fishes are available in this season. The rainy season facilitates the navigation system in the country and thereby fosters our trade and commerce. When the peacock dances to see the cloudy sky, it presents a beautiful sight. The appearance of the rainbow in the clear sky looks very beautiful. Children especially enjoy seeing the rainbow. During the rainy season, there is croaking of frogs at night. The cluttering of the cricket destroys the silence of night. Insects of different kinds come out in the silence of night. Besides these, the rainy season is very useful. It brings respite from the heat. It helps in the production of foodstuff and fodder for the animal. This season is a gift of God. We should welcome this season. The rainy season does not an unmixed blessing all the times. It has disadvantages too. It sometimes presents a horrible picture. Sometimes heavy rainfall overflows the banks on the rivers and causes floods. They cause heavy loss to life and property. Standing crops are washed away in floods. Houses collapse taking away many lives of the inmates. Communication network is disrupted. Roads are washed away. Traffic is disrupted. One part of the country is cut off from the other. The roads at the country side become muddy and slippery and as such we cannot go from one place to another on foot easily. Students cannot go to school, madrasha, and colleges. Due to damage to crops, there is the problem of food crisis. In the aftermath of floods, there is the outbreak of diseases of different kinds. The poor cannot earn their living. All these present a grim situation.


The rainy season is the most important and useful of all the seasons in our country. This season is closely related to the economy of the country and prosperity of our people. It makes earth cool after the heat of summer. The nature looks very beautiful. So whatever may be the disadvantages of the rainy season, this season is hailed by the people of Bangladesh. We always welcome this season and enjoy its beauty. I like this season very much.


THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN BANGLADESH .

Bangladesh is our motherland. It is a very small country. Bangladesh has sixty-eight thousand villages where eighty percent of our people live. So it is clear that welfare of the country depends upon the welfare of these villages.


There was a time when the villagers were happy and self­supporting. Lands supplied them with paddy and vegetables; ponds with fish and cows with milk. Wants were unknown at that time. The villagers were simple, healthy, peace-loving, religious, hospitable and generous. With the beginning of the British rule,

the villages saw the downfall. A few cities sprang up after the western fashion. Then the educated and well-to-do people left the villages to enjoy modern facilities in those cities.

After the achievement of independence, it was naturally hoped that villages would see happy days again. But good roads, decent houses and good tanks are yet to be constructed. They are deprived of adequate facilities of hospitals, doctors, medicine, schools and colleges.


Nowadays the villages face various problems whereas all the facilities of towns should be made available there. Metalled roads should be constructed. Schools and colleges should be established. Jungles should be destroyed and marshes filled up. Charitable dispensaries and hospitals should be set up to give medical aid to the sick people. Arrangements should be made for the supply of pure drinking water.

It is really heartening to note that our present government are adopting schemes to reconstruct and develop the village under the supervision of upazilla.



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