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COMPOSITIONS FOR HSC, SSC, JSC & OTHER EXAMS (C-2)

COMPUTER Science is the driving force of modern civilisation. It is through the grace of science human race has been raised up to the highest peak. Machine has brought for mankind such comforts as a man can never dream of even in a fairy land. It is not a miracle that machines have come forward to work as a substitute for human brain. This machine is called the computer. Computer is an ultra modern electronic device for storing and analysing information fed into it. It works on the basis of commands given by the computer. A computer consists of five major components – the input unit, the output unit, the memory unit, the control unit, and the arithmetic unit. The input and output units consist of devices that permit a computer to receive or exhibit information. They may be card readers, magnetic tapes, paper tape readers, line printers, CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) terminals or typewriter consoles. Some of these can be used for both input and output. Essentially a computer performs three functions: 1) It receives data (input) 2) It processes data by various computations. 3) It emits data. These functions are accomplished by giving the computer a programme consisting of a sequence of statements. Computer is of great use to us. It renders great service to mankind. It has lessens our work loads and makes our life easy and comfortable. It is used in our daily life for various purposes. Computer is a media of education in the developed countries. The students of the developed countries use computer to prepare their study materials. They learn many things within the shortest possible time. Results of various examinations are prepared accurately with the help of computer within the shortest span of time. Now-a-days in developed countries computer is used to diagnose a disease. A newer process of operation has been invented by computer as an alternative of surgery. It is used to grind stones in normal pathological tests. Today computer is used in the fields of agriculture in the developed countries. Now-a-days business, commerce and trade cannot be thought of without computer. It is used to prepare documents to make lists of goods, store information and to prepare budget etc. The value of currency and price of any share can be known instantly by the computer. Today printing cannot be thought of without computer. Thousands of books are composed with the help of computer within a very short time. In the developed countries computer is used to run mills, factories and industries. Trains and planes are also run by the computer. The computer is used to extract minerals. Computer is used in various purposes apart from the main ones. It is used in playing chess, cards. Besides, many other interesting games can also be enjoyed with the help of a computer. It is the computer that has made possible auto telecommunication through STD. Today we use a new device, named Internet for speedy transmission of notion in the process of computer network. It is the computer that helps man to conquer the space. Computer is a source great income. Many developed and advanced countries export software and hardware and earn a lot. Bangladesh is a developing country. Of late, computer has been introduced in Bangladesh. There are off line and on line uses of computer. Many government and non-government offices, educational institutions are using computer. A course on computer has been introduced in secondary and higher secondary levels. Our medical sectors have taken important steps to computerise their work. As a result, we have medical sectors in Bangladesh, C.T. Scan, Ultra Sonography, Electro Cardiography that show the good uses of computers in Bangladesh. Some rich business concerns have taken the steps to get the connection of Internet. Obviously their work is very effective, less time consuming and accurate .The uses of computer in Bangladesh should be properly translated into reality. If all of us are able to run it easily we will never lag behind. Science is meant for the service of humanity. Computer is the greatest contribution of science so far made. It is a technical machine. So it should be operated tactfully. It is expected to render the greatest service to humanity by substituting human brain and by saving time and preventing its misuses. COMPUTER Introduction: Science is the driving force of modern civilisation. It is through the grace of science human race has been raised up to the highest peak. Machine has brought for mankind such comforts as a man can never dream of even in a fairy land. It is not a miracle that machines have come forward to work as a substitute for human brain. This machine is called the computer. Computer is an ultra modern electronic device for storing and analysing information fed into it. It works on the basis of commands given by the computer How invented: Computer was not invented over night. It took long time and hard labour to invent computer. Many votaries of science worked hard. First of all Pascal invented the theory of ‘Digital Calculating System’ in 1642. Though his attempts were not crowned with success, he initiated the research which paved the way to the invention of computer. Charles Babez, a British Professor of Mathematics, wrote about a formula which could help human brain. Finally, Mr. Howard Akin, an American scientist invented such a machine in 1937 that could do difficult sums. So the credit for the invention of modern computer goes to Howard Akin. After seven years electric computer was used in Harvard University in 1944. After that many other computers have been invented such as EDSAC in 1945 and ENTACE in 1946 etc Functions of computer: Essentially a computer performs three functions: 1) It receives data (input) 2) It processes data by various computations. 3) It emits data. These functions are accomplished by giving the computer a programme consisting of a sequence of statements Major components of a computer: A computer consists of five major components – the input unit, the output unit, the memory unit, the control unit, and the arithmetic unit. The input and output units consist of devices that permit a computer to receive or exhibit information. They may be card readers, magnetic tapes, paper tape readers, line printers, CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) terminals or typewriter consoles. Some of these can be used for both input and output. Central processing unit: The three units (the memory unit, the control unit and the arithmetic unit) make up the so-called central processing unit. These three units have the following purposes 1) The memory unit is the component unit where all data and results are stored. Present day computers are called stored programme computers since programmes themselves are also stored in memory. The memory unit consists of many cells, each capable of storing a unit of information (word). These cells, electromagnetic in nature, are also called storage locations (variables). To distinguish cells, they are numbered sequentially. Their numbers are often referred to as addresses. For the user, these addresses are given in terms of symbols (names) 2) The control unit coordinates all the activities of the various components of the computer. It sends out command and control signals and determines the sequence of the various instructions. 3) The arithmetic unit consists of electric circuits that perform the various arithmetic and logic operations. Machine language: Every computer has its own machine language. Instruction to the computer must be given in this language since this is the only language that a computer actually understands. However, this type of language varies from machine to machine and is a function of the hardware of the computer. Programmes written in machine languages are machine dependent, and they are only good for that particular machine Uses of computer: Computer is of great use to us. It renders great service to mankind. It has lessened our work loads and made our life easy and comfortable. It is used in our daily life for various purposes a) In education: Computer is a media of education in the developed countries. The students of the developed countries use computer to prepare their study materials. They learn many things within the shortest possible time. Results of various examinations are prepared accurately with the help of computer within the shortest span of time. It is used in translation. It translates poems or any part of literature. Since 1960, computer has been used in Soviet Russia in translating the news of Soviet newspaper, “The Pravada” b) In Medical Science: Now-a-days in developed countries computer is used to diagnose a disease. A newer process of operation has been invented by computer as an alternative of surgery. It is used to grind stones in normal pathological tests. c) In Agriculture: Today computer is used in the fields of agriculture in the developed countries. A farmer of America simply puts on the switch of the computer and gets everything done d) In Commerce: Now-a-days business, commerce and trade cannot be thought of without computer. It does wonder. It is used to prepare documents to make lists of goods, store information and to prepare budget etc. Management personnel use computer to take decision. The value of currency and price of any share can be known instantly by the computer. e) In Printing: Today printing cannot be thought of without computer. It is an indispensable part of printing. At first a book or the subject matter that will be printed is composed with computer. Afterwards the said composed matter is printed on a plate of aluminium or tin and then it is printed on paper with the offset machine. Thousands of books are composed with the help of computer within a very short time. This kind of printing is of high quality f) In Industrial sector: In the developed countries computer is used to run mills, factories and industries. Trains and planes are run by the computer. The computer is used to extract minerals g) Other uses: Computer is used in various purposes apart from the main ones. It is used in playing chess, cards. Besides, many other interesting games can also be enjoyed with the help of a computer. It is the computer that has made possible auto telecommunication through STD. Today we use a new device, named Internet for speedy transmission of notion in the process of computer network. It is the computer that helps man to conquer the space h)Source of Income: Computer is a source great income. Many developed and advanced countries export software and hardware and earn a lot Demerits: There is no unmixed blessings on earth. Everything has its dark sides. Computer has its own demerits. It causes diseases like ”Respitutive Stress Injury” and weakens the eyesight of the operators. Computer in Bangladesh: Bangladesh is an under developed country. We are far away from the modern science and technologies used in the developed world. Of late, computer has been introduced in Bangladesh. There are off line and on line uses of computer. Many government and non-government offices, educational institutions are using computer. A course on computer has been introduced in secondary and higher secondary levels. Our medical sectors have taken important steps to computerise their work. As a result, we have medical sectors in Bangladesh, C.T. Scan, Ultra Sonography, Electro Cardiography that show the good uses of computers in Bangladesh. Some rich business concerns have taken the steps to get the connection of Internet. Obviously their work is very effective, less time consuming and accurate .The uses of computer in Bangladesh should be properly translated into reality. If all of us can be able to run it easily we will never lag behind. Conclusion: Science is meant for the service of humanity. Computer is the greatest contribution of science so far made. It is a technical machine. So it should be operated tactfully. It is expected to render the greatest service to humanity by substituting human brain and by saving time and preventing its misuses. Computer The Computer is the latest miracle of modern science. The last part of the 20th century will be particularly remembered for this invention, especially as it seems to have a future of endless possibilities. The dictionary meaning of the word ‘Computer’ is ‘an electronic calculation machine’, and it is derived from the verb ‘Computer’ meaning to reckon the number or amount of something. It is indeed the most authentic machine, standing for artificial intelligence but that of a very high order. It is very strange but true that the manner of its operations would suggest that the intelligence and memory it possesses, for surpass those of a living human being. The work done by the computer covers a very wide field, and its surprising activities are extending to newer shares day by day. Hundreds of calculations, and even of a very complex and difficult type, can be done by a computer in a minute. Again, it seems to possess a prodigious memory. Thousands of pieces of information, and facts and figures can be stored up by it in its memory for an indefinite period, when once these are entered into its ‘artificial brain’. It can recall all that out of its memory at once, whenever required. It is obvious that however extraordinary may be the mathematical genius of a person or however enormous may be the power of his memory, such facts are simply impossible for any human being. Because of its inconceivable advantages as above noted, the compute is now being used to serve manifold purposes throughout the world, In the Western Countries and in Russia and Japan, its use started a pretty long time ago. India, however, has only just stepped into the computer age. In the advanced countries it is being used in government offices, firms, banks, railways and airlines, educational institutions, scientific laboratories and libraries, etc. Through its very quick and precise calculations the computer has been also playing an important role in the epoch-making ventures of sending cosmonauts to the upper space, and to the Moon. In our country, too the government and various non-government concerns, institutions, and banks etc. are now using the computer. After the technique of its operations is mastered and its price is lowered down, in India, too as in the West, Russia and Japan, private parties will begin to use it at home. It will then save much domestic labour and much time of the family. Scientists are at work to make the computing machine more and more improved to make it capable of even more difficult and complex operations. It is envisaged that then it will be able to serve an individual by doing various things for him in his daily life from morning, till late at night. It will help in paying electric and telephone bills. it will receive telephone messages and information brought by messengers, record them properly and will deliver the same to persons concerned in time. The robot, or ‘artificial man’, is a recent miracle of science. A robot, already made in USA. And Japan etc. can do the work of many men. Now robot technology is closely allied to the technology of the computer. It appears that in near future, just like the typewriter, the computer will be an indispensable thing in every office and every institution and also in the houses of many advanced families. In view of the fast growing importance of the computer, both the central and the state governments should do the needful to introduce in Universities and Colleges, courses in computer technology. Students should be taught there everything regarding the computer, its various functions and its future possibilities. As days will pass on, well- equipped persons in computer technology will be required in an ever increasing number by offices, firms, banks and different institutions. The government should also take concrete measures so that computers can be manufactured in our country and at a moderate cost. COMPUTER- A WONDERFUL INVENTION OF MODERN SCIENCE . Computer is one of the wonders of modern science. It is a fairly recent invention. It has now become an essential appendage of modern life. It has made our way of life easy and less complicated. Any device that helps people perform mathematical calculations may be called a computer. A computer is basically a processor of information. In 1937 Mr. Howard Akin, an American scientist invented such a machine that could do difficult sums and it is called the computer. Today, however the term 'computer' refers to a special kind of electronic machine that can perform mathematical calculations and process large masses of information at a great speed. A computer performs three functions. Firstly, it receives data. Secondly, it processes data by various computations. Thirdly, it emits data. Every computer has a machine language of its own and accordingly it works. The machine language varies from machine to machine. Nowadays computer means digital computer. A digital computer can do hundreds of things more than an Analogue computer. Modern day Digital Computers are of four types — micro computers, mini computers, mainframe computers and super computers, each varying in physical size, speed, processing capabilities, memory size, disk-storage capacity and cost. Computers come in many different forms also. It is not only a monitor and CPU (Central Processing Unit). Embedded systems such as ones in the washing machines or air-conditioners are also computers designed to do a single specific task rapidly. Computers can be used in various spheres. It is widely used in banks, insurance companies, educational institutions for data storage, processing and output. Computers are also used for telecommunications, air traffic control, navigation of ships and aircrafts. It has brought new speed and accuracy to weather forecasting. In the field of medical diagnosis and printing computers are doing wonders. . A ne%% developing section of computer technology is robotics derived from the word robotnik' meaning slave. As the name implies, they are made to help the humans in their tasks, especially the dangerous and hard ones. Computer has made our life easier and enjoyable. It has brought for mankind such comforts as a man can never dream of even in a fairy land. It is the latest miracle that has brought revolution in the application of science for the benefit of mankind. CORPORAL PUNISHMENT Punishment and reward go hand in hand. One can't work without the other. But what is important here is their proper application. If they are improperly used, they can bring disaster and bad result. So, their application should be prudent, impartial and logical or reasonable. Punishment may be of different types. The types are corporal or bodily punishment, mental or psychological punishment, spiritual or divine punishment etc. Punishment to students is used for proper education. Teachers who are engaged in teaching use canes to punish the students so that they study well and prepare themselves for the service of the nation and the people. Nowadays punishment to 'students for study and discipline has been discouraged. Arguments have been put to abolish corporal punishment to students. Still our teachers are somehow using canes in their classrooms. It is argued that corporal punishment to students should be abolished. I don't agree to this remark. A developing country like ours should take steps to remove illiteracy from the soil. Teaching is the only means or way to do so. And teaching can't be effective if the students who are inattentive, indisciplined and quarrelsome are not properly treated. Most of the students neglect their studies. Not only that they do not come to school regularly and prepare their lessons properly and sincerely. If the teacher has a cane in hand and enters into his/her class, the students maintain discipline in the class and the teacher can concentrate deeply on the classroom teaching. Then the students devote themselves to learning for fear of corporal punishment. Corporal punishment is part and parcel of true education. In this respect I would like to say that heavy punishment should be avoided. A teacher should not be cruel and harsh. He should be smiling, fresh and gayful. Besides, he should be careful about the age group. No corporal punishment should be given to those who are tender aged or children. So, corporal punishment should be given with much care and caution keeping an eye to age limit of the students. CORRUPTION IN BANGLADESH Corruption is a vast and complex matter. Corruption may originate from unsolved problems, unfinished works, vicious politics, weak administration and many other related or relevant things. Bribery, misuse of power, nepotism, avarice for wealth and social condition are the root of corruption. A corrupted person can do everything for his own self. Social or state value is fruitless to him. Corruption is an incurable social disease. It is very difficult to find out when and why someone is corrupted. Avarice is the main cause of corruption. Besides this, economic insolvency, ambiguity of laws, unemployment, political instability, lack of patriotism are the main causes of corruption. Corruption is engulfing our total life at a high speed. It seems that it would be difficult for us to distinguish fair from unfair. In a developing and poor country like Bangladesh the effect of corruption in politics is very devastating. Corrupted politicians misuse state power, use power for their own self and party. Corruption is the main obstacle to socio-economic development of a country. A great amount of money for development work is misappropriated by the government staff and political leaders. As a result the main target of the development work is not reached. Eradication of corruption is a crying need for the country's greater interest. To make the country free from corruptions, citizens of all classes should be responsible, accountable, dutiful and considerate. Nepotism, favouritism, redtapism etc. should be dealt with an iron hand. Corruption in Bangladesh Corruption has become a social cancer in Bangladesh. It has appeared to be a threat to our national image. Both our personal and public life are more on less affected by it and have lost peace and happiness for the prevalent corruption in our country. It is an evil which is exposed as an open secret. Corruption is dishonesty done by people in position of power. Nowadays corruption is rampant in basic services like education, public service commission, healthcare, business, taxation, administration, power, judiciary, police, land, etc. No sphere of our daily life is out of this evil practice. The government, business community, political system- all are in the clutch of corruption. As social cutes, it threatens all our democratic and development process. Corruption has reached such a position that we are known in the world as most corrupt country. We have been consecutively four times champion corrupt country in the world. Even the donation from multinational agencies has been misappropriated by corrupt means. Nothing can be done without bribe. Fortunately, our government has realized the fact and started campaign against corruption. Anti-corruption Committee has been formed who filed cases against the corrupt big guns. But the work of the Commission was not beyond questions. Moreover, it has been blamed to be weak and irresponsible. Politician has already made the weak and inefficient bureaucracy almost non- functional. It is difficult for us to believe that the Commission can take any strong decision against the corrupt people. However, people are now more conscious about his evil practice and so they are always seen to raise their voice against corruption of any type. This malpractice should be stopped immediately. But it is not easy to root out corruption. Corruption is ingrained in human nature which seeks power and pelf in pursuit of happiness. Only a true moral education, honest upbringing and sincere belief in a perfect philosophy of plain living and high thinking can reduce the magnitude of corruption. The Corruption in Bangladesh Introduction : Bangladesh is a free land but she is beset with various major and alarming issues. Now corruption, is the most frightful issue in every government and non-government sector/field and even in various private organizations. It is a great pity that Bangladesh has been branded -as the most corrupted country in the world in. the recent four years. Bangladesh has been called to curb and stamp out corruption by various sources with a view to iiiaintaining the world peace. Corruption : Corruption is an inhuman and brutal act. Corruption means adopting unfair means or unfair practice to gain any profit or benefit that goes against laws and affects/harms the interest of others. In other words, corruption means gaining personal interest and benefit harming/damaging others or country's greater interest and benefit. It includes misuse of power. misuse of national resources :wealth) and bribery by damaging others or country's greater interest and benefit. Causes of corruption : The causes of corruption in Bangladesh are many. They are as follows :- (a) Our moral degradation is the root reason of the corruption in Bangladesh. (b) Political instability is another root reason of corruption. (c) Lack of patriotism i.s also a main cause of it. (d) Illiteracy and severe poverty are,greatly liable for corruption. (e) The degradation of laws is also liable for corruption. (0 Unemployment problem is another main cause of it. (g) Population explosion causes corruption too. (n) Social unawareness and illiteracy are also liable for corruption. (i) Lack of true and standard education commits corruption in our country. Remedies :- (a) The value of the good moral character must be taught widely. (b) The curse of the bad moral character should be taught widely. (c) Patriotism must be created among the people. (d) The curse of unpatriotism' should be taught. (e) The danger of corruption should be published through different mass media. (f) Public awareness regarding corruption must be raised-. (g) The laws against corruption should be reformed wonderfully. (h) An education system must be introduced. (i) Corrupted officers, leaders and politicians should be punished. 0) A just judicial system is essential to prevent corruption. (k) Wide gap between the high and the low should be reduced to prevent corruption. (1) Acute poverty must be removed. (in) Illiteracy must be eradicated. (n) Population explosion must be checked. (o) Early marriage must be banned. (p) Civic awareness must be created about the curse of corruption. Effects : The effects of corruption is very panic and drastic. They are as follows (a) Corruption makes a person a beast. (b) It makes a man dead soul. (c) It makes a man dumb, deaf and blind towards the interest of the country and countrymen. (d) It harms a man's character which is the best ornament of life. (e) It leads a man to the dogs. (fl Corruption commits various offences, crimes and other evil activities. (g) It hampers all the development plans, programmes and activities. (h) It damages patriotism and unity. Conclusion : It is obvious that corruption is a great social curse and vice. Eradication/Removal of corruption from the society is a crying need for the greater interest of the country. It is high time we removed/eradicated/curbed corruption from the society with a view to establish exploitation free society, equality, justice. fraternity, brotherhood and unity in the society. THE GAME OF CRICKET Cricket is a very interesting outdoor game. But it is a costly one. Poor people cannot afford to take to it. Though it is the national game of the English, it is now played almost everywhere around the world. The game is played between two teams each consisting of eleven members. A large stretch of perfectly flat and smooth ground is necessary for this game. A cricket field must have a turf which has to be kept soft by means of watering. It is to be maintained at heavy cost. In the absence of a good turf, cricket is played in some countries on coir matting. Other requisites of the cricket game are two wooden bats, a ball and two sets of stumps. The wickets are pitched opposite and paralleled at a distance of 22 yards. The game of cricket is now played in all seasons. In cricket defence is very important and victory often depends upon good fielding. Three fieldsmen are placed on the on-side ---- one at square-leg, one at mid-on and the third at long-on. Six are put on the off-side --- three at slip, one at cover-point, one at mid-off and the last at long-off. Of the remaining two, one is the bowler and the other, the wicket-keeper. The arrangement of the fielders, however, is often changed by the captain in consultation with the bowler. A match is sometimes played the whole day. The day is then divided into two periods-one from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. and the other from 2 p.m. to 5p.m. The umpire’s signal marks the beginning of the play and the bowler starts bowling. After every six balls the bowler’s over ends. The batsman may be out in many ways, such as ‘bowled out’, ‘run out’, ‘stumped out’, ‘caught out’, ‘leg before wicket out’ and ‘hit-wicket out’. Though Cricket is not widely played all over the world; it is, at present, quite popular in Bangladesh. The cricket players of Bangladesh had cherished in their heart to flourish in the world of cricket. It was this dream that encouraged Bangladesh to face the M. C. C. team in this land. The performance of the players of Bangladesh against the M. C. C. was promising. Gradually, Bangladesh came into the scene. Since then Bangladesh has been participating in all the I. C. C. tournaments from 1979. In the 6th tournament of I. C. C. Bangladesh was able to snatch the glory of qualifying for the World Cup Tournament, defeating the Arab Emirates, Holland and Kenya. This victory qualified Bangladesh to take part in a first grade one-day match and non-official test matches against the test-playing countries. And then Bangladesh played the World Cup Cricket. In the tournament Bangladesh got a brilliant victory against the powerful Pakistan Cricket Team. And by defeating Pakistan in the World Cup Cricket, Bangladesh desired for Test Status. And at last Bangladesh has been given the status of a Test playing country in the recent meeting of the I. C. C. Thus the dream of Bangladesh has been materialized. The players of Bangladesh have great potentialities in the field of cricket and if properly trained; our players may earn more international fame and reputation. Cricket teaches manliness, obedience, patience, perseverance and co-operation. But fairness is the very essence of this fame. It strengthens the muscles of the players and provides them vigour and vitality. Cricket, from the view point of exhibition, is an aristocratic game. It is, indeed, the king of games. THE GAME OF CRICKET Introduction: Cricket is a very interesting outdoor game. But it is a costly one. Poor people cannot afford to take to it. It is now played almost everywhere. But it is national game of the English. Requisites: The game is played between two teams each consisting of eleven members. A large stretch of perfectly flat and smooth ground is necessary for this game. A cricket field must have a turf which has to be kept soft by means of watering. It is to be maintained at heavy cost. In the absence of a good turf, cricket is played in some countries on coir matting. Other requisites of the cricket game are two wooden bats, a ball and two sets of stumps. The wickets are pitched opposite and paralleled at a distance of 22 yards. The game of cricket is now played in all seasons. Arrangement of the field: In cricket defence is very important and victory often depends upon good fielding. Three fieldsmen are placed on the on-side--------------- one at square-leg, one at mid-on and the third at long-on. Six are put on the off-side----three at slip, one at cover-point, one at mid-off and the last at long-off. Of the remaining two, one is the bowler and the other, the wicket-keeper. The arrangement of the fielders, however, is often changed by the captain in consultation with the bowler. How played: A match is sometimes played the whole day. The day is then divided into two periods-one from 10 a.m. to 1 p.m. and the other from 2 p.m. to 5p.m. The umpire’s signal marks the beginning of the play and the bowler starts bowling. After every six balls the bowler’s over ends. The batsman may be out in many ways, such as ‘bowled out’, ‘run out’, ‘stumped out’, ‘caught out’, ‘leg before wicket out’ and ‘hit-wicket out’. The rule of the game: A run is said to be scored when the batsman, after hitting the ball, change position once with his partner before the ball is received at the wickets. If the ball crosses the boundary line, four runs are made. When the ball hits the stumps, the batsman is said to be bowled out and when he by hitting the ball gives a catch, he is caught out. Again, while making a run, if the ball is thrown against the stumps before he has reached the wicket the batsman is run out. If he places his leg or legs before the wicket against a straight ball he is out (l.b.w.). First innings of one side continues till the tenth player of the batting side is out. The rival team then comes of bat and proceeds in the same way. In a match generally two innings are played. The team that scores the greater number of runs, after making all the rival batsmen out, wins the match. Two umpires are appointed to conduct and supervise the game. All cases of disputes are settled by them. Cricket in Bangladesh: Though Cricket is not widely played all over the world; it is, at present, quite popular in Bangladesh. The cricket players of Bangladesh had cherished in their heart to flourish in the


world of cricket. It was this dream that encouraged Bangladesh to face the M. C. C. team in this land. The performance of the players of Bangladesh against the M. C. C. was promising. Gradually, Bangladesh came into the scene. Since then Bangladesh has been participating in all the I. C. C. tournaments from 1979. In the 6th tournament of I. C. C. Bangladesh was able to snatch the glory of qualifying for the World Cup Tournament, defeating the Arab Emirates, Holland and Kenya. This victory qualified Bangladesh to take part in a first grade one-day match and non-official test matches against the test-playing countries. And then Bangladesh played the World Cup Cricket. In the tournament Bangladesh got a brilliant victory against the powerful Pakistan Cricket Team. And by defeating Pakistan in the World Cup Cricket, Bangladesh desired for Test Status. And at last Bangladesh has been given the status of a Test playing country in the recent meeting of the I. C. C. Thus the dream of Bangladesh has been materialized. The players of Bangladesh have great potentialities in the field of cricket and if properly trained, our players may earn more international fame and reputation.

Conclusion: Cricket teaches manliness, obedience, patience, perseverance and co-operation. But fairness is the very –essence of this fame. It strengthens the muscles of the players and provides them vigour and vitality. Cricket, from the view point of exhibition, is an aristocratic game. It is, indeed, the king of games.



The Game of Cricket

Cricket is a very popular international game. It is not our national game. It is believed that this game originated in England. It is the' national game of the English. But it is now played in some countries of the world. Now it has become an interesting game in our country.

Cricket is played between two teams. Each team consists of eleven players. A flat round shaped, smooth, grassy field is needed for this game. Two bats, two sets of stumps and two pair of bails and a small leather ball are needed. One set of stamps, which are three in number, is fixed just opposite to the other. The distance between them is twenty two yards. The bails are kept on these stamps, which are called wickets. There are two judges. They are called umpires.

The captain of that team who wins the toss gets the chance to decide whether it will bat first or field. If the toss-winner decides to bat first, the other team will come to the field to bowl. However, when the batting of the first team is over, the second team bats and the first one bowls and fields. At first two batsmen of one party stand at the front of each set of the wickets. One of the eleven players stands behind the wicket who is called wicket keeper and from other side who bowls is called bowler. The rest stand in different positions. Then the play begins.


The bowler throws the ball with the consent of the umpire and hit the stumps opposite to him. The batsman resists it by trying to strike hard with the bat. If he succeeds, he and the other bats man run from wicket to wicket until the bowler can catch hold of the ball. The runs are counted. If the ball touches any of the stumps, the batsman is out. If the batsman strikes the ball and if this ball is caught by a fielder, while it is in the air, then also the batsman is out. He may be out in other ways as well. When one batsman is out, he retires and another goes in to bat. The batting continues till the tenth man is out. The other party then takes bat. The play then goes on as before. The party that scores the greater number of runs wins the game.

The game of cricket is a good physical exercise. All the muscles are exercised. It teaches us patience, perseverance, obedience and the value of co-operation. Test matches are played between two countries. This helps to develop fellow–feeling between the people of these two countries. It is a good game, no doubt. Though it is expensive, it is the king of games.


CYCLONES IN BANGLADESH

Introduction: Cyclones occur in Bangladesh almost every year. They come as a natural calamity and cause great havoc. They are a sort of rotatory storms rising from the Bay of Bengal. They are attended with lightning and thunder, and very often with heavy rainfall.

Meaning and characteristics: The word ‘cyclone’ is derived from the Greek word ‘cyclos’ which means a circle. A cyclone, therefore, is a strong wind blowing in a circular motion. it always changes its direction and blows at the rate of 60 miles or more per hour . In its nature, it is different from an ordinary storm. When very strong winds whirling round the centre of the storm move at a terrific speed with an anti-clock wise motion in the northern hemisphere and with a clockwise motion in the southern hemisphere, a cyclone occurs.


How it is caused and its fury: In Bangladesh the first indication of the approach of a cyclone is that the sky in the north- west is covered with patches of dark cloud. Then the wind begins to blow with a moaning sound . Soon the sound of the wind becomes as loud as the booming of the cannon. The current of the wind is never steady and regular, but is always fitful and violent. The whole sky now looks like one dark sheet of cloud . This is the sign of the imminent crisis. Blasts of winds grow stronger and stronger. There are heavy rains, peals of thunder and flashes of lightning. At one moment there is the lull but the next moment there is the blast of greater force. The force of wind grows so strong that it shakes even the solid building to their foundation. This terrific state continues for hours together and sometimes it lasts for a whole day.



Cyclones of recent years and their havoc: The cyclones that occurred in Bangladesh in recent years especially in 1960,’63,’66,’70,’85 and ’91 were indeed terrible . Almost every time the off -shore islands were the hardest hit areas. On a number of occasions during these years, cyclones were attended with tidal bore . The havoc caused by these cyclones is beyond description. Almost everything that came within their sweep was destroyed or carried away. The cyclone that occurred in May, 1985 was a devastating one in the post-liberation Bangladesh. It originated in the Bay of Bengal and blew over Hatia, Sandwip, Urirchar and other off -shore islands. Urirchar was the most hard -hit area. But in dimension and intensity the cyclone of the 29th April, 1991, was unprecedented in our known history. It swept over all the coastal districts and off-shore islands with a tremendous speed of 210 to 235 kilometres an hour. It had within its grip over 20 million people as victims and took a toll of no fewer than 5 lakh human beings. As the cyclone grew in intensity innumerable trees were uprooted and countless houses were razed to the ground. Hundreds of boats capsized and a good number of ships ran aground. Dozens of aircrafts of Bangladesh Air Force were damaged. A span of Karnaphuli Bridge and the wireless tower were also blown down. What was more dangerous was the tidal bore which followed in the wake of the cyclone. Thousands of people were swept away by the strong current of water and innumerable heads of cattle were killed. Saline water of the sea flooded the corn -fields and caused widespread destruction to the crops. Loss of property ran to thousands of crores of Taka. The loss was terrible and irreparable.


Conclusion: Cyclone is a natural phenomenon. It is impossible for human efforts to prevent cyclone. However, various long-term and short-term measures may be taken to mitigate the fearful effect of the cyclone. The Government and people all over the country time and again made heroic efforts for the relief and rehabilitation of the cyclone-afflicted people. Now-a-days meteorological department prepares forecast of the origin and direction of a cyclone and gives proper previous warning through the radio and the television. Many concrete houses have also been built in off -shore areas to give shelter to the people during a cyclone. Life and property can thus be saved from the suffering and destruction of cyclones.

Cyclone

Floods, droughts, cyclones etc. are the natural calamities of Bangladesh. The word 'Cyclone' is derived from the Greek word 'Cyclos' a circle which means whirl wind. Generally, cyclone means a kind of moving storm. It always changes its direction and blows at the rate of 60 kilometres or more per kilometre.

When very strong winds whirling round the centre of the storm move at a terrific speed with an anti-clockwise motion in the northern hemisphere and with a clock-wise motion in the southern hemisphere, a cyclone occurs.Low depression in the Bay of Bengal is the main cause of cyclones in Bangladesh. This depression prevails on the ocean first. Then it gradually proceeds with much speed towards the land. The region that it touches becomes dark. The sky becomes cloudy. The flow oP wind begins suddenly and the temperature rises. Such an environment forecasts that a cyclone is going to take place. Soon the sound of the wind becomes as loud as the roaring of a lion. Rains begin to pour in torrents with flashes of lightnings and thunder.

The cyclones that occurred in Bangladesh in recent years especially in 1960, 66, 77, 85, 88 and 91 were indeed terrible. We remember the cyclones of 1988 and 1991. The coastal areas are usually the prey to cyclones. Most hard hit areas are Hatia~ Sandwip, Urierchar, Chokoria, Cox's Bazar, Bhola etc. We know from our records that the cyclone of 1970 caused death of ten lakh people.

Cyclone moves at a terrible speed. Houses, trees, crops, building are levelled to the ground. A cyclone often brings with it dreadful tidal bores. These huge sea-tides wash away everything - men, women, household things and animals. Ships and steamers are sunk due to it. The tragedy caused by the cyclone can not hf) described exactly in words.

Man is a helpless puppet at the hands of the forces of nature, though science has conquered nature to some extent. As nature is still more powerful than science, we shall have to take precautionary steps to stop the destructive effects of cyclone. Advance warning of storms or cyclones will be needed and proper steps should be taken to ensure maximum safety of life and property.

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