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COMPOSITIONS FOR HSC, SSC, JSC & OTHER EXAMS (B)

Updated: Sep 21, 2023

BAD EFFECTS OF SMOKING/ SMOKING IS A BAD HABIT Smoking is a bad habit. If a man once becomes habituated with smoking, it is very difficult to give it up. Smoking is not a good practice. It is harmful to man. At the first stage, a man cannot think of it. But afterwards when he feels it, he cannot avoid it. Smoking is found all over the world. The civilized nations are also habituated with this. It refreshes one’s mind. After working for a while, a man smokes. It gives him pleasure no doubt. But in course of time, it becomes harmful. Too much of everything is bad. Some people become addicted to smoking. It is dangerous. Sometimes it causes various diseases. People addicted to smoking often suffer from heart attack, chronic bronchitis and some other fatal diseases including cancer. One puff of cigarette smoke contains fifteen billion particles of injurious matters. Nicotine is one of them. Nicotine is so bad that it obstructs the flow of blood through the veins. This reduces the supply of oxygen in the body. It causes the rise of blood pressure and increases the heart beat thereby. Secondly, tobacco tar inside the lungs slow down the action of the cilia and at last destroys them. But cilium is important for sweeping out the germs, mucuses and dirt from the lungs. Thirdly, the presence of carbon mono-oxide in the tobacco smoke drives out the oxygen from the blood and it is equally bad for health. It also harms the nerves, damages the brain and sometimes spoils character. People addicted to smoking lose their appetite for food and energy for power. Smoking can cause irritation in the eye, offend the nose and unsettle the mind. Besides, it also pollutes the environment and air. Smoking is so dangerous that the stench of cigarette is repulsive to a non-smoker. Moreover, it wastes a lot of money. It is injurious to health. But it satisfies a man mentally. However, man should get rid of this practice. Some of our students are sometimes found in smoking. This is very bad. Students should know the consequences of smoking. A man can give up smoking, when he becomes determined to avoid it. When a man feels that it gives him nothing, he can easily avoid it. It is a matter of will-force. A man of character never likes it. It ruins one’s health. It brings about disaster in physique. It makes a man weak. To the poor, smoking is a luxury, so to say. It never mitigates the troubles of appetite. So every body should be conscious of smoking. Hence, smoking needs to be given up and it can be done away with a bit of determination. MY COUNTRY WHICH MAKES ME PROUD The name of our beloved country is Bangladesh. It is a small low-lying country in the South Asia. It stands on the Bay of Bengal. On 16 December, 1971, at the cost of the sea of blood our country became independent. The total land area of our country is about 1,44,570 square kilometres. Though not very large in area, she has a big population. At present, about 14 crore people live. Dhaka is the capital of Bangladesh. In our country, there are different communities of people. They have different religions. The religions of the people are Islam, the Hinduism, the Christianity and the Budhaism. The people of different tribes live in our country in religious harmony. Our country is Criss-crossed by so many rivers and canals. The Padma, the Meghna and the Jamuna, among others, are the main big rivers of our country. Most of these rivers have their origins in the Himalayas and fall into the Bay of Bengal. These rivers, big or small, contribute a lot to the agriculture and economy of the country. Agriculture is the main occupation of the people here. About eighty per cent of the total population depends wholly or partially on agriculture. Jute, rice, tea, sugarcane, oilseeds, fruits, vegetables, spices, wheat, potato, tobacco and cotton are the main crops of Bangladesh. Ours is a land of natural beauty. It is a land of wonder and freshness. There are six seasons in Bangladesh. Each season comes with its own colour and adds to the beauty of nature. The wide corn fields, green trees, murmuring streams, the large fields, the hills and mountains of Chittagong, the large sea-beach at Cox's Bazar, the many flowers with different colours, the birds with their sweet song— all these have made this land a beautiful place of natural beauty. The beauty of nature marvels the eyes. Since Bangladesh is the darling child of nature, she has got some attractive tourist spots. They are Cox's Bazar sea-beach, Kuakata, the Sundarbans, the Shatgombuj Mosque, the Buddhist Vihara and so on. Bangladesh has age-old traditions and customs. People observe different festivals on different occasions. Our beloved motherland is so varied and rich in different cultures and festivals, that it seems to be a wonder land which is a specialgift of the Almighty Allah.


BANGLADESH (INFORMATION IN BRIEF ABOUT) Nestled in the crook of the Bay of Bengal and braided by fingers of the Ganges delta, Bangladesh offers interesting views of the rural countryside. The charming scenes of the boats plying on the country’s innumerable rivers, reputedly the longest beach in the world, and the largest littoral mangrove forest in the world, archaeological sites of cultures dating back over 2000 years ------------------------------------------- all the picture of Bangladesh give an envious sight to any foreigner or an outsider. Geography: Bangladesh has a total area of 147,570 sq. kilometers, roughly the same size as Wisconsin or England and Wales combined. India borders Bangladesh to the north-west, to the east by Myanmar and India and to the south the Bay of Bengal. Yet this geographic habitat called Bangladesh is only three decades old. Ancient Bengal was much larger in size and saw the evolution of many states and kingdoms. It is surrounded to the west, north-west and east by India and shares a south-eastern border with Myanmar far 283 kilometers. To the south is the Bay of Bengal. The alluvial river plains, which dominate 90% of the country, are very flat and never rise more than 10 metres above sea level. Overall, Bangladesh has no great mountains or deserts, and is characterised more by wooded marshlands and jungles, with forest regions constituting 15% of the total land area. Rivers: Rivers are the most important geographical feature in Bangladesh, and it is rivers which created the vast alluvial delta. The outflow of water from Bangladesh is the third highest in the world after the Amazon and the Congo systems. The rivers of Bangladesh had been described as ‘young and migratory’ and even in the last 100 years there have been massive changes of course. Many of the little lakes and ponds scattered around the country are the equivalent of the Australian billabongs- lagoons created when branches of meandering rivers are cut off. Annual flooding during the monsoon season is part of life in Bangladesh. The Brahmaputra, Jamuna and the lower Meghna are the mildest rivers, with the latter expanding to around eight kilometres across in the wet season, and much more when it is in flood. The Ganges and the Brahmaputra rivers both receive new names once they pass into Bangladesh --- the Ganges becomes the Padma, while the Brahmaputra is known as the Jamuna. It is these great rivers and the countless tributaries that flow from them that have the most apparent effect on the land-form, constant erosion and flooding over the alluvial plains, change the course of rivers landscapes and agriculture. History: The history of Bangladesh has been one of extremes of turmoil and peace, prosperity and destitution. It has thrived in the glow of cultural splendour and suffered the ravages of war. Throughout its tumultuous history it has known internal warfare, suffered invasion upon invasion, witnessed the rise and fall of mighty empires and several religions, and benefited from the trade and culture brought from foreign lands. Our history therefore is old and old enough to be proud of. Naturally the artefacts of this civilization and culture are strewn across this land. Climate: The climate of Bangladesh is subtropical and tropical with temperatures ranging from an average daytime low of 21 °C in the cold season to a top of 35°C in the hot season. Three quarters of the annual rainfall occurs between June and September. The 90% to 95% humidity in this season is almost unbearably for some travellers. The humidity remains high all year round; producing the thick fogs of winter, and making chilly nights in the north feel much colder than they are. Flora & Fauna: Like most of the northern flatlands of the subcontinent, Bangladesh is both subtropical and tropical. This has given rise to a great variety of flora and fauna. About 10% of Bangladesh is still forested. Half of the remaining forest is in the Chittagong Hill Tracts and a further quarter in the Sundarbans with the rest scattered in small pockets throughout the country. Besides half of the country is located in the tropics, flowering plants make up an integral part of Bangladesh. Each season produces its special variety of flowers. Bangladesh is home to the Royal Bengal Tiger and others of the cat family such as leopards and the smaller jungle cat. Other large animals include Asiatic elephants, a few black bears, wild pigs and deer. Reptiles include the sea tortoise, mud turtle, river tortoise, pythons, crocodiles and a variety of poisonous snakes. Marine life includes a wide variety of both rivers and sea fish. Between the natural and human problems of Bangladesh, it’s difficult to imagine that the country can boast of being the habitat of more than 650 species of birds, almost half of those found on the entire subcontinent. PAGE: 2 Government & Politics: Bangladesh is a constitutional republic --- a multiparty parliamentary democracy in which elections by secret ballot are held on the basis of universal suffrage. The theoretical head of state is the president, who is elected by the members of parliament for a five-year term and can hold office for no more than two terms, whether or not they are consecutive. Population: The population of Bangladesh is close to 170 million, making it the most densely populated country in the world, with the exception of several city-states. On a per square kilometre basis, it is three times more populated than India and seven times more populated than China. Despite the density of population, rural Bangladesh is only beginning to filling crowded. There aren’t endless sprawls of depressing slums and industrial wastelands, mainly because land is too precious to sprawl over the industrial development is still fairly low. The countryside is green and lovely and the air is clean. People: Bangladesh has been a melting pot of peoples and cultures for a very long time. People from Myanmar and the Himalayas, Dravidians (the original inhabitants of the subcontinent), and the invading Aryans made up the first blend of people here. With the arrival of the Mughals, people from all over the Islamic world settled here. The Dravidians, with their racial origins in the Deccan Plateau, are mainly Hindus and constitute about 12% of the population. The Muslims, who make up 87%, are of Dravido-Aryan origin. The original tribal people still exist, mainly in the Chittagong Hill Tracts, though they now number less than 1% of the total population. Many of the tribes have been converted to Christianity, although animism still strongly influences their beliefs and practices. The Tibet-Burmese inhabitants are mainly Buddhists and less than the 1% of the population is Christian. The family sticks together, even in the more westernised middle classes, and most people have a ‘home village’ to which they return to weekends or holidays. Tribal People: The tribal population of Bangladesh numbers almost one million. They live generally in the hilly regions north of Mymensingh, the Sylhet area, and more than half a million are concentrated in the wooded Chittagong Hill Tracts. Others live in urban areas such as Chittagong and Cox’s Bazar. Rice and wine are the staple food of these hill people, but included in the tribal menu are snakes, beetles, crabs, fish, snails, pigs, dogs, buffaloes, deer, ants and chickens. Many of the tribes influenced by Hinduism, along with the Chankmas, Moghs and Marmas who are Buddhists, cremate their dead. Others, such as the Khasis, bury their dead the place headstones on their graves. The dwellings of the hill people are usually bamboo huts; either on stilts or flat on the ground, and their farming methods are ancient. Some still retain curious traditional customs such as the stone-lifting ceremony of the Khasta, which may have originated from Tibet or even the northern mountain areas of Pakistan. Many of the tribes still have very little contact with outside world, but as modern civilisation begins to encroach on their territories, more and more of the younger villages are moving to the urban areas for employment. ARTS: The people of the Bengal region share a similarity of language, dress, music and literature across the national boundaries. Certainly the Bengali passion for politics and poetry seems to spill across the border between West Bengal and Bangladesh. The region also has a multifaceted folk heritage, provided by its ancient animist, Buddhist, Hindu, and Muslim roots. Weaving, pottery and terracotta sculpture are some of the earliest forms of artistic expression. Literature, too, had a place early on. Oral traditions of verse, in the forms of Hindu and Buddhist translations and local mythology, were preceded by itinerant theatre performing groups, whose rural wanderings date back 2000 years. Even today poetry is taken seriously by the Bangladeshis, who consider themselves, at heart to have the depth of passion and sensitivity of a poet. Folk Art: Most of the traditional culture is folk culture although, except for the revival in weaving and dyeing, about the only places you’ll see concrete examples of it are museums. Weaving have always held a special place in the artistic expression of the country. Needlework, with its roots in antiquity, has become a cottage industry. The most pervasive form of popular culture, the paintings on rickshaws and trucks, also upholds local history and myth. Many paintings are just rehashes of film posters, but some, especially on trucks, are very fine native art. PAGE: 3 Folk Theatre: The jatra, or folk theatre, is common at the village level, and usually takes place during harvest time or at melas, village fairs. The performances, conducted with much music and dance, were traditionally based on religious, folk, or historic themes which served to preserve the lore of the village. Literature: Best known in the literature of Bangladesh are the works of the great Bengali poets Rabindranath Tagore and Nazrul Islam. Tagore received international acclaim after being awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, though he always remained close to the Bangladeshi heart. The ‘rebel poet’ and composer Nazrul Islam is considered the national poet of Bangladesh During the time the country was suffering under colonial rule, Nazrul employed poetry to challenge intellectual complacency and spark feelings of nationalism. Society & Conduct: Centuries of isolation, even when foreign powers ruled, have produced people, customs and values that are typically Bengali in nature. On the surface, Bangladeshis may appear to be abrupt, unsophisticated and at times aggressive. At the heart of things, they are warm, hospitable and exceedingly helpful. Traditional Culture: More than 80% of the population live in rural villages. Even for the city dwellers, there is a strong connection to the ‘home village’. Most earn their living from the land, either by farming their own, which is becoming less common as the population increases, or by working for someone else. Rural lives are bounded by dependency: on the elders of the family, on the employer or village patron, or on some other authority figure. Loyalty to the group is an essential cultural value, and one that carries over to urban life. At the core of this group is the extended family which forms the basis of social and economic life in Bangladesh and remains a cornerstone despite the shift towards nuclear families, a product of growing urbanisation. The head of the household assumes much of the responsibility and provides for parents, children and other relatives. They all may occupy one house or compound area, and establish separate kitchens as the family grows and more independence is sought. The concept of privacy is not a part of the culture in Bangladesh and one will probably see this exemplified most in the Bangladeshi habit of staring at the unusual --- be it an activity, event or person. The most common form of dress for men is a longyi and an ordinary shirt. Trousers and other western clothing are popular among the younger generation and business people; though once at home almost everyone reverts to traditional dress. The longyi is a cylindrical, shirt-like garment which is wrapped and tied at the waist. A T-shirt or button-down shirt is worn over it. The Indian-style Punjabi suit, an open-collared tunic worn over loose-fitting pants, is also a popular style of dress. The majority of women wear a sari; a six-foot length of material wrapped in a rather complicated fashion around their bodies Worn under this is a short blouse and a plain cotton shirt. A salwar kameez, a long dress-like tunic worn over baggy trousers, is the modern woman’s alternative to the sari. A long scarf called a dupatta or orna, is draped backwards over the shoulders to cover the chest. One end of the scarf can be used to cover the head for an even more modest appearance. Women: Bangladeshi women bear the brunt of many of the country’s problems. Numerous pregnancies from puberty to menopause, hard work and a poor diet mean that many women suffer ill health. With the stresses of a patriarchal society and, in rural areas, taboos from much older cultures it isn’t surprising that the rate of mental illness and suicide among women are high. The birth of a daughter is met with less fanfare than that of a son. The sum of a girl’s training is usually directed towards the family, home, and eventually motherhood. The overall illiteracy rate of women rises above 80%. Most marriages are arranged by the parents, and in rural villages the general marriageable age for girls is well below the legal minimum of 18 years. There are a number of development projects which have sprung up over the past few years directed at women’s concerns. These focus on training programmes, health care and legal representation that are intended to foster independence and self­sufficiency. Language: Bangla, or Bengali, is the national language and the official language of Bangladesh. Bengali, or Bangla, is the easternmost of the Indo-European languages and finds its roots in the local speech of Bengal, Pali. In addition to Arabic, Urdu and Persian words, the Sanskrit to Brahmin Hindus was assimilated into the local speech, giving Bengali a strong resemblance to Hindi, with some variation in pronunciation. The vocabulary was further expanded through contact with European traders and merchants. Today, Bangla has a number of regional variations but remains essentially the same throughout Bangladesh. PAGE: 4 Remarkable places in Bangladesh: Dhaka has been the centre of Bengal from Mughal times. Dhaka has actually been designated as the capital of Bangladesh four times. Even three to four hundred years ago Dhaka, also known as the city of Muslim and conch shells was one of the best cities of the world. What was once a city of gardens, has now become one of the busiest cities of the world with a population of over ten million. Even as history fades giving way to skyscrapers, Lalbagh Fort remains witness to the Mughal regime, Ahsan Manzil to the British Rule and the monument at Savar to independence, the sacrifice and struggle of the Bangalees. Rayerbazar stands testimony to the three million lives that were lost in creating this country. And Bangabandhu Bridge, the eleventh longest in the world is indicative of the surge the nation is making towards future progress. Chittagong, also referred to as the land of twelve saints, is probably the most varied division of the country, rich in mineral resources. It is surrounded by the hills on one side and the sea on the other. And so, while the sea can be seen from many parts of Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar, boasting the longest natural beach in the world, is perhaps the most eye-catching venue. Chittagong port, the country’s main seaport borders the Karnaphuli river and is often referred to as the gateway to Bangladesh. Comilla, which is part of Chittagong division, harbours the remains of an ancient Buddhist civilization at Mainamati. It is also a major reserve of gas resource. Barisal, lapped by the rivers was once known as the Venice of Bengal. It was here from where Poet Jibanananda Das composed his poetry eulogizing the beauty of Bengal. What delightful wonder there is among the gardens of betel nut and coconut trees, the life on the rivers and the ‘hilsa’ fish laden boats that meander down the rivers with the wind in their sails. Brojomohon College occupies a significant place in the country’s educational history, Sher-e-Bangla Medical College is a measure of progress while the sunrise and sunset observed from the beach at Kuakata in Patuakhali is somewhat like a dream. Khulna is synonymous with the Sunderbans, now included in UNESCO’S list of heritage sites. Rabindranath Tagore, who composed the songs that is now the national anthem of Bangladesh, spent many years in this region at Shilaidaha Kuthibari. The most exquisite mosque in Bangladesh, Bagerhat’s ‘Sixty domed mosque’ remains as a symbol to the glorious Islamic progression in the region. This too has been included as a heritage site by UNESCO. Lalon Shah’s den is where one must go to invoke the mysticism of the minstrel as he sang of equality of man. In this region is located Mujibnagar at Meherpur, where the government in exile led the fledgling Bangladesh on its first steps forward. Sylhet may be small in dimension but is large in natural riches. Two buds in a leaf is how Sylhet is described and the beauty spreads from the picturesque tea gardens to the breathtaking beauty of Madhabkundo and Jaflong. For the faithful the road leads to the Saint Shah Jalal’s tomb. There is a myth that following the call to prayer by Shah Jalal, the mighty hills melted into water. One thing that is for sure is the huge Jalalabad gas fields and the Haripur oil strike, on which the future of Bangladesh is based. Barind is the cradle of Bengal’s ancient civilization. It is here that stands the remains of one of ancient civilisation’s extravaganzas, Mohasthangarh and Paharpur. Choto Sona, Bagha or Kusmbha mosque is a reflection of the influence of the Sufis in the northern part of the country. The magnificent Kantaijir Mandir speaks of the flourishment of the Hindu religion. The landlords of this area were at one time the most powerful in the country, a manifestation evident in the number of palatial Zamindar residences. Perhaps the most manifestation edifice among these is the Diighapatiya Zamindar residence, which has since been converted into Uttara Gonobhavan. Educational institutions flourished in this region and Carmichael College in Rangpur features as one of the most noteworthy. And the huge Teesta barrage flushes the dry Barind area of produced bounteous crops. The salient features of this history and heritage are religious tolerance, heartfelt emotions and humanism. Nations with no glorious heritage have nothing to be proud of and so these are the historical and cultural bonds that accompany the Bangalees as they step ahead. No matter whichever region one goes to there will always be some or the other heritage point to be seen. This is a country which boasts variety even in vastness brought about by the sea and the hills.


Chemically polythene is a polymer of ethylene of high molecular weight. The plastic quality of polythene made it suitable for producing bags, which are light in weight, durable, waterproof, low cost and easy to use for varied purpose. Polythene is largely used for packaging purpose and most widely used for carrying shopping items. But there are many problems of using polybags.


There is risk of food-stuff getting contaminated when wrapped in coloured polythene. Polythene may cause dermatitis due to prolonged contact with skin. Polythene is not biodegradable, it lowers the fertility of the soil, blocks the urban sewerage system and cause siltation in the waterways. When burnt, polythene materials produce substance like hydrogen cyanide, a highly toxic chemical. The thrown away polybags remain in the soil for years together without degradation. Air and water cannot pass early into the soil due to presence of non-porous polythene. Soil also is not recharged with nutrients, as it remains deprived from sufficient sunlight due to presence of polythene in the ground. Thus the soil fertility is reduced causing decline in agricultural production. Scientists have time and again warned that waste polythene bags are responsible for causing water stagnation in the drains, ditches and pot-holes here and there. Such stagnant water provides a good breeding ground for the mosquitoes resulting in increased incidences of diseases like malaria, filaria, dengue, and encephalitis. Polythene also causes adverse impact on animal life and the biodiversity. Domestic animals often ingest polythene bags containing organic waste or foodstuff. It may cause intestinal obstruction and death in certain cases. Scavenger birds like the crows find it difficult to collect food from the dustbin and disposal sites if the domestic waste is disposed of in polybags. The organic waste thrown in ploybags and obstructs the organic substance from getting transformed to plant chain.


To the utter relief of the citizens, the government finally ordered a ban on the use and marketing of polythene shopping bags throughout the country with effect from March 1, 2002. It is encouraging that the decision of the government was highly appreciated and welcomed by the citizens particularly the advocacy groups who continued persistent campaign against polythene.

Banning of Polybags or, Problems of Polybags

Polybags are the major source of pollution. Polybags are such kind of bags as 'are made of polythene became very popular with us. The use of polythene is a threat to our environment and has become a social problem. It is a matter of joy that the Govt. has at last banned polybags.

People were demanding to stop the production, use and marketing of polybags. Both the Prime Minister and minister for the Environment and Forest took the decision to ban polybags in the meeting. According to the decision, it is banned firstly from Dhaka city from 1st January, 2002 and from 1st March from the entire country.

On an average 60 lac polybags were being used everyday only in Dhaka city. Most of the used polybags were thrown out here and there. Then the polybags block- sewerage pipes and the regular flow of the drain water, which results in the complete disruption of the drainage system.


Many low-lying areas in the cities frequently go under water because of the polythene bags. For instance, we can recall the longest lasting flood in 1998. Flood water remained in many parts of Dhaka for over two months. It is also a great threat to our cultivable land. Whenever these polybags go inside the cultivable land, it reduces less its fertility and crops do not grow in such lands. Polybags remain unchanged like a curtain through which nothing can pass. It can not mix with soil. It spreads skin disease and causes harm to nutrition of trees. Air is polluted while these polybags are being burned. It also causes some serious diseases like tuberculosis and cancer. On the contrary, our traditional jute and cloth bags have lost their market because of the uses of polythene.

However, it is a burning question for us that we should stop the production, uses and marketing of polybags immediately and keep our environment free from polybags.



Introduction: Bangladesh is an exotic land that harbours various kinds and species of birds. The people of Bangladesh get up from bed early in the morning by the chirping of birds and hear their songs all day long. There are so many of them that we do not know even the names of all.


Where they found: We can see the birds here and there from dawn to dusk. Birds of many kinds live in woods, in hills, in marshy places and even near our homesteads.

Variety of birds/Classes of birds: The birds of our country differ in colour, shape, size and habit. Different types of birds live in different places. Their food also varies. Some feed on worms and insects. Some feed on fish and flesh and some on fruits and grains and some on wastage.


The common bird: The moment we wake up we hear twittering all around, but the cry that is heard above the mingled notes is that of the crow. The crow is the most familiar among the commonly seen birds. Though it is an ugly bird, it is rather useful. When it caws at dawn, we know that the night is over. It feeds on dead animals and many rotten and dirty things. It is also a thief by nature. It steals away food when it gets the chance. It is disliked for its ugly colour, harsh voice and dirty habits.


Singing bird: The cuckoo, the doel, the sparrow, the bau-katha-kao are well known as singing birds. Black and white stripped doel is our national bird. The most popular and hiding song bird is the cuckoo. It visits us in spring and stays till the arrival of winter. It is called the harbinger of spring. The magpie-robin is small but pretty. It sings and raises its tail at the same time.


The domestic birds: The pigeon, the swan, the cock are also nice birds and they are called domestic birds. They are of various uses to people. Their eggs and meat are edible. So they fulfil the demand of protein.


Game birds: The game birds are those that we catch and kill for their tasty flesh. The pigeon, the dove, the snipe, the bittern, the heron the partridge and the wild duck belong to this class. They are seen almost everywhere in Bangladesh.

Talking birds: The parrot, the moyna, the shalik, the shyma, the chandana are talking birds. They can imitate the voice of man. So, they are kept by some people as pets.


Tailor birds: The tuntuni, the swallow the babui, the sparrow are known as tailor birds because they show a great skill in weaving their nests. That is why they deserve special mention.


Birds of prey / plundering birds: The kite, the hawk, the eagle are birds of prey. They are endowed with keen eyes, sharp beak and nails by nature. They soar and fly very high but when ever there is a prey they swoop down upon it and carry it away. They prey upon chickens and ducklings. The vulture is a big bird. It feeds upon dead bodies of animals. The birds belong to this class are often known as rapacious birds.


Guest birds/Migratory birds: There are some birds that migrate to our country from different places especially in some particular season. They are known as guest birds. Among them wild ducks, storks, cranes etc are remarkable. The marshy areas of the country are their favourite haunt. The water birds: The king- fisher, the stork, the swan, the duck, the sand­piper the pankouri are the water-birds. They live near the rivers, canals and swampy land and live on fish.


Some other common birds: There are some other familiar birds which are commonly around us. The owl is one of them. It is fierce to look at yet quite harmless. It is a nocturnal bird. There is also a large variety of ducks. These birds can fly, swim and dive. Large flocks of them flying in different formations present a charming sight. The kingfisher and the wood-pecker are wild birds. Yet they are well known for their beauty. The pink crest of the woodpecker is very nice to look at.


Importance/Usefulness: The birds are important elements of our environment. Some birds eat worms and insects and protect our crops. Their voices also remind the farmers and housewives of their day-to-day affairs. They are sometimes friend to the friendless and a source of living to the unemployed people. Besides, we can also eat flesh and eggs of some kinds of birds.


Conclusion: Birds are wonderful gifts of Nature. Almost all of them are beautiful to look at. They add to the beauty of Nature. Some of them are very useful to us. So, we should not be unkind to them.


Birds of Bangladesh

Bangladesh is a land of uncommon natural beauty with her murmuring river, green fields, trees, flowers and fruits. In the same way, her birds also have added to her beauty and charm.


There are various kinds of birds in Bangladesh. They are different in colour, shape, size, habit and nature.

A detail of the different kinds of birds is as follows:

The crows and the kites are teasing birds. They are hated by all. The crows are uglier in their habits than the kites. They steal away chickens, fish etc., whenever they get chance. The crows are very cunning. The kites also tease us.

Of the singing birds, the cuckoo is the most popular. It appears in our country at the beginning of the spring when flowers bloom and nature looks beautiful and happy. It hides itself behind leaves. It is noted for its sweet singing. It is called the harbinger of the spring. The poet says--

"0 Cuckoo! shall I call thee Bird, Or but a wandering Voice?" (To the Cuckoo / William Wordsworth.)

The other song birds are the bou-katha-kao, the shalikh, the shyama and the does etc. These birds are also very nice to look at. The parrot, the mayna, the chandana, the kakatooa, the martin are called talking birds. They are nice looking. They can imitate human voice if they are trained. The dove, the pigeon, the heron, the snipe, the teal, and the pankauri are called the game birds. They are famous for their tasty flesh. They are found in almost every part of Bangladesh.


The hawk and the kite are the birds of prey. These are the most notorious. They have keen eyes, sharp nails and claws and a sweeping nature.

There are many other common birds like swallow, sparrow and babui. The babui is called the tailor bird. The vulture is another common bird.


Bangladesh is a blessing of God on the earth. Here birds in various ways do good to us. We should not kill the birds indiscriminately. They should be protected as our national asset. They enhance the beauty of our country. However, we should be sympathetic to them and make Bangladesh a happy homeland.



THE BIRDS OF BANGLADESH

Bangladesh is a sweet home of birds. Birds of different kinds and species abound in this land. They abide in woods, in hills, in marshy places and even in our homesteads. They are of various colours, sizes and habits. Some birds live on insects and grains, some on worms and insects, some on fish and flesh, while some birds feed on dirty and rotten things. Bangladesh resounds with the songs of birds. Among the song birds, the cuckoo, the doel, the koel, the bou kotha kau and the nightingale are remarkable. The doel is our national bird.


There are different kinds of tailor birds in Bangladesh. Tailor birds are those that .weave their nests themselves with surprising skill and dexterity. The tuntuni, the babui and the swallow are some of them.


The 'haors' and 'heels' as well as other marshy places in Bangladesh abound with same birds. Some of them are migratory birds. They visit Bangladesh during the late rainy season or the autumn. The game birds include the heron, the partridge, the teal, the dove, the pigeon, the snipe and the pankauri.


The hawk, the vulture, the crow and the kite belong to the kind of plundering birds. The hawk and the vulture await chances to swoop down and carry away chickens, fish and pieces of flesh from our household. The crow is also very cunning and has a thievish nature.


There are other kinds of birds which also are very well-known in Bangladesh. The mayna, the chandana, the parrot and the cockatoo are remarkable as talking birds. If they are properly trained, they can imitate human voice and talk like men. Besides, there are domestic birds like the pigeon, the sparrow. The wood­pecker and the king-fisher fall among the kind of wild birds. The owl is a very fierce-looking bird. But it is quite innocent and harmless. It prowls only in the night and never comes out in the light of the day.


Many of the birds that abide in Bangladesh are very useful creatures. They entertain the people with sweet songs. Some of them keep the environment neat and clean while the others add to the people's joy and delight.


BIRDS OF BANGLADESH

Bangladesh is an exotic land that harbours various kinds and species of birds. The people of Bangladesh get up from bed early in the morning by the chirping of birds and hear their songs all day long. There are so many of them that we do not know even the names of all. We can see the birds here and there from dawn to dusk. Birds of many kinds live in woods, in hills, in marshy places and even near our homesteads.

The birds of our country differ in colour, shape, size and habit. Different types of birds live in different places. Their food also varies. Some feed on worms and insects. Some feed on fish and flesh and some on fruits and grains and some on wastage.

The moment we wake up we hear twittering all around, but the cry that is heard above the mingled notes is that of the crow. The crow is the most familiar among the commonly seen birds. Though it is an ugly bird, it is rather useful. When it caws at dawn, we know that the night is over. It feeds on dead animals and many rotten and dirty things. It is also a thief by

nature. It steals away food when it gets the chance. It is disliked for its ugly colour, harsh voice and dirty habits.

The cuckoo, the doel, the sparrow, the bau-katha-kao are well known as singing birds. Black and white stripped doel is our national bird. The most popular and hiding song bird is the cuckoo. It visits us in spring and stays till the arrival of winter. It is called the harbinger of spring. The magpie-robin is small but pretty. It sings and raises its tail at the same time. The pigeon, the swan, the cock are also nice birds and they are called domestic birds. They are of various uses to people. Their eggs and meat are edible. So they fulfil the demand of protein.

The game birds are those that we catch and kill for their tasty flesh. The pigeon, the dove, the snipe, the bittern, the heron the partridge and the wild duck belong to this class. They are seen almost everywhere in Bangladesh. The parrot, the moyna, the shalik, the shyma, the chandana are talking birds. They can imitate the voice of man. So, they are kept by some people as pets.

The tuntuni, the swallow the babui, the sparrow are known as tailor birds because they show a great skill in weaving their nests. That is why they deserve special mention. The kite, the hawk, the eagle are birds of prey. They are endowed with keen eyes, sharp beak and nails by nature. They soar and fly very high but when ever there is a prey they swoop down upon it and carry it away. They prey upon chickens and ducklings. The vulture is a big bird. It feeds upon dead bodies of animals. The birds belong to this class are often known as rapacious birds.

There are some birds that migrate to our country from different places especially in some particular season. They are known as guest birds. Among them wild ducks, storks, cranes etc are remarkable. The marshy areas of the country are their favourite haunt. The king- fisher, the stork, the swan, the duck, the sand-piper the pankouri are the water-birds. They live near the rivers, canals and swampy land and live on fish.

There are some other familiar birds which are commonly around us. The owl is one of them. It is fierce to look at yet quite harmless. It is a nocturnal bird. There is also a large variety of ducks. These birds can fly, swim and dive. Large flocks of them flying in different formations present a charming sight. The kingfisher and the wood-pecker are wild birds. Yet they are well known for their beauty. The pink crest of the woodpecker is very nice to look at.

The birds are important elements of our environment. Some birds eat worms and insects and protect our crops. Their voices also remind the farmers and housewives of their day-to-day affairs. They are sometimes friend to the friendless and a source of living to the unemployed people. Besides, we can also eat flesh and eggs of some kinds of birds.

Birds are wonderful gifts of Nature. Almost all of them are beautiful to look at. They add to the beauty of Nature. Some of them are very useful to us. So, we should not be unkind to them.

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