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Updated: Sep 21, 2023

The Life of A Farmer

One who works in an agricultural farm is said to be a farmer. A farmer is always a middle-class man or a poor man. He works in the agricultural lands. Bangladesh is an agricultural country. Her soil is very fertile. So, the prosperity of Bangladesh is really dependent on the well-being of the farmers.

A farmer generally starts his day at day break. He starts for his work in the crop-field after taking 'Panthabhat' or water rice. He has to till the land with 'plough. He has to do it whether it is a sunny day or not, whether it is raining heavily or there is scorching rays of sun overhead. In the monsoon, a farmer has to work in the field from dawn -to dusk. Sometimes he takes his lunch in the field. A young member of the family normally carries the house-cooked food to the field.

A farmer in Bangladesh works hard but in return he gets very little. He is in constant poverty. Now and then he fails to get two square meals a day. He can not give clothes to his family. Besides, his family suffers from various types of diseases. When he has no work in the field, he works as a day labourer to earn his bread. He is really an unfortunate man.

He produces food grains by the sweat of his brow. But he can not enjoy the fruits of his labour. That is to say, he lives from hand to mouth throughout the year. On some occasions, he inherits debts from the land lord. He can not repay it. Thus he is born in debt, lives in debt and dies in debt.

A farmer in Bangladesh does not really have any recreational facility. He either gossips with his fellow farmers, villagers, or goes to a rich neighbour's house for watching television, if it is available. Otherwise, he takes the opportunity of any other gathering like a village fair or folk songs etc.

Indeed farmers are the life of a nation. They are the people who produce our crops to feed the whole nation. They produce the raw materials for our industries. So, a farmer's contribution is very great for the nation.

As the farmers are the backbone of this country, we should not neglect them. We all, including the Government, should try to improve the lot of farmers. We should take necessary (effective) ateps to improve the daily working condition of a farmer in Bangladesh.


THE LIFE OF A PEASANT

Bangladesh is an agro-based country. Agriculture is the main stream of economy of the country. Peasants are the part and parcel of agriculture. To sketch the life of a peasant, we should take a general look at our agriculture.

There are three kinds of peasants —(i) the rich, (ii) the middle class and (iii) the poor and landless peasants. The rich peasants are very small in number. The middle-class peasants are considerable in number and the vast majority are the poor and landless peasants who run the wheels of our agriculture.

A rich peasant has a kind of indolent and easy-going life. He has much land. He himself does not have to work in the field. He engages other people in his field.

A middle-class peasant is more active. He has some lands of his own. He has necessary agricultural equipments. He works himself with others whom he engages in work in his land.

The life of a poor and landless peasant is totally different. He has a little land, a plough and a pair of bullocks. His life is one of continuous struggle. He gets up early in the morning, takes some rice soaked with water with a chilly or a little curry-, goes to the field and starts his work. He ploughs the land, sows the seeds and removes the weeds. He works hard. He comes home at noon, takes a bath and meal and then again goes to the field and works till it is dusk. Sometimes, he is so busy that he cannot make time to go home for the mid-day meal. To speak inbrief, He works hard from dawn to dusk to earn a living but it is unfortunate that his lot remains unchanged.

A poor or'a landless peasant of Bangladesh lives in a great misery. It is a pity that in spite of hard labour, he is always in want of food, clothing and other bare necessaries. The Government as well as the other non-government organisations must come forward to remove the sufferings of the landless peasants for the economic and overall development of Bangladesh.




A POET WHO IS MOST FAVOURITE TO ME

Jivanananda Das was a poet of his class. He depicted nature in his poetry with all its mystical and physical beauties with extraordinary artistry. He was quite different from other contemporary poets.

He was born in Barisal in 1899. Jivanananda took his Master's Degree in English in 1.921. His teaching career started as a Lecturer of English at Calcutta City College in 1922. Das lost his job in 1928 on the charge of publishing a poem, entitled "Kamphe" (in the camp) in the PARICHAYA Patrika. After this, a series of events took place in quick succession. In 1930 he joined the Ramjash College, Delhi, but returned to his place of birth the next year. He got an appointment in' Brajamohan College, Barisal in 1935. In 1947 when the partition was made, Jivanananda Das left Bangladesh for India. In West Bengal he started editing the SWARAJ Patrika. In 1951 he joined the Kharagpur College. He also served at Barisal College and Howra Girls' College in 1953-54. In 1953 Das was awarded the Rabindra Puraskar. On the 14th of October, 1954 he met with a Tram accident in Calcutta and passed away on October 22. This is the simple life-sketch of my favourite poet, Jivanananda Das who made his silent entry into the arena of Bangla poetry at a time when Nobel-laureate Rabindranath Tagore was at the vertical point of his name and fame.

The true note of Das's temperament is sadness — a pensive melancholy. This sense of isolation is strong upon him all the time. In his poem Jivanananda has depicted the face of Bangladesh in a faithful way. The Dhaleswari river, the chilly night of Poush, the hazy moon, the soft feathers of swans, dishevelled hair of the teen-aged girl, the yellow-bird and other innumerable pictures assemble in his poems.

. His 'Ruposhi Bangla' contains poems of exquisite beauty. While reading his poems I get transported into a world of enchantment. His picturesque descriptions of nature are so lively and vivid that the reader can feel, touch and smell them.

My favourite poet Jivanananda Das is no more but he has immortalized himself through his literary works. I will be inspired by his writings all through my life.

My Favourite Poet

Or, My Favourite Person Or, The person I Like Most

Introduction I am fond of reading the poems of Bangles from my early life. I have gone through many poems of many famous poets and poetess. But the poems of Kazi Nazrul Islam is most favourite/appealing to me. This is why, he is my favourite, poet. He is the national poet of Bangladesh. Kazi Nazrul Islam is known. as the rebel poet in Bengali literature. He is also one of the greatest reformers of life, society and the nation.


His birth : Kazi Nazrul Islam was born at Churulia in the district of Burdhwan Jaistha 11, 1306 B.S. (in 1899). His father's name was Kazi Fakir ahmed and mother's name was Zahida Khatun. His parents lost four children before his birtb. So he was called Dukhu Miah.


Early life : He lost his father in his childhood. So he had to struggle hart

acute poverty. He was admitted to a village primary school. He was a restless ch."IC, in nature. So he didn't like the hard and fast rules of the school. After passing primary school, he became a teacher in the village Maktab. He taught the village children the 'Holy Quran'. fle also became a *Muazzin'. He started composing., poems and songs. Soon the restless boy joined a cultural party called the Leto Party' and earned a great name and fame. At 12 lie flew away from home and due to poverty took a job in a bakery. A Muslim Sub-Inspector found the bright flute. of Nazrul. So he took him his home and got him admitted into a high school.Suddenly, he left the high school and joined an 'Opera Party'. There he wrote/composed some songs for his party for sometime.


Soldier life : During the First World War he joined the 47th Bengal Regiment Jr; 1917 when he was a student of class X and soon he became a "Habildar." He dieu-11 stop his pen. He composed (wrote) many poems. The war was over. He came baci'. to Kolkata and composed a good number of remarkable poems like 'Bidrohi' and 'Kanial Paslia. Then he published /brought out a remarkable magazine nalptcl 'Dhumketu'. He himself was the Editor of the magazine. He published all his revolutionary writings in the magazine. The British brute ruler got fiery -with him at his rebellious/ revolutionary songs and poems. The poet was sent to jail for one year for writing a rebellious poem called 'Agamani'. Since then he was known as a 'rebel poet'. His famous works/contributions/writings are Bisher Bashi, Dolan Chapa, Rikter Bedon. Badharihara. He composed a lot of poems, songs and dramas in the jail. His rebellious poems arid songs greatly inspired the people of Bengal to stand against the brute British rulers. His writings are against injustice and oppression. He wanted equal rights for all. This is why Nazrul is called the Byron of Bangladesh.


Later life : It is a great pith- that he had been suffering from a fatal disease since 1945 which made him silent. He passed away in Dhaka on August 29, 1976. The famous poet was buried beside the Dhaka University Mosque.


Conclusion: The rebel poet tried to bring about between the Muslims Harmony and the Hindus. His poems and songs inspire us to stand against any oppression, injustice and inhuman act. Though he is dead, he is alive in our hearts. We always remember. respect and love him from the heart. May Allah rest his departed soul.


FEMALE EDUCATION

Education is the birth right of everybody. It makes a harmonious development of one’s mental faculties. So, facilities for education should be held open to everybody. In this respect, no discrimination should be made between man and woman. In fact, education must be universal.


Some people are opposed to female education. They opine that women are intellectually inferior to men. So they are mainly meant for hearth and home. They should deal with the kitchen. They should perform the household duties, bring up the children and yield comforts to their male partner. On the whole, their duties are totally confined to the inner apartment. The arguments stated above do not hold water.


It is true that they have some special tasks to perform inside the household. But these special tasks also cannot be properly done by an uneducated woman. An educated husband cannot put up with an uneducated partner. An uneducated mistress is not in a position to do her household duties in sound lines. It is impossible for an uneducated mother to bring up their children in an appropriate manner. We can expect the women to acquit themselves well even in their special tasks only when they are given proper education.


Women are found equal to men in all respects except in physical strength. The question of their intellectual inferiority lays bare a negative answer. So there should not be any distinction between men and women in respect of education. Many women are now successfully competing with men in many active branches of life. Thus there cannot be any ground to deprive women of the benefits of education. Women also have their social responsibilities. Half of the people of our co untry are women. No development can be brought about in our society without participation of half of its members. And development work cannot be carried out successfully with uneducated women. Thus our women should be educated at the earliest. It may be advisable to modify the old system of education for our girls. Subject like Home Economics, Domestic Science, Cooking, Sewing and Nursing should be included in their course of study.


It is a good sign that there is a general awakening among the women. The United National Charter provides for removal of discrimination between men and women. The women of our countries are also coming out of their domestic walls and working side by side with men in every walk of life. Our government is making all-out efforts to pave the way for female education in our country. We should remember that education is one of the fundamental rights of everybody male or female.

FEMALE EDUCATION


Living in a global village, where skills and competence are essential for keeping pace with others, we cannot deny the necessity of education for our womenfolk. Men and women are like the two sides of a coin. One is incomplete without the other. So the development of both men and women is a prerequisite for overall development of the country. As women constitute about half of the population, it would be a cry in the wilderness to try for making any progress and prosperity keeping them uneducated and unskilled. Therefore, female education is a burning need.

Education is the process by which our mind develops through formal learning. It is a mental and intellectual training that enhances our skill and competence. Without education, the development of potential human faculties is not possible. If educated, a man or woman can perform his/her duties perfectly and proficiently.

There is no denying the fact that today's girls are the future women and every woman is a potential mother. As the mothers play a vital role in making and shaping their children future they have to be educated. The lack of education cripples their prospective faculties. An uneducated woman cannot render her service even to her family, let alone to society and the country. We can expect them to perform this responsibility properly provided that they are educated. An educated woman knows better how to rear up her children, to educate them and to make them worthier. Besides, she can discharge her social responsibilities and contribute to the overall development of the country.


Many ignorant parents think that educating their daughters is just wasting money, for they are soon married off and they are of little help. Some people strongly oppose female education. They want to confine women to the hearth. They only believe in woman's traditional role of a mother, a wife and a homemaker. This sort of outlook on the part of the man folkmust be changed.

In the male-dominated society girls are born in an unwelcome world and in many cases receive discriminatory treatment. So, gender discrimination must be eradicated for the sake of female education.

Nowadays women have started to come out of their cocoons. Being educated , they are joining oining a wide-range of professions. They have been able to prove their abilities. But this number. is negligent. Many millions of women are still uneducated and ignorant.

Female Education

Or, Education for Women


Man and women are equal and integral power for a nation. That is education is equally essential for both. We know that ignorance is a curse all but education is power. If a country neglects female education and keeps them uneducated, she can not establish herself as a powerful nation me people are directly opposed to female education. They think that mentally, physically and intellectually women are inferior to men. There are religious prejudices also. They opine that women are born to be confined household-works, rearing of children and serving the husbands. So women need no education at all; but these people should understand that without education women would not be able to perform those duties properly. Hence the prejudiced and the orthodox people should be made aware of the underlying sense of female education.

I ho importance of female education beggars description. We should bear in mind the glaring example of Napoleon who said to his nation, "You give me good mothers, I will give you a good nation." Actually the future of child depends on how one is taught by one's mother in early childhood. It is true that education of a mother is naturally transmitted to the children. Besides, educated women can help a nation's development in various sectors as such research, teaching, hotel management, tourism, nursing etc. If women are educated, the entire society will be benefited. After all, the nation will gain prosperity. There is a wise saying of Napoleon, "One educated mother is more powerful than one hundred soldiers".

Wo can see that women in the developed countries are independent. They compete with men in all spheres of life. Unfortunately, women in Bangladesh are neglected. They always receive less importance in every sphere of our life including education. So, we should change our outlook regarding female education. We are fortunate that the government has made primary education free and compulsory for all who are five to seven years old. The Government is also supplying books up to class V free of cost. In order to build a good nation Govt. has taken this noble initiative.

There is a great necessity of female education for a nation in every nook and corner. We all should try heart and soul to encourage the universal female, education for the interest and greater welfare of the nation. Otherwise, real development and prosperity will be hampered at every step of our life.



FEMALE EDUCATION


Introduction: Education means mental and moral training. It is the light that clears off the darkness of ignorance from our mental horizon. It opens wide to our vision the vastness of God’s creation and enables us to think about the merciful Creator of this universe. It is a blessing. It ensures a perfect and harmonious development of our innate qualities and makes us worthy of the name ‘Ashraful Makhlukat’.


Education should be universal: Education is a light to which everybody has the equal right. When God created man and woman, he drew no hard and fast line of distinction between them. He endowed them all equally with the bright and noble faculties. So education cannot be an exclusive possession of any class or sect or sex. So God made the pursuit of knowledge compulsory for every man and woman. So education should be universal. It should be imparted to both man and woman, who form one-half of the population. They should not be refused the benefits of education.


View against female education: there are, however, some people who are strongly opposed to the female education. They say that it is useless to impart education to women whose duties are confined to household affairs, rearing of children and ministering to the comforts to their male partners.


Reasons for educating women: It is true that women have many special tasks in life and their spheres of duties are different from those of men. But we should remember that these tasks also need training and education. Unless women get proper education, all their prospective faculties get crippled. It is only by imparting proper education to them that we can expect them to discharge the duties nicely and decently. Secondly, education of children depends a great deal upon mothers. Childhood is the most impressionable stage and anything good or bad, taught to child makes an indelible mark on his mind. Can we have educated and ideal citizens when the mothers themselves are foolish and ignorant? No, we cannot. Thirdly, every woman is a potential mother. The future of a child depends on how it is brought up and educated in childhood. An educated mother is naturally expected to bring up and educate her children better than an uneducated mother. Fourthly, social responsibilities should also be shared by men and women. In domestic life a woman can lend a helping hand to her husband. When a husband returns home extremely tired after the day’s hard toil in the outside world, it is for her to cheer him up and to make his life easy and comfortable. She serves as the best and truest friend and her words go a long way towards influencing her husband for what is good and noble. These are the strongest points in favour of female education. However, opinions may differ in respect of the nature of education to be imparted to women.


Traditional system of education for girls to be changed: Our main subject is to educate our women systematically and carefully. By education we do not mean the winning of different Degrees of the university. The traditional system of education for girls should be changed. Cooking, sewing, Child rearing, Home Economics and Nursing should be introduced in the curriculum of their studies. Some are under the impression that education makes women foppish, weak and quite incapable of discharging their domestic duties. But they must know what makes them so is not education at all.


Early marriage should be abolished: early marriage is one of the hindrances to female education in our country. It is a custom among the Muslims to get their daughters and sisters married before they attain puberty. They are married before they understand well their duties as wives and often they become mothers before they pass their girlhood. So the system should by all means be abolished from our society.


Conclusion: All steps necessary should be taken to encourage universal female education for the survival of our nation. It is heartening to note that the Government has recently declared free and compulsory education for rural girls upto class XII.



Our National Festivals Composition


“Baro mashe tero parbon” is a familiar proverb in Bangladesh. It means that thirteen festivals are held in twelve months. It implies that in Bangladesh there are more festivals than the number of months in a year. Our national festivals are many and varied. Some are religious festivals, some are secular and some are historical.

The Muslims observe the festival of Eid ul-Fitr at the end of the fasting month of Ramadan. After the prayer people embrace one another irrespective of caste and creed to express their fraternity, friendship and fellow-feeling. Another important festival of the Muslims is Eid ul-Azha. On this day after the congregational prayers, the people slaughter sacrificial animals and distribute meat to the neighbours, the relatives and the poor.

Minor festivals like the Muharram are also observed by the Muslims. Eid-e- Miladunnabi is also a national day in Bangladesh. Prophet Muhammad (SM) was born on the day. He also breathed his last on the same day. The day is a national holiday, and food is offered to the destitutes and the orphans. Prayers are offered in Milad mehfils in the afternoon.

The Hindus have many religious festivals which they observe with a great deal of pomp and grandeur. Among these festivals, we may mention the Durga Puja, the Saraswati Puja, the Laxmi Puja and the Kali Puja. On these occasions, the Hindus invite the people of all communities to share their joys with them.

During all these festivals, the people of different communities co-operate exchange greetings and share the rejoicings. This shows that the people of Bangladesh live in an uncommon communal harmony and brotherhood.


The historical festivals include the celebration of the 21st February, as an International Mother Language Day, Independence Day and the Victory Day. These days are celebrated all over the country in a befitting manner and inspire the people with a high sense of patriotism and a renewed zeal to serve the nation to achieve the national objectives.

Among the secular festivals, the Pahela Boishakh is the most important.On the occasion of national festivals, different programmes are held by various organisations including the government. Radio and television broadcast various programmes to add to the joy of the people. The newspapers bring out special supplements and the magazines publish special news. On some occasions, colourful processions and rallies are brought out by some organizations. Cultural functions and discussion meetings are also held in some distinguished institutions. In fact, people all over the country are held in high spirits and excitement throughout the whole festive day.

In short, festivals fill our lives with colors and enthusiasm. They bring us closer every year and eliminate any feelings of communal hatred. Further, they strengthen the bonds of the community and remove the malice from people’s hearts. Therefore, festivals are quite important and must be celebrated with passion.


Festivals


Festivals refer to a day or period of the year when people stop working to celebrate a special event. Festivals are common to all societies and cultures. With the change of social and economic structures, the natures of festivals also change. Some of the festivals bear the mark of the community and nationality, some have the stamp of religion, and again some bear the impression of politics. The festivals, which got started in the primitive society centering on the prayer for food, have now been filled with various colours and varieties.

The two main religious festivals of the Muslims of Bangladesh are eid-ul fitr and eid-ul azha. They have become occasions of mutual exchange of pleasantries among friends and relatives. Eid-ul Fitr is observed after the end of Ramadan. The social meaning of Eid is joyful festival, while its etymological meaning denotes returning time and again. Like all other social festivals, Eid returns every year. So is the case with Eid-ul Azha. The same can be said of hajj.

The biggest religious festival of the Hindu community in Bengal was and still is the durga puja. Hindus participate in it with great enthusiasm. The ceremonial awakening of goddess Durga takes place. Thereafter, Puja is performed for three days on the seventh, eighth and ninth, and the immersion of the image of the goddess Durga with her companions is held on the tenth day. On the following full-moon day, laksmi puja takes place. On the last day of the Bengali month of Kartik, Kartik Puja is performed. On the fifth lunar day of the bright fortnight in the Bengali month of Magh, saraswati puja is held. Before that, on the new moon day usually in the month of Kartik, kali puja is performed.

The celebration of the Janmastami is an old festival of this region, particularly of Dhaka town. Both the Hindus and the Muslims take part in it. The procession, which would be brought out in Dhaka town, was renowned throughout the whole of Bengal. It is said that Shrikrsna was born on the eighth lunar day of the dark fortnight in the Bengali month of Bhadra. So this day is very sacred to the Hindus.

The main festival of the Buddhists is buddha purnima. The birth of Buddha, his adoption of asceticism, attainment of supreme enlightenment, nirvana – all these occurred on the full-moon lunar day in the month of Baishakh, and hence this is the most important and solemn festival of the Buddhists. It is assumed that the Baisakhi Purnima is being celebrated in Bangladesh with great splendour for more than one thousand years.

Christmas day or the birth anniversary of Jesus Christ is observed. The Christmas festival lasts for a single day. The main components of this festival are special prayers offered in churches, arrangements of feasts and offering of gifts among friends and relatives. Now a day the number of Buddhists or Christians in Bangladesh is not very significant, and hence their festivals are also observed somewhat without much fanfare.

However, the biggest function on the first day of Baisakh is the holding of fair. In the fairs arranged in Dhaka and also in other towns and urban areas, along with the earthen and handicraft items, book fairs are also held. Many publishing houses present books to the clients as tokens of New Year’s good wishes. Men wear white pyjamas and panjabi. Many town people start the day with the traditional breakfast of panta bhat, green chillies, onion and fried Hilsa fish. Special programmes are broadcast and telecast on radio and television and special supplements are brought out by the newspapers

The Martyrs’ Day, the Independence Day and the Victory Day are the national days of Bangladesh. Every year these days are observed with great festivities. Birth anniversaries of Rabindranath Tagore and Kazi Nazrul Islam have also turned into common cultural festivals of our country. Bizu festival, held in Chaitra-the last month of Bengali year, is a significant festival of the Chakma community of Bangladesh. However, a festival common to all classes of people and celebrated nationally with much grandeur is the observance of the New year’s Day. Barsha Baran, BasantaBaran, Nabanna Utshob etc. are sonic other common festivals of Bangladesh.

Baisabi Festival Baisabi is the main social festival of the indigenous people living in the hill districts of Rangamati, Bandarban and Khagrachhari. This festival is celebrated by the Chakma and Tanchyanga as “Biju”, by Marmas as “Shangrai”, Tripuras as “Baisuk” or “Baisu”. | Water festival, a joyful part of Baisabi| Biju is a festival celebrated by the Chakmas and Tanchyangas for three consecutive days- the last two days of Chaitra and the first day of Baisakh. They never kill any living creature during these three days. They celebrate the last day of Chaitra as the main festival day.

The observation of Milad-un-Nabi is an important Muslim religious festivity. The term itself means the birthday of the Prophet (Sm) of Islam. But this is also the day of his death. Various religious, socio-cultural organizations and political parties held various programmes, including Milad Mahfil, discussion meetings and Qurankhwani to mark the day. Islamic Foundation also holds programmes on the occasion.

Language Movement Day is a unique part of the culture of Bangladesh. Every year on February 21 this day is observed to pay tribute to the martyrs who sacrificed their lives to establish Bengali as the official language of then East Pakistan in 1952. The mood of the day is sad and humble. The celebration of Language Movement Day goes on the entire month of February. Ekushey book fair is a book fair arranged to mark this occasion every year.

Birth anniversary of the noble laureate Rabindranath tagore on 25th Baishakah (7 May) and some of the National Poet Kazi Nazrul Islam on 11th Jaystha (25 May) are observed throughout the country. Different cultural programs are arranged and discussions are held on those occasions.

Thousands of young people, both male and female, are taking part in the twin celebrations of Pohela Falgun and Valentine‘sDay welcoming the advent of spring and sharing the great day of love. The youngsters celebrate the occasions wearing colorful dresses, carrying flowers in their hands and singing love songs as

Fokir Lalon Shah, a prominent philosopher poet in the cultural history of Bangladesh. Every year, on the first week of April, a fair is organized on the eve of his birth anniversary at Kushtia. The akhra is decorated colorfully during this occasion and thousands of his devotees from different places of the country gather here to celebrate the day. Singers of Lalon Academy with ektara and other musical instrument, perform Lalon‘s song all through the night for three days.

Bengali weddings are traditionally in five parts: first it is the bride and groom’s Mehendi Shondha, the bride’s Gaye Holud, the groom’s Gay Holud, the Beeya and the Bou Bhaat. These often take place on separate days. Bride’s friends and family apply turmeric paste to her body as a part of Haye Holud of bride, and they are traditionally all in matching clothes mostly orange in color.

Bangladesh is a country where every religion’s people live together like brothers and sisters. They have lots of religious festivals. Among them some of the major festivals are discussed above. Every year these religious festivals observed with respect and dignity. These festivals not only observed in City but also in villages too. During those festival days, every religious people seem to be happy and friendly. There are to conflicts among them. This can be a great example of brotherhood



FISHES AND FISHERMEN OF BANGLADESH


Introduction: Fish forms a principal item of our food next only to rice. So it is in great demand. It is why the gathering of the buyers is the thickest in the fish-markets.

Where found: Fishes are found in tanks, rivers, marshes, lakes and seas. The rivers, marshes and canals of Bangladesh abound in fish. It breeds and grows naturally in these places. Many people rear fish in tanks for personal consumption and for sale.

Kinds and varieties of fishes: There are innumerable kinds of fish in Bangladesh. Of them the hilsa, rohit, katla, mrigel, kalbose, kai, magur, shingi, chital, boal, vetki, tangra, padda and punti are the most common. Some of these live in rivers, some in tanks or ponds, some in swamps and some, again, in seas. The hilsa is found in rivers only. Fishes are of many sizes and colours; some are beautiful to look at, while others are ugly. They have two round eyes without lids and four pair of gills, and five pair of fins. They move about in water, sometimes come up to the surface and breathe in with their gills. They feed upon grass, weeds and insects, but the larger kinds fish feed upon the smaller ones.

Use and importance of fish: Fish makes delicious curry. Various delicious preparations are made from fish. Fish contains a good amount of phosphorus. Fish-oil can be put to many uses. Fresh fish and dry fish are exported from Bangladesh to foreign countries in huge quantities. They bring in a good amount of money. Shrimps are now being exported to a number of European and American countries from our country and we are earning a good amount of foreign exchange thereby.


Ways of catching fish: Nets of different kinds are made for catching different kinds of fish. Angling is a popular way of catching fish. Even the rich people have the hobby of catching fish by angling.

Fishermen and their lot: The people who earn their livelihood by catching fish are the fishermen. They are a class by themselves. They are also called Jeleys in Bengali because they catch fish by using the jal or the net. They hard-working and painstaking people. They catch fish with nets in the big rivers like the Padma and the Meghna. As fishermen are not necessarily traders in fish, the middlemen who are known as nikaris take advantage of buying fish at a cheap rate from them. The middlemen then take fish to the market and sell it at an exorbitant price to the actual buyers. Thus they make a good profit at the cost of the fishermen. As a result, the sad plight of the fishermen has become all the more miserable.

Conclusion: Nevertheless, fishing and fish-trade have got immense possibilities. Extensive bils and haors of Sylhet, Mymensingh, Bogra and of other districts are potential sources of fish supply. Our government, through the Department of Fisheries, has taken definite steps for increasing the production of fish and developing the fish trade. Deep sea fishing has also been started in the Bay of Bengal. Fish is a great wealth of our country.


FLOODS IN BANGLADESH


Flood means the inundation of land. Bangladesh is a land of monsoon. During monsoon it rains heavily. Bangladesh is a low-lying, riverine country. Almost every year flood hits the country during the rainy season. It is one of the natural calamites in Bangladesh. When it takes place seriously, it weakens our hopes of prosperity. It causes damage to crops, life and prosperity. It causes damage to crops, life and property. It is a curse of Nature to us.

Floods are generally caused by heavy rainfall in the country, particularly in the mountains and hills which are the sources of the rivers. The water of these heavy rains in high places cannot often flow quickly into the ocean owing to bad drainage system and lack of sufficient number of outlets and sluices. The water rises beyond the banks of the rivers and overflows. It is also caused by cyclones, tidal bores of melting of snows at the origin of the rivers or the hindrance to the natural flow of water. Bangladesh is in the southwest monsoon region. So it receives heavy rain from about April to September. Moreover, heavier rainfall occurs in the mountainous regions of northern and eastern India. Most of this water flows down through the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and their tributaries into Bangladesh. Fed by the monsoon showers the rivers in Bangladesh are already full. So when they receive more water from India, they are in spate.

When floods rise high in a country, they cause untold damage to life and property. Crops are damaged, trees are uprooted and houses are washed away. Cattle and other domestic animals are then washed away by the current. Thousands of people are rendered homeless. They take shelter on

quickly built bamboo platforms, high roads and railway trucks and live on charity. Sometimes flood-water rises very sharply. At such times many perish before any rescue operation can be arranged. The devastation caused by floods in some areas baffles description.

Flood in Bangladesh means a terrible misfortune. The after-effects of floods are more serious. When floods subside, they leave behind devastated lands, epidemic diseases and scarcity of not only food and fodder but also of pure drinking water. Widespread damage to crops causes famine in the flood-affected areas and many die of starvation for want of food. Many lose their homes, their nearest and dearest ones and many even their lives. Cattle die in thousands. Trade and commerce come to a dead halt. Floods cause not only terrible human suffering but also national loss. They disrupt communication and transport by damaging bridges and breaching roads and railway tracks. The future is bleak for those who escape death. They scan the future and see harder days ahead. Devastated houses have to be rebuilt. Cattle have to be bought. Food has to be arranged until the next crop. So, the flood-stricken people, on the whole, have to start their life anew.

Floods do a little good to us. During floods our rivers carry a great deal of silt which makes the land fertile. As a result, many kinds of crops grow in plenty. Floods also wash away the accumulated filth that produces germs of various diseases.


In the year of 1987, 1988 and 1991 devastating floods occurred. They affected the Northern and Southern districts including the capital city. But the recent flood of 1998 was dangerous and unprecedented. The flood­water rose above the danger level for about 80 days. This flood covered about one lac square kilometre. According to the statistics, about 55/60 lac people were shelterless. 75% crops of the total country were destroyed. The loss in the sphere of industry was worth 2000 crore. Domestic animals died in an alarming rate. About 800 people died during this flood.

It is not wholly possible to prevent floods. But much can be done to alleviate the sufferings of the flood-affected people. To help the helpless victims of a flood-stricken area, relief and free medical help should be promptly reached. The public should contribute according to their means, and those who are able and wiling should come forward to work as volunteers. The unfortunate people should be rehabilitated in their homestead after the flood-water subsides. They have to be helped to rebuild their houses. Loans on easy terms should be granted to them to enable them to take up their work of life again. Pure drinking water must be ensured.

Proper steps should be taken for the prevention of floods in our country. All the rivers should be controlled by proper engineering works so that they may not overflow their banks. A large number of sluices and outlets should be made across the high roads and railway tracks so that rain water can easily pass through them. Dams and embankments should be constructed at different places to regulate the flow of water.


Comparing with the evils of floods, their good effects are insignificant. Floods bring more destruction, disaster, misery to us. So, we should always try to control flood at any cost.

FLOODS IN BANGLADESH

The excessive overflow of water that carries away our houses, uproots our trees and plants and damages our crops is called flood. It is a state of a country when a vast area of her goes under water. It causes immense damage to live and properties of people. Bangladesh is a low plain land. Many rivers flow over her. As a result, she is often visited by floods. Sometimes there are floods for some days and even for months.

There are many causes of floods. The main cause of floods is heavy rainfall. In the rainy season, it often rains cats and dogs. Pools, canals and rivers are filled up and can hold no more water. So, the rain-water overflows the banks of the canals and rivers and stands on the field. Sometimes snow melts in mountains. The water flows down the rivers and floods the houses and crops of the country. In Bangladesh floods are mainly caused due to heavy rains. So, floods visit almost every year in Bangladesh.

Flood causes a great havoc. It washes away houses, crops and uproots trees. Communication is cut off. People can not go from one place to another without boat. Innumerable cattle are swept away causing much suffering to the farmers. People die for want of proper food, drink and medicine. The after-effect of flood is not less terrible- Famine breaks out in the wake of flood and many people die without flood. After the flood epidemic diseases like cholera, dysentery, diarrhea and fever break out on the flood affected areas. Scarcity of drinking water causes great suffering of the people. On the other hand, flood has same good effects also. It makes land fertile. Crops and vegetables grow in abundance in these fertile lands. Some uncultivable lands become cultivable after the flood.

Flood is a natural calamity. Man has no power to stop it. Man can lessen its fury. He can control it. At first, the shallow river beds of should be dredged and deepened so that the overflow of water may be stopped. Embankments should be constructed on the bank of the rivers. A large number of sluices and outlets should be made across the high loads and railway tracks so that rain water can easily pass through them.

Relief measures are taken for flood affected people. Money, food, cloth, drinking water, medicine etc. should be distributed among them. A well planned irrigation system will go a long way to reduce the extent and fury of flood. Free seeds are supplied to the cultivators. These measures mitigate the sufferings of the people to some extent

In the year of 1987, 1988, 1991 and 1998 devastating floods occurred in Bangladesh. But the recent flood of 2004 was the most dangerous. The flood-water rose above the danger level for about 80 days.


In Bangladesh floods cause a huge loss, almost every year. If we cannot check the huge loss that flood causes to our country every year, ourdevelopment is well nigh impossible. So we should co-operate our government in controlling flood at best and then Bangladesh may be saved from the house of flood.

FLOODS IN BANGLADESH

Flood means the inundation of land. Bangladesh is a land of monsoon. During monsoon it rains heavily. Bangladesh is a low-lying, riverine country. Almost every year flood hits the country during the rainy season. It is one of the natural calamites in Bangladesh. When it takes place seriously, it weakens our hopes of prosperity. It causes damage to crops, life and prosperity. It causes damage to crops, life and property. It is a curse of Nature to us.

Floods are generally caused by heavy rainfall in the country, particularly in the mountains and hills which are the sources of the rivers. The water of these heavy rains in high places cannot often flow quickly into the ocean owing to bad drainage system and lack of sufficient number of outlets and sluices. The water rises beyond the banks of the rivers and overflows. It is also caused by cyclones, tidal bores or melting of snows at the origin of the rivers or the hindrance to the natural flow of water.

When floods rise high in a country, they cause untold damage to life and property. Crops are damaged, trees are uprooted and houses are washed away. Cattle and other domestic animals are then washed away by the current. Thousands of people are rendered homeless. The devastation caused by floods in some areas baffles description.

Flood in Bangladesh means a terrible misfortune. The after-effects of floods are more serious. When floods subside, they leave behind devastated lands, epidemic diseases and scarcity of not only food and fodder but also of pure drinking water. Widespread damage to crops causes famine in the flood-affected areas and many die of starvation for want of food. Many lose their homes, their nearest and dearest ones and many even their lives. Cattle die in thousands. Trade and commerce come to a dead halt. So, the flood-stricken people, on the whole, have to start their life anew.

Floods do a little good to us. During floods our rivers carry a great deal of silt which makes the land fertile. As a result, many kinds of crops grow in plenty. Floods also wash away the accumulated filth that produces germs of various diseases.

In the year of 1987, 1988 and 1991 devastating floods occurred. They affected the Northern and Southern districts including the capital city. But the recent flood of 1998 was dangerous and unprecedented. The flood­water rose above the danger level for about 80 days. This flood covered about one lac square kilometre. According to the statistics, about 55/60 lac people were shelterless. 75% crops of the total country were destroyed. The loss in the sphere of industry was worth 2000 crore. Domestic animals died in an alarming rate. About 800 people died during this flood.


It is not wholly possible to prevent floods. But much can be done to alleviate the sufferings of the flood-affected people. To help the distressed people of a flood-stricken area, relief and free medical aid should be promptly reached. The unfortunate people should be rehabilitated in their homestead after the flood-water subsides. Loans on easy terms should be granted to them to enable them to take up their work of life again. Pure drinking water must be ensured.

Proper steps should be taken for the prevention of floods in our country. All the rivers should be controlled by proper engineering works so that they may not overflow their banks. A large number of sluices and outlets should be made across the high roads and railway tracks so that rain water can easily pass through them. Dams and embankments should be constructed at different places to regulate the flow of water.

Comparing with the evils of floods, their good effects are insignificant. Floods bring more destruction, disaster, misery to us. So, we should always try to control flood at any cost.

THE FLOODS IN BANGLADESH

During the summer and the rainy seasons. the water of the rivers often rises so high because of incessant and heavy rainfall that it overflows the banks and vast areas of land go under water. This sudden rise of water is called flood. Flood is mainly caused by heavy showers of rain during the rainy season. Rivers and canals cannot hold the water of rains and the water overflows the banks which causes flood. In hilly regions floods may occur as a result of heavy down flow of water on account of the melting of snow on mountains. Again, catastrophic flood may be caused by cyclones and tidal bores in the seas. Flood causes havoc to lives and properties. The granaries of the peasants are destroyed. Cattle and even human beings are killed, houses are destroyed. People have to stay under the open sky. All communication with the outside world is cut off. Hence, the sufferings of the people know no bounds. To add to the misery, it leaves behind extensive damages of crops and diseases break out in an epidemic form.

Flood leaves behind widespread devastation. There is a dearth of pure drinking water, Wide-spread damage of crops results in famine. A large number of human beings and animals die of starvation. In fact, the after effect of flood is more terrible. The flood of 1998 is an example of the most terrible flood in recent years.

Floods in an agricultural country like ours have often been looked upon as a blessing in disguise. Floods leave on the submerged areas a rich alluvial deposit that greatly increases the fertility of soil that results in bumper crops. Besides, it also, washes away the garbage that accumulates on the surface of the earth.

During floods. people come forward to help the sufferers. They are given relief material by charitable people. different organisations and by the government. Many other countries in the world also extend their helping hands for the victims.

A definite scheme should be adopted to prevent the flood permanently. Proper dams and embankments should be constructed so that the water of the rivers cannot rise above the danger level.


Obstacles to the natural flow of water should be removed. The silted-up beds of the rivers have to be excavated for carrying more water.

Unless this catastrophe is checked, our development is impossible. Therefore, we should find out a permanent solution to control floods to ensure our development.

EXPERIENCE OF A FLOOD IN BANGLADESH

Bangladesh is rich in her scenic beauties. Green trees, paddy fields, numerous ‘bills’ and countless rivers and canals are the permanent features of nature of Bangladesh. But, it is a disaster-prone country. Cyclones and floods are our regular visitors. When a flood takes place seriously, it weakens our hopes of prosperity. It causes damage to crops, life and prosperity. It causes damage to crops, life and property. It is a curse of Nature to us.

In the year of 1987, 1988 and 1991 devastating floods occurred in our country. They affected the Northern and Southern districts including the capital city. But the flood of 1998 was dangerous and unprecedented.

In 1998 the flood affected nearly two-thirds area of the country. Out of 64 districts, 52 were inundated. The flood water stood still for almost three months. Thousands of acres of cropland were submerged. Paddy-fields and fruit gardens were completely destroyed. An estimate shows that about 40 lakh tons of food-grains were damaged. An estimated 3, 00, 00,000 (3 crore) of people were directly hit by the flood water. Thousands of homesteads got washed away, and cattle and domestic birds were endangered. About one thousand people lost their lives from various accidents like snake-biting, boat-sinking or getting electrocuted from the torn or loose electric cables. In the countryside thousands of farmer families remained imprisoned by water for months together. Their untold miseries knew no bounds.

The damages of the 1998 flood were uncountable. Crops and paddy were damaged standing in the fields. An agricultural report says that about 13 lakh tons of food grains have been destroyed. And fisheries and cattle, the loss is worth 12.5 crore taka. And in industrial sector, the loss is estimated at Tk. 2000 crore. The flood had also damaged the rail and road communications throughout the country. The highways between Dhaka and other parts of the country were flooded for weeks and when the flood water receded they were found to be washed away or broken at many places. About 13000 km. of road has been damaged and embankments, culverts had also been extensively damaged. Electric polls and towers were heavily damaged. A preliminary report says that the loss in the education sector was about Tk. 700 crore. The loss of lives so far known is 800.

During the flood and after the flood people from all classes came together to help the flood-affected people. Large supply of food including rice, dal, muri, chira, clothes and pure drinking water was ensured to the people who took shelter in the relief centres. All schools and colleges in Dhaka and other flood affected cities were used as relief centres. Many voluntary organisations had opened shelter campuses too. Many temporary health clinics were also opened. Many cultural organisations had also come forward to help the affected. The students of different educational institutions had done a great humanitarian work. Many people had dedicated themselves indirectly to the relief work by donating money to Prime Minister’s Fund.

Ours is a flood-plain country. So we have to design initiatives keeping this in mind. Proper steps should be taken for the prevention of floods in our country. All the rivers should be controlled by proper engineering works so that they may not overflow their banks. A large number of sluices and outlets should be made across the high roads and railway tracks so that rain water can easily pass through them. Dams and embankments should be constructed at different places to regulate the flow of water. Moreover, To help the helpless victims of a flood-stricken area, relief and free medical help should be promptly reached. The public should contribute according to their means, and those who are able and wiling should come forward to work as volunteers

There was no way to know way the flood flowed over the country on such a massive scale. The weather experts environmentalists suggest that it may have caused from an earth tremor in the Bay of Bengal which caused the and the Padma, have divided Bangladesh into two district parts for thousands of years. Communication and trading between the north Bengal and other parts of the country were difficult. So, when Bangabandhu Sheikh Mijibur Rahman want to Japan of a visit, he requested the Japanese government to help build a bridge over the Jamuna. In 1973, Japan sent a team of experts, which selected four points at which the bridge could be built. In 1976, the Japanese team submitted a report in eight parts juging the Sirajgunj-Tangail axis as the best point. The construction of the bridge finally got started in 1994, and through intersive work-schedule, it got finished in 1998. It is the eight longest bridge in the world and has cost about 3,850 crore taka. The money was co-donated by the World Bank, Japan and Bangladesh government respectively. The construction was done by Huyndai company of Korea.

It is 4.8 Km long and 18.5 metres wide. It has 49 columns. It is joined alongside with rail lines (both metre and broad gauge), electric and telephone cables, and gas lines.

The bridge will be the mainstay of our economic growth in future. Communication between Dhaka and the northern districts will be so quick and cheap that trade and business will flourish overnight. New industries will also be set up. Because of the growth of trade and commerce, new jobs will be created. In short, the national treasury will be boosted up by the operation of this Bridge.

The Bridge itself has become a major attraction for tourists. Everyday hundreds of people visit the Bridge to look at its architectural beauty and to enjoy the open air of the river.

A bridge once made does not remain new for ever. It has to be maintained well. There is a already a company installed solely to look after the maintenance and security of the Bridge. It is also important to keep the Bridge functional during a hartal programme. We all look forward to deriving the maximum benefit from this bridge.


Flood in Bangladesh


Flood is nothing but a caprice of nature. It is a natural calamity. It visits our country almost every year. The floods that occurred in the years 1954, 1960, 1968, 1970, 1987 etc. were terrible. But the flood of October in 1998 was the most devastating and dangerous in the history of floods in our country.

It is caused in many ways. Sometimes rain falls heavily for days together. The rain water of mountains flows down the river. Sometimes the river can not contain so much water. Then the water overflows the rivers and inundates the adjacent lands. Unplanned highways and embankments without proper outlets of water cause floods. In a word, a sudden rush of water overflows the banks of rivers or canals and causes flood.

Untold sufferings and damages are caused by flood. It takes away life and property. It sweeps away villages and towns. It destroys crops, houses, trees, cattle heads and other domestic animals. Many people become homeless.

The sufferings of the people know no bounds. Cholera, typhoid, dysentery and diarrhoea break out in the epidemic form. There is scarcity of pure drinking water. Many people die of starvation. The price of daily necessities goes up very high.

Immediate relief is needed for the flood-stricken people. Money, food, cloth, drinking water, medicine etc. should be distributed among them. The Govt. and the people of the country should work together for this.


Immediate effective steps should be taken to prevent the effects of floods. Some of the banks should be raised and embankments must bemade strong. Dams should be made to store the excess water of these rivers.

Flood is a serious problem. But it has some good effects. It makes the soil fertile. It also washes away all impurities of land. Still we never welcome a flood in a terrible form. We should co-operate with our government in controlling floods. The sooner it is done, the hotter for the people of Bangladesh.

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