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Cambridge IELTS 17 Reading Vocabulary

                     Cambridge Academic IELTS-17

Passage -1  The development of the London underground railway

1.       Congested: Very crowded or full of traffic. Example: The city streets were congested with cars during rush hour.

2.       Overground railway network: The railway system above the ground. Example: The overground railway network connected different parts of the city.

3.       Royal Commission: A group of people appointed by the government to investigate and make decisions. Example: The Royal Commission was responsible for deciding whether the railways should enter the City.

4.       Slums: Poorly built and overcrowded areas where people live in poverty. Example: The inner-city slums were in bad condition and needed improvement.

5.       Nightmare: A very bad or unpleasant experience. Example: Crossing the city during peak hours was a nightmare due to heavy traffic.

6.       Schemes: Plans or proposals to solve a problem. Example: Many schemes were suggested, but only a few were successful in resolving the traffic issues.

7.       Advocates: People who support or speak in favor of something. Example: Charles Pearson was one of the advocates for solving London's traffic problems.

8.       Suburbs: Residential areas on the outskirts of a city. Example: The plan aimed to relocate workers from the inner-city slums to newly built suburbs.

9.       Radical: Significant and innovative, bringing big changes. Example: The construction of an underground railway was considered a radical solution at that time.

10.   Demolishing: Destroying or tearing down buildings. Example: The chosen route aimed to minimize the need for demolishing existing buildings.

11.   Trench: A long, narrow hole dug into the ground. Example: They dug a trench to create space for the underground railway.

12.   Arch: A curved structure that forms a shape like a semi-circle. Example: The tunnel's construction included building brick walls and adding a brick arch.

13.   Journeys: Trips or travels from one place to another. Example: On the first day, almost 40,000 passengers made journeys on the Metropolitan line.

14.   Extensions: Additional sections or parts added to something. Example: The underground line's extensions were authorized to reach new areas of the city.

15.   Ventilation shafts: Openings or channels for air to circulate in the tunnels. Example: Ventilation shafts were built to improve air circulation in the underground tunnels.

16.   Congestion: Heavy traffic and overcrowding. Example: Despite the extensions, congestion on London's streets worsened.

17.   Confined space: A limited or small area. Example: Steam locomotives couldn't be used in the confined space of the deep underground tunnels.

18.   Reliable: Dependable and trustworthy. Example: The development of a reliable electric motor was crucial for the new deep-level electric railway.

19.   Technical achievement: A significant accomplishment in terms of technology or engineering. Example: The City & South London Railway was a great technical achievement for its time.

20.   Profit: Money earned after deducting expenses. Example: The City & South London Railway didn't make a profit initially.

22.   Tube network: Refers to the London Underground system. Example: The Central London Railway was the beginning of the tube network in London.

23.   Deep-level: Refers to being far below the surface. Example: The new electric railway required deep-level tunnels to be constructed.

24.   Electric locomotives: Trains powered by electricity instead of steam. Example: The Central London Railway used electric locomotives to operate its trains.

25.   Carriages: Sections of a train where passengers sit. Example: The trains on the underground railway consisted of multiple carriages.

26.   Narrow: Not wide; having a small width. Example: The narrow carriages were designed to fit within the tunnels.

27.   Reliable power supply: Consistent and steady source of electricity. Example: The underground railway faced challenges due to an unreliable power supply.

28.   Extensions: Additional sections or lines added to the existing railway system. Example: The tube network expanded with the construction of new extensions.

29.   Growing: Increasing or expanding in size or number. Example: The underground system continued growing as more lines were added.

30.   Heart: The central or most important part. Example: By 1907, the heart of today's Underground system was in place.

31.   Critical articles: Negative or disapproving writings. Example: The press published critical articles about the underground railway project.

32.   Emissions: Gases or substances released into the air. Example: Some people were concerned about the harmful emissions from the train engines.

33.   Power generator: Device that produces electricity. Example: The power generator supplied electricity to the trains on the underground railway.

34.   Tuppenny Tube: Nickname for the Central London Railway due to its low fare. Example: The Tuppenny Tube was called so because the ticket cost only two pennies.

35.   Technical: Relating to the practical application of knowledge and skills. Example: The construction of the deep-level electric railway required technical expertise.

36.   Confined space: A limited or restricted area. Example: The deep-level tunnels provided a confined space for the trains to operate.

37.   Profitable: Generating a financial gain or making money. Example: The Central London Railway became profitable after it started operations.

38.   Network: A system of interconnected lines or routes. Example: The underground railway network expanded with the addition of new lines.

39.   Challenges: Difficulties or obstacles that need to be overcome. Example: The construction of the underground railway faced many challenges.

40.   Expansion: The act of becoming larger or extending in scope. Example: The expansion of the tube network improved transportation in the city.


Passage -2 Stadiums: past, present and future




1.       Urban architecture: The design and construction of buildings in cities. Example: Stadiums are considered a form of urban architecture because they are built in cities for public use.

2.       Vast stadiums: Large sports arenas. Example: Ancient Greek and Roman civilizations had vast stadiums where people could watch sporting events.

3.       Dominating urban skylines: Standing out and being the most prominent structures in the city's skyline. Example: The grand railway stations built in the 19th and 20th centuries dominated urban skylines with their impressive architecture.

4.       Construction costs: The expenses involved in building something. Example: The construction costs of stadiums can be very high, often exceeding £1 billion.

5.       Fallen into disuse and disrepair: No longer being used or maintained properly. Example: Stadiums constructed for events like the Olympic Games or FIFA World Cup have often fallen into disuse and disrepair after the events are over.

6.       Drive urban development: Contribute to the growth and progress of a city. Example: History shows that stadiums can drive urban development by attracting people and investment to the surrounding areas.

7.       Mono-functional sports arenas: Sports stadiums designed for a single purpose or use. Example: Architects and planners are finding new ways to transform mono-functional sports arenas into more versatile spaces.

8.       Versatile stadiums: Stadiums that can be adapted and used for various purposes. Example: The amphitheatre of Arles in France is an excellent example of how versatile stadiums can be, serving as a fortress, village, and arena for bullfights.

9.       Imposing arena: A grand and impressive sports venue. Example: The arena of Verona in Italy, with its capacity for 30,000 spectators, is an imposing arena known for its outstanding acoustics.

10.   Embedded in the fabric of the city: Becoming an integral part of the city's structure and design. Example: The ruins of the amphitheatre in Lucca, Italy, are embedded in the fabric of the city and surrounded by shops and residences.

11.   Modernisation: The process of making something more modern or up-to-date. Example: Mono-functional sports arenas became emblematic of modernisation during the 20th century.

12.   Conservation: The protection and preservation of natural or cultural resources. Example: The growing interest in conservation led to the restoration of historical stadiums like the amphitheatre in Arles.

13.   Compactness: Being closely and efficiently arranged or organized. Example: Creating mixed-use developments in stadiums promotes compactness and makes better use of available land.

14.   Multi-functionality: Having multiple uses or functions. Example: The addition of hotels, retail outlets, and conference centers in stadiums enhances their multi-functionality.

15.   Regenerate urban spaces: Revitalize and renew areas within cities. Example: Mixed-use facilities at stadiums like Wembley and Old Trafford have helped regenerate urban spaces in the UK.

16.   Power plant: A facility that generates electricity. Example: Stadiums equipped with photovoltaic panels and wind turbines can function as power plants to produce electricity.

17.   Smart grid: An advanced electrical network that uses digital technology to manage power efficiently. Example: Stadiums can be connected to a smart grid to optimize energy usage and minimize wastage

18.   Photovoltaic panels: Devices that convert sunlight into electricity. Example: Stadiums can have photovoltaic panels installed on their canopies to generate electricity from sunlight.

19.   Micro wind turbines: Small turbines that convert wind energy into electricity. Example: Stadiums with tall structures can make use of micro wind turbines to generate electricity from the wind.

20.   Output of carbon dioxide: The amount of carbon dioxide produced. Example: By generating renewable energy, stadiums can reduce their output of carbon dioxide, which is harmful to the environment.

21.   Sustainable future: A future that is environmentally friendly and can be maintained in the long term. Example: Stadiums with multiple functions and renewable energy sources contribute to creating a sustainable future for cities.

22.   Field for experimentation: A place where new ideas and innovations can be tested. Example: Modern stadiums provide a field for experimentation in advanced engineering and architectural design.

23.   Multiple functions: Having many different purposes or uses. Example: Today's stadiums bring together multiple functions, serving not only as sports venues but also as entertainment hubs and gathering spaces.

24.   Versatility: The ability to adapt and be used for various purposes. Example: The versatility of stadiums allows them to evolve and meet the changing needs of different eras.

25.   Regarded with growing scepticism: Viewed with increasing doubt or skepticism. Example: In recent times, there has been a growing scepticism surrounding the construction and maintenance costs of stadiums.

26.   Historical stadiums: Stadiums that have significant historical value or importance. Example: The ancient Greek and Roman historical stadiums were central to the cultural life of their cities.

27.   Conservation of heritage: Preserving and protecting historical sites and artifacts. Example: The interest in conservation of heritage has led to the restoration of ancient stadiums and their reuse for cultural events.

28.   Mixed-use developments: Buildings or areas that combine multiple functions or uses. Example: The addition of hotels, restaurants, and retail outlets to stadiums creates mixed-use developments that attract a diverse range of visitors.

29.   Interconnected buildings: Buildings that are connected and work together as a system. Example: Stadiums can be part of interconnected buildings that share resources and energy through a smart grid.

30.   Reduction of CO2 emissions: Decreasing the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere. Example: Stadiums functioning as power plants contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions, which helps combat climate change.

31.   Urban architecture: The design and construction of buildings and structures in cities. Example: Urban architecture focuses on creating functional and aesthetically pleasing buildings that fit within a city's landscape.

32.   Disuse and disrepair: When something is no longer used and is in a state of neglect or decay. Example: Many stadiums built for major events have fallen into disuse and disrepair after the games ended.

33.   Mono-functional: Designed or used for a single purpose. Example: Traditional sports arenas were often mono-functional, serving only as venues for sporting events.

34.   Compactness: The quality of being small, tightly packed, or condensed. Example: Creating mixed-use developments promotes compactness, making efficient use of space in urban areas.

35.   Regenerate: To renew, revitalize, or bring new life to something. Example: Transforming stadiums into multi-purpose spaces can help regenerate urban areas and attract more people.

36.   Smart grid: An advanced electricity supply network that uses digital technology to monitor and manage energy distribution. Example: Stadiums connected to a smart grid can efficiently distribute and control their energy consumption.

37.   Interdisciplinary: Involving different disciplines or areas of knowledge. Example: Designing modern stadiums often requires an interdisciplinary approach, combining expertise in architecture, engineering, and technology.

38.   Aesthetics: The study of beauty and the principles of artistic design. Example: Architects consider both the functionality and aesthetics of stadiums to create visually appealing structures.

39.   Renewable energy: Energy generated from natural sources that can be replenished, such as solar or wind power. Example: The integration of renewable energy sources in stadiums reduces their environmental impact and reliance on fossil fuels.

40.   Cultural heritage: The legacy of physical artifacts and traditions that are passed down through generations. Example: Ancient stadiums hold significant cultural heritage and reflect the historical importance of sports and public gatherings.


Passage -3  To catch a king

1.       Resounding defeat: A very clear and significant loss. Example: King Charles II suffered a resounding defeat at the Battle of Worcester, which means he lost by a large margin.

2.       Presbyterianism: A type of Christian religious belief and practice that is governed by presbyters (elders). Example: Charles II accepted Presbyterianism as the national religion in Scotland, meaning he agreed to follow its teachings.

3.       Invasion: An act of forcefully entering and occupying a place. Example: The English Parliamentary army launched an invasion of Scotland to counter Charles II's arrival in Edinburgh.

4.       Manhunt: An organized search for a person, usually to capture or arrest them. Example: After his defeat, Charles II became the subject of a national manhunt, with a large reward offered for his capture.

5.       Penniless: Having little or no money. Example: Charles II wandered around Europe as a penniless king, meaning he had no wealth or resources.

6.       Restoration: The act of returning something or someone to a previous state or condition. Example: After many years, Charles II experienced a restoration as king, which means he regained his position and power.

7.       Commit: To promise or pledge to do something. Example: Charles II asked Samuel Pepys to commit his story to paper, meaning he requested Pepys to write it down and preserve it.

8.       Retelling: Telling a story or recounting events again. Example: Spencer's book provides a detailed retelling of Charles II's experiences as a fugitive, meaning it recounts the events of his escape.

9.       Delicious details: Enjoyable or interesting specific pieces of information. Example: The book includes delicious details, such as the cutting of the king's hair with agricultural shears, which are intriguing and captivating.

10.   Preposterous refusal: A ridiculous or absurd rejection. Example: Charles's friend's preposterous refusal to adopt disguise seemed foolish and illogical.

11.   Emotional tension: Intense feelings of suspense, anxiety, or excitement. Example: The book captures the emotional tension when Charles's presence was cautiously revealed to his loyal supporters, creating a sense of anticipation.

12.   Bolted their doors: Closed and secured their doors tightly. Example: The people of England bolted their doors, meaning they shut and locked them, to avoid the arrival of Charles II and the Scottish army.

13.   Memorialize: To honor or commemorate something or someone. Example: Charles II initiated initiatives to memorialize his escape, such as creating an order of chivalry and commissioning paintings.

14.   Enormous: Very large in size or scale. Example: The king commissioned enormous oil paintings and a large ceiling mural, indicating that they were of significant size.

15.   Pacey: Having a fast and engaging pace. Example: Spencer's pacey prose makes the book easy and enjoyable to read, as it flows quickly and keeps the reader engaged.

16.   Idioms: Expressions that have a meaning different from the literal interpretation of the words. Example: The book avoids modern idioms, which are commonly used phrases in current language, to maintain a more historical tone.

17.   Hit the mark: To achieve the desired result or objective. Example: While the book is excellent overall, it doesn't quite hit the mark in depicting Charles II in his final years. This means that the book doesn't accurately portray or capture the true essence of Charles II's character during that period.

18.   Tantalising: Creating a sense of excitement or curiosity. Example: The question of how the six weeks of hiding affected Charles II is tantalising, as it arouses curiosity and leaves readers wanting to know more.

19.   Assume disguises: To wear different appearances or costumes to conceal one's identity. Example: During his escape, Charles II had to assume disguises to avoid being recognized, which means he had to change his appearance to stay hidden.

20.   Subterfuge: The use of deceit or trickery to achieve one's goals. Example: Charles II employed subterfuge during his escape, employing cunning and deceptive tactics to outwit his pursuers.

21.   Niggle aside: To put a minor concern or issue aside. Example: Apart from this one minor concern, the book niggle aside, meaning that it should not detract from its overall quality or enjoyment.

22.   Memorable: Worth remembering or leaving a lasting impression. Example: "To Catch a King" is an excellent read that tells a memorable tale, meaning it is a captivating book that tells a story worth remembering.

23.   Treat in store: Something enjoyable or pleasant that awaits. Example: Readers who know little about the famous tale will find that they have a treat in store when they read the book, meaning they will have an enjoyable experience ahead.

 

Test -2 Passage -1

 

The Dead Sea Scrolls

1.       Ancient settlement: An old or very old community or village. Example: Qumran is an ancient settlement located on the northwest shore of the Dead Sea, where the shepherds discovered the scrolls.

2.       Shattering sound: A loud and sharp noise like something breaking into pieces. Example: When the shepherd tossed a rock into the opening, he heard a shattering sound, which surprised him.

3.       Unearthed: Discovered or found by digging or excavating. Example: Bedouins and archaeologists unearthed tens of thousands of additional scroll fragments from nearby caves, revealing more valuable information.

4.       Manuscripts: Handwritten documents or texts. Example: The Dead Sea Scrolls consist of between 800 and 900 manuscripts, which are ancient texts written by hand on various materials.

5.       Prevailing theory: The most commonly accepted or widely held explanation. Example: The prevailing theory suggests that the scrolls were written by a group called the Essenes, who lived in the area during that time.

6.       Sectarian regulations: Rules or guidelines specific to a particular religious group or sect. Example: Some of the scrolls contain sectarian regulations, which are instructions or rules followed by the Essenes or other religious communities.

7.       Parchment: Animal skin prepared and used as a material for writing or drawing. Example: Most of the scrolls were made of parchment, which is animal skin that was used as a writing surface.

8.       Treasure map: A map or document that guides someone to hidden or valuable treasures. Example: The Copper Scroll is considered a sort of ancient treasure map that lists the locations of buried gold and silver caches.

9.       Coded text: Writing that uses secret or hidden symbols or a specific system to convey its meaning. Example: The researchers deciphered the scroll's coded text, which means they were able to understand the hidden or secret messages written in symbols.

10.   Valuable journeys: The paths or routes taken by the scrolls throughout history. Example: Some of the Dead Sea Scrolls have been on interesting journeys, changing hands from different owners or traveling to different places.

11.   Archbishop: A high-ranking bishop or religious leader in certain Christian denominations. Example: Mar Samuel, an archbishop, acquired four of the original seven scrolls and later offered them for sale.

12.   Unsuccessfully: Without achieving the desired outcome or result. Example: Mar Samuel unsuccessfully tried to sell the scrolls to several universities before they were eventually purchased by Yigael Yadin.

13.   Restored: Repaired or brought back to a good or original condition. Example: Researchers from the University of Haifa restored and deciphered one of the last untranslated scrolls, making it readable and understandable.

14.   Band of text: A strip or narrow section of written or printed words. Example: The scroll contained a band of coded text, which means there was a narrow section of writing with hidden or secret messages.

15.   Valuable information: Important or useful knowledge or details. Example: The deciphered scroll provided valuable information about the people who wrote it and the calendar they used.

16.   Roman troops: Soldiers or military forces from the ancient Roman Empire. Example: The Roman troops destroyed the settlement around 70 CE, which led to the end of the community that produced the scrolls.

1.       Scholarly debate: An ongoing discussion or argument among experts in a particular field. Example: The origin of the Dead Sea Scrolls is still the subject of scholarly debate, as experts continue to discuss and research their origins.

2.       Devout: Deeply religious and committed to one's beliefs or practices. Example: The Essenes, the group believed to have written the scrolls, were known as a devout Jewish sect.

3.       Translations: The act of rendering something from one language into another. Example: Some of the scrolls feature translations of the Hebrew Bible into Greek, providing alternative versions of the biblical texts.

4.       Preserved: Kept intact or protected from damage or decay. Example: The only complete book preserved among the scrolls is Isaiah, which is considered the earliest biblical manuscript still in existence.

5.       Papyrus: An early form of paper made from the pith of the papyrus plant. Example: Most of the scrolls were made of papyrus, a material derived from plants, and were used for writing.

6.       Hoards: Large quantities or collections of valuable items or treasures. Example: The Copper Scroll lists hidden hoards of gold and silver, suggesting there were caches of valuable items hidden in various locations.

7.       Pillaged: Looted or plundered, typically by an invading force. Example: The treasures mentioned in the Copper Scroll were possibly never recovered because the Romans pillaged the region during the first century CE.

8.       Acquired: Obtained or gained possession of something. Example: Mar Samuel acquired four of the original scrolls from a shoemaker and antiquity dealer in Jerusalem.

9.       Deciphered: Successfully translated or interpreted something that was difficult to understand. Example: The researchers deciphered the coded text on the scroll, unraveling its hidden meaning and making it readable.

10.   Insight: A deep understanding or perception of a subject or situation. Example: The deciphered scroll provided insight into the community that wrote it and the calendar they followed.

11.   Antiquities: Objects or artifacts from ancient times that have historical or cultural value. Example: Mar Samuel was a part-time antiquities dealer, involved in buying and selling ancient artifacts.

12.   Manuscript: A handwritten or typed document, often referring to an old or valuable text. Example: The Dead Sea Scrolls are a collection of ancient manuscripts written on various materials.

13.   Denominations: Different branches or groups within a religious faith. Example: Mar Samuel was a member of the Syrian Orthodox denomination within Christianity.

14.   Shifts in seasons: Changes or transitions between different seasons of the year. Example: The scroll names celebrations that indicate shifts in seasons, providing insight into the religious practices of the community.

15.   Theoretical: Based on theory or speculation rather than proven facts. Example: Some hypotheses suggest that the treasures mentioned in the Copper Scroll were theoretical and might not have actually existed.



Passage -2 A second attempt at domesticating the tomato



1.       Domesticate: To tame and cultivate something wild. Example: Humans learned to domesticate wild animals like dogs and cats.

2.       Cultivate: To grow and care for plants. Example: Farmers cultivate crops like wheat and corn.

3.       Re-domesticated: To domesticate again. Example: Scientists re-domesticated wild tomatoes to improve their traits.

4.       Nutritious: Healthy and containing important nutrients. Example: Vegetables like spinach and broccoli are nutritious and good for our health.

5.       Revolutionary: Bringing about a big change or innovation. Example: The invention of the internet was a revolutionary development.

6.       Genome editing: Making changes to the DNA of living cells. Example: Scientists used genome editing techniques to modify the genetic material of tomatoes.

7.       Genetic material: The information carried by genes that determines traits. Example: DNA is the genetic material that contains instructions for building and functioning of organisms.

8.       Deliberately: Intentionally or on purpose. Example: The chef deliberately added spices to enhance the flavor of the dish.

9.       Wild plants: Plants that grow naturally in the wild, without human cultivation. Example: Flowers like daisies and dandelions are wild plants found in fields and meadows.

10.   Useful: Having a practical purpose or value. Example: Tools like hammers and screwdrivers are useful for fixing things.

11.   Appealing: Attractive or pleasing to the senses. Example: The colorful packaging of the candy was appealing to children.

12.   Relative: A member of the same family or sharing a common ancestor. Example: Lions and tigers are relatives as they both belong to the cat family.

13.   Native: Belonging to a particular place or region. Example: Koalas are native to Australia and are found only there.

14.   Desirable: Something that is wanted or wished for. Example: A big backyard is a desirable feature for many homebuyers.

15.   Traits: Characteristics or features of something. Example: Blue eyes and curly hair are traits that can be inherited.

16.   Supermarkets: Large stores where people buy food and household items. Example: People go to supermarkets to do their grocery shopping.

17.   Flavour: The taste or quality of something, especially related to food or drink. Example: Vanilla ice cream has a sweet and creamy flavour.

18.   Genomes: The complete set of genes or genetic material in an organism. Example: Scientists study the genomes of different species to understand their genetic makeup.

19.   Editing: Making changes or modifications to something. Example: Writers often go through multiple rounds of editing to improve their manuscripts.

20.   Triple: To make three times bigger or increase something by three times. Example: The recipe calls for tripling the amount of sugar to make it sweeter.

21.   Size: The physical dimensions or extent of something. Example: The size of a basketball is larger than that of a tennis ball.

22.   Tomatoes per truss: The number of tomatoes on a stem or branch. Example: The farmer counted 10 tomatoes per truss on the vine.

23.   Pigment: A substance that gives color to something. Example: Chlorophyll is the pigment that makes plants green.

24.   Lycopene: A red pigment found in tomatoes and other fruits. Example: Lycopene is believed to have health benefits and is found in high amounts in tomatoes.

25.   Aromatic: Having a strong, pleasant smell. Example: Freshly baked bread has an aromatic fragrance that fills the kitchen.

26.   Strains: Different variations or types of a plant or microorganism. Example: There are many different strains of influenza virus, each with its own characteristics.

27.   Resistant: Able to withstand or fight against something. Example: Some plants are resistant to drought and can survive in dry conditions.

28.   Bacterial spot race: A common disease caused by bacteria that affects plants. Example: The farmer sprayed fungicides to prevent the bacterial spot race from spreading to the tomato plants.

29.   Yields: The amount of crops or produce harvested from a field or plant. Example: The apple orchard had a bountiful yield this year, producing thousands of apples.

30.   Salt tolerant: Able to tolerate or withstand high salt concentrations. Example: Mangrove trees are salt tolerant and can grow in coastal areas with salty soil.

31.   Vitamin C: A nutrient found in fruits and vegetables that is important for health. Example: Oranges are a good source of vitamin C, which helps boost the immune system.

32.   Decided: Made a choice or reached a conclusion. Example: After careful consideration, they decided to go on vacation to the beach.

33.   Approach: A way of doing something or dealing with a situation. Example: There are different approaches to solving a math problem.

34.   Commercial: Relating to business and buying or selling goods or services. Example: The company launched a commercial advertising campaign to promote its new product.

35.   License: Official permission or legal right to do something. Example: Drivers need to have a valid driver's license to operate a vehicle.

36.   Regulatory approval: The process of obtaining official authorization or clearance from regulatory authorities. Example: Before a new drug can be sold, it must receive regulatory approval from the government.

37.   Obscure: Not well-known or familiar. Example: The poet's work remained obscure during his lifetime but gained recognition after his death.

38.   Drought: A long period of time with little or no rainfall, causing water scarcity. Example: The farmers faced crop failure due to the severe drought that lasted for months.

39.   Heat tolerant: Able to withstand high temperatures or heat stress. Example: Cacti are heat tolerant plants that thrive in hot desert environments.

40.   Thrive: To grow and develop well, flourishing. Example: With proper care, the flowers in the garden will thrive and bloom beautifully.

41.   Skills: Abilities or expertise in doing something. Example: Cooking, painting, and playing the piano are all skills that can be learned and improved.

42.   Lab: Short for laboratory, a place where scientific experiments and research are conducted. Example: The scientists conducted experiments in the lab to study the effects of different chemicals.

43.   Catapulted: To launch or propel something forcefully. Example: The

43.   Catapulted: To launch or propel something forcefully. Example: The new movie catapulted the actor to fame overnight.

44.   Foxtail: A type of grass with a distinctive shape resembling a fox's tail. Example: The field was covered in tall foxtail grass, swaying in the wind.

45.   Oat-grass: A type of grass that belongs to the oat family. Example: Oat-grass is often used as forage for livestock.

46.   Cowpea: A type of legume plant that produces edible beans. Example: Cowpea is a staple food in many African countries.

47.   Drought or heat tolerant: Able to withstand both drought and high temperatures. Example: Some desert plants are drought or heat tolerant, allowing them to survive in harsh environments.

48.   Popular: Liked or enjoyed by many people. Example: Pizza is a popular food that is enjoyed by people all over the world.

49.   Staple crops: Crops that are regularly consumed and form a significant part of people's diets. Example: Rice and wheat are staple crops in many countries, providing the main source of calories.

50.   Skills: Abilities or knowledge acquired through practice or experience. Example: Learning to play a musical instrument requires time and skills.


Passage -3 Insight or evolution?



1.       Scientific discovery: The process of finding or uncovering new knowledge or understanding through scientific methods. Example: The discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming revolutionized the field of medicine.

2.       Intellectual stars: Highly accomplished and renowned individuals known for their intelligence and contributions in their respective fields. Example: Albert Einstein and Marie Curie are considered intellectual stars for their groundbreaking scientific discoveries.

3.       Prior experience: The knowledge, skills, and understanding gained from previous encounters or activities. Example: Jane's prior experience in marketing helped her excel in her new job.

4.       Lesser-known predecessors: Individuals who came before and made significant contributions but are not as widely recognized or celebrated. Example: The lesser-known predecessors of modern art laid the foundation for the artistic movements that followed.

5.       Insight: A sudden realization or understanding of a problem or situation. Example: The detective had an insight that led him to solve the mysterious crime.

6.       Breakthrough: A significant and innovative discovery or achievement. Example: The invention of the light bulb was a breakthrough in the field of electricity.

7.       Spontaneously: Happening naturally or without external influence. Example: The children started dancing spontaneously when they heard their favorite song.

8.       Cumulative: Building upon or adding to previous progress or achievements. Example: The cumulative efforts of scientists over decades led to the development of the COVID-19 vaccine.

9.       Postulated: Proposed or suggested as a theory or explanation. Example: The scientist postulated a new hypothesis to explain the behavior of a certain species.

10.   Proto-elements: Hypothetical or imaginary elements postulated to exist. Example: The concept of proto-elements helped scientists understand the atomic structure better, even though they were later found to be non-existent.

11.   Periodic table: A tabular arrangement of chemical elements based on their atomic numbers and properties. Example: Mendeleev's periodic table revolutionized the field of chemistry by organizing elements in a systematic manner.

12.   Monumental: Great in importance, size, or significance. Example: The construction of the pyramids in Egypt was a monumental achievement of ancient civilizations.

13.   Fanciful: Imaginary or whimsical, not based on reality. Example: The author's fanciful stories captivated the children's imaginations.

14.   Speculations: Ideas or theories based on conjecture or incomplete information. Example: The detective had several speculations about the possible motives of the suspect.

15.   Novel: New, original, or unique. Example: The artist's novel painting style attracted attention from art enthusiasts.

16.   Conceive: To form or develop an idea or concept in one's mind. Example: The architect conceived a visionary design for the new museum.

17.   Unheralded: Not publicly acknowledged or recognized. Example: The athlete's unheralded performance surprised everyone and earned him a gold medal.

18.   Enterprise: A project, endeavor, or undertaking. Example: The company launched a new enterprise to develop sustainable energy solutions.

19.   Random: Happening by chance or without a specific pattern. Example: The lottery numbers are selected randomly using a computer algorithm.

20.   Accidental: Happening by chance or unintentionally. Example: She made an accidental discovery

21.   Serendipity: The occurrence of valuable or desirable things by chance in a happy or beneficial way. Example: The invention of the microwave oven was a result of serendipity when a scientist noticed a melted chocolate bar in his pocket while working with radar technology.

22.   Banal: Lacking originality or freshness, often dull or ordinary. Example: The speaker's presentation was filled with banal clichés and lacked any new insights.

23.   Mechanical: Relating to or functioning like a machine, automatic or routine. Example: The process of assembling the product was highly mechanical, involving repetitive tasks performed by machines.

24.   Provenance: The origin, source, or history of something. Example: The provenance of the ancient artifact was traced back to a temple in Egypt.

25.   Genetic mutations: Changes or alterations in the genetic material or DNA sequence. Example: Some genetic mutations can lead to genetic disorders or diseases.

26.   Shrewd: Showing sharp powers of judgment or astute observation. Example: The businessman made shrewd investment decisions that earned him significant profits.

27.   Naive: Lacking experience, wisdom, or judgment, often characterized by innocence or simplicity. Example: The young traveler had a naive view of the world, expecting only kindness and honesty from everyone.

28.   Law of Effect: A psychological principle proposed by Edward Thorndike stating that behaviors leading to positive outcomes are more likely to be repeated, while those resulting in negative outcomes are less likely to be repeated. Example: The Law of Effect suggests that rewarding good behavior increases the likelihood of its recurrence.

29.   Mechanical process: A process that operates according to fixed rules or principles without the need for conscious thought or decision-making. Example: The assembly line in the factory follows a mechanical process to efficiently produce automobiles.

30.   Variation: A change or difference in form, condition, or characteristics. Example: The variation in climate across different regions affects the types of plants and animals found in each area.

31.   Selection: The process of choosing or picking out based on certain criteria or preferences. Example: The talent show judges made the selection based on the contestants' performances and stage presence.

32.   Objective: A specific goal or purpose to be achieved. Example: The company's objective is to increase its market share by 20% within the next year.

33.   Raw material: The basic substance or material used in the production or creation of something. Example: Wood is a raw material used in the construction of furniture.

34.   Creative behavior: The manifestation of imaginative, original, or innovative ideas, actions, or expressions. Example: The artist's creative behavior led to the creation of a unique sculpture.

35.   Intelligent design: The belief or concept that certain aspects of the universe or living organisms are best explained by an intelligent cause rather than natural processes. Example: Some proponents of intelligent design argue that complex biological structures could not have arisen through evolution alone.

36.   Provenance: The origin, source, or history of something. Example: The provenance of the ancient artifact was traced back to a temple in Egypt.

37.   Doubtful: Uncertain or questionable, not easily accepted as true or valid. Example: The validity of the study's findings was doubtful due to the small sample size and limited data.

38.   Scientific utility: The practical value or usefulness of scientific knowledge or theories in advancing scientific understanding or solving practical problems. Example: The scientific utility of studying genetics has led to significant advancements in personalized medicine.

39.   Genius: Exceptional intellectual or creative ability, often characterized by extraordinary insight or talent. Example: Mozart's musical compositions showcased his genius as a composer and pianist.

40.   Endeavor: An earnest or purposeful effort to achieve a goal or undertake a task. Example: The team embarked on a collaborative endeavor to develop a sustainable energy solution.

41.   Intelligent design: The belief or concept that certain aspects of the universe or living organisms are best explained by an intelligent cause rather than natural processes. Example: Some proponents of intelligent design argue that the complexity of biological structures suggests the involvement of a higher intelligence.

42.   Promising candidate: A potential solution or approach that shows potential for success or further investigation. Example: The new drug compound is a promising candidate for treating a rare disease, based on preliminary test results.

43.   Evolution: The gradual development or change over time, often in the context of biological organisms or ideas. Example: The theory of evolution explains how species adapt and change in response to their environment.

44.   Creative behavior: The manifestation of imaginative, original, or innovative ideas, actions, or expressions. Example: The writer's creative behavior led to the creation of a best-selling novel.

45.   Abandoning: To give up, discard, or cease support or belief in something. Example: The company decided to abandon the outdated technology and invest in more advanced solutions.

46.   Scientifically exploring: Conducting systematic and rigorous investigations or studies to gain a deeper understanding of a phenomenon or topic. Example: Researchers are scientifically exploring the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems.

47.   Creative behavior: The manifestation of imaginative, original, or innovative ideas, actions, or expressions. Example: The artist's creative behavior led to the creation of a captivating sculpture.

48.   Provenance: The origin, source, or history of something. Example: The provenance of the ancient artifact was traced back to a temple in Egypt.

49.   Behavioral innovation: The development and adoption of new ideas, behaviors, or practices that lead to positive changes or advancements. Example: The company encourages behavioral innovation by fostering a culture of creativity and experimentation.

50.   True origins: The underlying or fundamental causes or sources of something. Example: Understanding the true origins of human language has been a topic of debate among linguists.







Test-3


Passage 1 The thylacine


1.       Extinct: No longer existing or living. Example: Dinosaurs are an extinct group of animals that lived millions of years ago.

2.       Marsupial: A type of mammal that carries its young in a pouch. Example: Kangaroos and koalas are well-known marsupials found in Australia.

3.       Superficial: On the surface, not deep or significant. Example: The two friends had a superficial conversation about the weather, but didn't discuss their personal lives.

4.       Resemblance: Similarity or likeness. Example: The actor bears a striking resemblance to his famous grandfather.

5.       Stripes: Long, narrow lines or bands of color. Example: Zebras have black and white stripes on their bodies.

6.       Prime habitat: Ideal or optimal living environment. Example: The dense forest with abundant food and shelter is the prime habitat for many bird species.

7.       Carnivorous: Eating meat as the main diet. Example: Lions are carnivorous animals that hunt and eat other animals.

8.       Stomach: Organ in the body where food is digested. Example: The pain in his stomach indicated that he had eaten something bad.

9.       Distend: To expand or stretch out. Example: The balloon started to distend as more air was blown into it.

10.   Scarce: Insufficient or not readily available. Example: During the drought, water became scarce in the region.

11.   Fast runner: A person or animal that can run quickly. Example: Cheetahs are known for being fast runners and can reach incredible speeds.

12.   Prey: Animals that are hunted and eaten by other animals. Example: Lions hunt and capture wildebeests as their prey.

13.   Scent: A smell or odor. Example: Dogs have a keen sense of scent and can track scents over long distances.

14.   Nocturnal: Active during the night. Example: Owls are nocturnal birds that hunt for prey under the cover of darkness.

15.   Temperament: A person or animal's nature or character. Example: She has a calm and friendly temperament.

16.   Breeding season: The period during which animals reproduce. Example: Birds often have a breeding season during the spring when they build nests and lay eggs.

17.   Marsupials: Animals that carry their young in a pouch. Example: Kangaroos, wallabies, and koalas are all marsupials found in Australia.

18.   Tiny: Very small in size. Example: The baby's hands were tiny and fit easily into his father's palm.

19.   Hairless: Without hair or fur. Example: Some dog breeds, like the Chinese Crested, have hairless bodies.

20.   Pouch: A small, bag-like structure on some animals where the young are carried. Example: Kangaroo joeys stay in their mother's pouch until they are fully developed.

21.   Teats: Nipples or mammary glands where milk is produced. Example: Piglets nurse from their mother's teats to get milk.

22.   Widespread: Existing or found over a large area. Example: The flu virus was widespread in the community, affecting people from different neighborhoods.

23.   Mainland: The main or larger landmass as opposed to islands. Example: Australia is a large country that consists of both the mainland and several surrounding islands.

24.   Predator: An animal that hunts and feeds on other animals. Example: Lions are fierce predators that hunt and kill their prey in coordinated attacks.

25.   Relentless: Persistent and unyielding. Example: The student's relentless efforts paid off when he finally achieved the top score in the class.

26.   Shotguns: Firearms that shoot a spray of small pellets or bullets. Example: Hunters use shotguns for bird hunting because the spread of pellets increases the chances of hitting the target.

27.   Campaign: A series of planned activities or efforts towards a specific goal. Example: The environmental organization launched a campaign to raise awareness about plastic pollution.

28.   Decline: A decrease or reduction in numbers, quality, or importance. Example: The population of endangered species is in decline due to habitat destruction and poaching.

29.   Extermination: Complete destruction or elimination. Example: The use of pesticides led to the extermination of many insect species in the area.

30.   Factors: Elements or circumstances that contribute to a particular result or outcome. Example: There are multiple factors that affect climate change, including greenhouse gas emissions and deforestation.

31.   Introduced: Brought in from another place or introduced to a new environment. Example: The government introduced new laws to regulate the use of plastic bags in order to reduce pollution.

32.   Habitat: Natural environment where an organism or species lives. Example: Coral reefs provide a habitat for a diverse range of marine species.

33.   Disappearance: Act of vanishing or ceasing to exist. Example: The sudden disappearance of the missing hiker puzzled search and rescue teams.

34.   Distemper-like disease: A disease that resembles or has similar symptoms to distemper. Example: The veterinarian suspected that the sick dog had a distemper-like disease due to the exhibited symptoms.

35.   Captivity: The state of being confined or held in captivity. Example: The zookeeper ensured that the animals in captivity received proper care and a suitable environment.

36.   Zoos: Facilities where live animals are kept for public display and conservation. Example: Families enjoy visiting zoos to see various animals from around the world.

37.   Notable: Worthy of attention or remarkable. Example: The scientist made a notable discovery that revolutionized the field of genetics.

38.   Scarcity: Insufficiency or shortage of something. Example: The scarcity of clean water in the region caused hardships for the local population.

39.   Expeditions: Organized journeys or trips, often for exploration or scientific purposes. Example: The team embarked on a research expedition to study marine life in the deep ocean.

40.   Definitive: Conclusive or final, providing a clear answer or solution. Example: The lab results provided definitive evidence of the presence of the virus.

41.   Declared: Officially announced or stated. Example: The government declared a state of emergency in response

41.   Declared: Officially announced or stated. Example: The government declared a state of emergency in response to the natural disaster.

42.   Expeditions: Organized journeys or trips, often for exploration or scientific purposes. Example: The team embarked on a research expedition to study marine life in the deep ocean.

43.   Definitive: Conclusive or final, providing a clear answer or solution. Example: The lab results provided definitive evidence of the presence of the virus.

44.   Scarcity: Insufficiency or shortage of something. Example: The scarcity of clean water in the region caused hardships for the local population.

45.   Concern: Worry, interest, or care about something. Example: There is growing concern about the impact of climate change on the planet.

46.   Edge of extinction: The point where a species is on the brink of dying out completely. Example: The conservation efforts saved the endangered species from the edge of extinction.

47.   Motion: A proposal or suggestion made for consideration. Example: The board members voted on the motion to increase funding for environmental conservation.

48.   Conservation: Protection, preservation, and careful management of natural resources and ecosystems. Example: National parks play a crucial role in the conservation of biodiversity.

49.   Captive specimens: Animals kept in captivity for study or display purposes. Example: The zoo had a collection of captive specimens from various endangered species.

50.   Expeditions: Organized journeys or trips, often for exploration or scientific purposes. Example: The team embarked on a research expedition to study marine life in the deep ocean.

51.   Searches: Efforts made to find or locate something. Example: The searches for the missing hiker continued for days until he was finally found.

52.   Definitive evidence: Clear and conclusive proof. Example: The DNA analysis provided definitive evidence linking the suspect to the crime scene.

53.   Extinct: No longer existing or living. Example: The dodo bird is an extinct species that used to inhabit the island of Mauritius.

54.   Carbon-dated: The process of determining the age of an object or material using the decay of carbon isotopes. Example: The ancient artifact was carbon-dated to be over a thousand years old.

55.   Predator: An animal that hunts and feeds on other animals. Example: Cheetahs are known for their speed and agility as predators.

56.   Basking: Resting or warming oneself in sunlight. Example: The lizard was basking on a rock, absorbing the heat from the sun.

57.   Public pressure: Influence or demands exerted by the public to bring about change or action. Example: The growing concern for the environment led to public pressure on the government to implement stricter environmental policies.

58.   Scientists: Researchers or experts in the field of science. Example: The team of scientists conducted experiments to study the effects of climate change.

59.   Scarcity: Insufficiency or shortage of something. Example: The scarcity of food during the drought led to an increase in prices.

60.   Vanishing: Disappearing or ceasing to exist. Example: The vanishing rainforests are a global concern due to the loss of biodiversity.


Passage -2 Palm oil




  1. Sterile monocultures: Refers to a single crop grown in a large area without much biodiversity. Example: Oil palm plantations are often described as sterile monocultures due to the lack of diverse plant and animal species.

  2. Keystone species: A species that has a disproportionately large impact on its environment. Example: The bird's nest fern is considered a keystone species as it plays a vital role in maintaining ecological balance.

  3. Reintroducing: Bringing back or restoring something that was previously present. Example: Scientists suggest reintroducing the bird's nest fern into oil palm plantations to promote biodiversity.

  4. Biodiversity: The variety of plant and animal species in a particular ecosystem. Example: The reintroduction of diverse species can help restore biodiversity in oil palm plantations.

  5. Fungi: Microorganisms that play a crucial role in decomposing organic matter. Example: The presence of fungi in oil palm plantations contributes to nutrient recycling.

  6. Bacteria: Microscopic organisms that have various roles in ecosystems, including nutrient cycling. Example: The reintroduction of the bird's nest fern may support the growth of beneficial bacteria in oil palm plantations.

  7. Invertebrates: Animals without a backbone, such as insects and worms. Example: The presence of the bird's nest fern can provide habitat for various invertebrates within oil palm plantations.

  8. Amphibians: Cold-blooded animals that typically live in both water and land, such as frogs and salamanders. Example: The reintroduction of diverse vegetation may benefit amphibian populations in oil palm plantations.

  9. Reptiles: Cold-blooded vertebrates, including snakes, lizards, and turtles. Example: The presence of suitable habitats can support the survival of various reptiles in oil palm plantations.

  10. Mammals: Warm-blooded animals that give birth to live young, including species like bats and monkeys. Example: The reintroduction of the bird's nest fern could provide shelter for diverse mammal species in oil palm plantations.

  1. Certified sustainable palm oil (CSPO): Palm oil that meets the sustainability standards set by the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO). Example: The RSPO certifies certain palm oil as certified sustainable palm oil (CSPO), indicating that it meets specific environmental and social criteria.

  2. Transparency: Openness and clarity in actions and decision-making processes. Example: The RSPO emphasizes the importance of transparency in palm oil production, ensuring that information is readily available to stakeholders.

  3. Carbon stocks: The amount of carbon stored in a particular area, such as forests or plantations. Example: Regular assessment of carbon stocks helps monitor the impact of palm oil production on carbon emissions and climate change.

  4. Green deserts: Refers to areas dominated by a single plant species, lacking biodiversity and ecological complexity. Example: Oil palm plantations are sometimes referred to as green deserts due to their limited diversity and ecological functions.

  5. Low-income people: Individuals or communities with limited financial resources. Example: Many low-income people in developing countries depend on palm oil for their livelihoods, which adds complexity to the palm oil debate.

  6. Utilitarian balance: Striking a balance between different factors based on the overall benefit or utility. Example: Finding a utilitarian balance involves considering the environmental, social, and economic impacts of palm oil production.

  7. Dependency: Relying on something or someone for support or sustenance. Example: The livelihoods of many farmers in palm oil-producing regions are dependent on the success of their oil palm plantations.

  8. Deforestation: The clearing of forests, often resulting in the loss of trees and biodiversity. Example: The expansion of oil palm plantations has been linked to widespread deforestation in countries like Malaysia and Indonesia.

  9. Habitat destruction: The loss or degradation of natural habitats, threatening the survival of species. Example: The habitat destruction caused by oil palm plantations has negatively impacted endangered species like orangutans and tigers.

  10. Environmentalists: Individuals who advocate for the protection and preservation of the environment. Example: Environmentalists raise concerns about the ecological impact of palm oil production and promote sustainable alternatives.

  1. Keystone species: A species that plays a crucial role in maintaining the balance and functioning of an ecosystem. Example: The bird's nest fern is considered a keystone species as it performs vital ecological functions in tropical regions.

  2. Biodiversity: The variety of life forms and species within a particular habitat or ecosystem. Example: Introducing the bird's nest fern into oil palm plantations can help restore biodiversity by providing a habitat for various species.

  3. Fungi: A group of organisms that includes mushrooms, molds, and yeasts, which play important roles in nutrient cycling and decomposition. Example: The reintroduction of the bird's nest fern can support the growth of fungi in oil palm plantations, contributing to ecosystem health.

  4. Invertebrates: Animals without a backbone, such as insects, spiders, and worms. Example: The presence of the bird's nest fern in oil palm plantations can attract a diverse range of invertebrates, contributing to ecosystem diversity.

  5. Amphibians: Cold-blooded vertebrates, including frogs, toads, and salamanders, that typically live both in water and on land. Example: The reintroduction of the bird's nest fern may create suitable habitats for various amphibians within oil palm plantations.

  6. Reptiles: Cold-blooded vertebrates, including snakes, lizards, and turtles, that are characterized by their scaly skin. Example: The presence of the bird's nest fern can provide shelter and resources for reptiles within oil palm plantations.

  7. Mammals: Warm-blooded vertebrates that give birth to live young and typically have hair or fur. Example: The reintroduction of the bird's nest fern may support the presence of small mammals in oil palm plantations.

  8. RSPO: Abbreviation for the Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil, a group that sets standards for sustainable palm oil production. Example: The RSPO plays a crucial role in promoting sustainable practices and certifying palm oil as environmentally responsible.

  9. Sustainability: The ability to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Example: The adoption of sustainable practices in palm oil production aims to ensure the long-term sustainability of the industry.

  10. Global supply chain: The network of interconnected processes and activities involved in the production and distribution of goods and services on a global scale. Example: Palm oil is an essential commodity in the global supply chain, being used in various industries and products worldwide.




Passage -3

Building the Skyline: The Birth and Growth of Manhattan’s Skyscrapers



1.       Geology: The study of the Earth's physical structure and substances it is made of. Example: The book combines geology, history, economics, and data to explain New York City's development.

2.       Urban development: The planning and construction of cities, including buildings, infrastructure, and amenities. Example: The book discusses different aspects of New York's urban development throughout history.

3.       Compilation: A collection of different parts or chapters brought together in one book. Example: The second part of the book is a compilation of chapters on New York's urban development in the 20th century.

4.       Subterranean: Relating to or located below the surface of the Earth. Example: The author takes the reader on a subterranean walking tour of New York City, exploring what lies beneath the ground.

5.       Legends: Traditional stories or myths that explain historical events or phenomena. Example: The author shares several legends about the city's history and landmarks.

6.       Grid system: A network of streets laid out in a pattern of intersecting lines. Example: Chapter two explores the early development of land and the implementation of a grid system in New York in 1811.

7.       Tenements: Apartment buildings, typically in urban areas, that are divided into small, cramped units. Example: Barr discusses the impact of existing tenements on the development of skyscrapers in certain neighborhoods.

8.       Enclaves: Small areas or neighborhoods occupied by a particular group of people. Example: Chapter four focuses on immigrant enclaves in late 19th-century New York City.

9.       Regression analysis: A statistical method used to analyze the relationship between variables. Example: Chapter six uses regression analysis to predict building construction based on historical data.

10.   Viability: The ability to work successfully or be effective. Example: Barr examines the viability of different explanations for the building boom of the 1920s.

11.   Empirical: Based on observation, evidence, or experience rather than theory or speculation. Example: Barr's research papers provide empirical evidence to support his arguments.

12.   Land values: The monetary worth or market price of land. Example: The final chapter estimates Manhattan land values throughout history.

13.   Distraction: Something that diverts attention or causes a loss of focus. Example: The lengthy discussions of urban economic theory may serve as a distraction to readers primarily interested in New York City.

14.   Exuberance: Excitement, enthusiasm, or a feeling of high spirits. Example: One of the primary explanations for the building boom of the 1920s was attributed to exuberance and optimism.

15.   Cheap credit: Access to loans or borrowing money at low interest rates. Example: The availability of cheap credit contributed to the development boom of the 1920s.

16.   Estimations: Calculations or judgments made based on available information or data. Example: The final chapter presents estimations of Manhattan land values over time.

17.   Epilogue: A section at the end of a book that provides concluding remarks or reflections. Example: The book ends with an epilogue discussing the impact of climate change on New York City.

18.   Policy suggestions: Recommendations or proposals for actions to be taken by policymakers. Example: In the epilogue, the author makes policy suggestions for addressing the impact of climate change on the city.

19.   Infrastructure: The basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise. Example: The book explores how infrastructure development influenced the growth of New York City.

20.   Amenities: Facilities or features that provide comfort, convenience, or enjoyment. Example: The author analyzes the location of immigrant neighborhoods in terms of the amenities available in the area.

21.   Market price: The current price at which a product or asset can be bought or sold. Example: The author discusses changes in land values as a predictor of future building height.

22.   Dangers: Risks or potential harm associated with a particular situation or activity. Example: The chapter on building foundations explores the dangers involved in constructing deep-level structures.

23.   Regression analysis: A statistical technique used to analyze the relationship between variables and make predictions based on observed data. Example: Chapter six of the book uses regression analysis to predict building construction based on historical data.

24.   Empirical research: Research based on direct observation or experience rather than theory or speculation. Example: The author references empirical research papers to support arguments and findings throughout the book.

25.   Viability: The ability to work or be successful; feasibility. Example: The author assesses the viability of different explanations for the building boom of the 1920s.

26.   Supply and demand: The economic principle that states the availability (supply) and desire (demand) for a product or service determine its price and quantity. Example: The author argues that supply and demand factors played a significant role in the development of the 1920s building boom.

27.   Empirical papers: Research papers based on empirical data and observations. Example: Chapter ten of the book discusses one of the author's empirical papers that estimates Manhattan land values.

28.   Land values: The assessed or perceived worth of land in terms of its potential use or development. Example: The author explores the relationship between land values and the construction of skyscrapers.

29.   Climate change: Long-term shifts in weather patterns and temperatures, often attributed to human activities. Example: In the epilogue, the author discusses the impact of climate change on New York City.

30.   Policy: A course of action or set of principles adopted or proposed by a government, organization, or individual. Example: The author makes policy suggestions for addressing the challenges posed by climate change in New York City.

31.   Compilation: The process of gathering and assembling various materials or information into a single collection. Example: The second part of the book is a compilation of chapters discussing different aspects of New York's urban development.

32.   Helicopter time-machine: A figurative term used to describe a detailed visualization or imaginative journey through time. Example: In the first chapter, the author takes the reader on a helicopter time-machine ride to imagine how New York looked in 1609.

33.   Subterranean: Referring to something underground or beneath the surface. Example: After the aerial perspective, the author takes the reader on a subterranean walk, exploring the rock and water beneath the city.

34.   Grid system: A network of intersecting horizontal and vertical lines that divide an area into square or rectangular sections. Example: Chapter two focuses on the early development of land and the implementation of a grid system in New York in 1811.

35.   Tenements: Overcrowded and often run-down apartment buildings, typically housing lower-income residents. Example: Chapter four discusses immigration and the location of tenements in late 19th-century New York.

36.   Skeletal frames: Structural frameworks made of iron and steel that support the weight of buildings. Example: The introduction of skeletal frames allowed for the construction of taller buildings with increased use of windows and natural light.

37.   Caissons: Watertight structures used in construction to excavate soil or rock below the water table. Example: The chapter on foundations explores the use of caissons to dig deep and reach bedrock during building construction.

38.   Urban economic theory: The study of economic factors and principles that influence urban development and growth. Example: Chapter eight contains discussions of urban economic theory that provide insights into New York's building boom.

39.   Empirical papers: Research papers based on systematic observation or experiment. Example: The author references empirical papers to support arguments and findings throughout the book.

40.   Epilogue: A concluding section that provides final thoughts, reflections, or future implications. Example: The book concludes with an epilogue where the author discusses the impact of climate change on New York City.

41.   Viability: The ability to be successful or effective. Example: In chapter nine, the author assesses the viability of different explanations for the building boom in the 1920s.

42.   Exuberance: Extreme excitement or enthusiasm. Example: One of the explanations considered for the building boom of the 1920s is the factor of exuberance among developers and investors.

43.   Cheap credit: Access to loans or financing at low interest rates or favorable terms. Example: While cheap credit played a role in enabling the building boom, the author argues that it was not the primary cause.

44.   Empirical research: Research based on direct observation or experience rather than theory or speculation. Example: The author references empirical research papers to support his analysis and findings throughout the book.

45.   Estimations: Approximations or calculations of something based on available data or information. Example: In the final chapter, the author presents his estimations of Manhattan land values over time.

46.   Policy suggestions: Recommendations for actions or measures that should be taken to address a particular issue or achieve certain goals. Example: The author offers policy suggestions for dealing with the impact of climate change on New York City.

47.   Figurative term: A word or phrase used in a non-literal sense to create a specific effect or convey a particular meaning. Example: The author uses the term "helicopter time-machine" as a figurative term to describe the imaginative journey through time.

48.   Amenities: Convenient or desirable features or services available in a particular area. Example: In chapter four, the author analyzes the locations of immigrant enclaves based on the amenities present in those areas.

49.   Regression analysis: Statistical method used to examine the relationship between variables and make predictions based on patterns observed in the data. Example: Chapter six utilizes regression analysis to study building height trends and make predictions about future construction.

50.   Dangers: Risks or hazards associated with a particular activity or situation. Example: The chapter discussing foundation construction explores the dangers involved in using caissons and working below the water table.




Test-4

Passage -1 Bats To The Rescue




1.       Conversion: Changing something from one form or use to another. Example: The forests in Madagascar are being converted into agricultural land.

2.       Staple crop: A primary or essential crop that is commonly grown and consumed. Example: Rice is the staple crop in Madagascar.

3.       Subsistence farmers: Farmers who grow crops mainly to meet their own needs and support their families. Example: Many local farmers in Madagascar are subsistence farmers who rely on their crops for food and survival.

4.       Deforestation: The clearing or removal of forests. Example: The clearing of forests for agriculture leads to deforestation.

5.       Habitat: The natural environment where an organism or species lives. Example: The destruction of forests in Madagascar has a devastating impact on habitat for various species.

6.       Biodiversity: The variety and abundance of different species in an ecosystem. Example: The loss of forests in Madagascar results in a decline in biodiversity.

7.       Insectivorous: Describing organisms that feed on insects. Example: Bats are insectivorous creatures that primarily eat insects.

8.       Pest control service: The act of managing or reducing populations of harmful pests. Example: Bats provide a valuable pest control service by eating insects that damage crops.

9.       Indigenous: Native to a particular region or country. Example: Several species of indigenous bats in Madagascar contribute to pest control.

10.   Habitat modification: Altering or changing the natural environment. Example: The bats take advantage of habitat modification near rice fields to hunt insects.

11.   Echolocation: A process used by bats to navigate and locate prey by emitting and receiving sound waves. Example: Bats use echolocation to find and target their insect prey.

12.   DNA barcoding: A technique used to identify and analyze DNA samples for species identification. Example: The researchers used DNA barcoding to determine the bat species' feeding habits.

13.   Man-made ecosystems: Environments created or modified by human activity. Example: Rice fields are examples of man-made ecosystems in Madagascar.

14.   Susceptible: Vulnerable or easily affected by something. Example: Rice crops are more susceptible to insect pests in fields with limited water and nutrients.

15.   Infestations: The presence and multiplication of pests or parasites. Example: Insect infestations can cause significant damage to crops.

16.   Effectiveness: The degree to which something is successful in producing the desired result. Example: Bats have proven their effectiveness as pest controllers in other regions.

17.   Malaria: A disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Example: Bats in Madagascar also feed on mosquitoes, which are carriers of malaria.

18.   Promote: Support or encourage the growth or development of something. Example: Farmers can promote the presence of bats by installing bat houses.

19.   Regeneration: The process of renewal or regrowth. Example: By helping bat populations, we can contribute to the regeneration of ecosystems.


Passage -2

1.       Ecosystems: A community of living organisms and their physical environment interacting together. Example: The bats play a role in maintaining the balance of the local ecosystems.

2.       Ultrasonic: Sound waves or vibrations that are too high-pitched for humans to hear. Example: The researchers used ultrasonic recorders to capture the bats' feeding sounds.

3.       Biodiversity: The variety of plant and animal species in a particular habitat or ecosystem. Example: Conserving forests is crucial for preserving biodiversity.

4.       Pest suppressors: Organisms that help control or reduce the population of pests. Example: Bats serve as natural pest suppressors by feeding on insects that harm crops.

5.       Contribution: The act of giving or providing something. Example: The study aims to quantify the contribution of bats to crop yield and sustainability.

6.       Roosting: Resting or settling in a sheltered place, typically for birds or bats. Example: Bats often roost in trees or buildings during the day.

7.       Long-term effects: Effects or consequences that occur over an extended period. Example: Deforestation can have long-term effects on the habitats and populations of bats.

8.       Sustainable livelihoods: Ways of living that can be maintained over the long term without depleting resources. Example: Promoting bat populations can contribute to sustainable livelihoods for farmers.

9.       Regeneration: The process of renewal or regrowth. Example: Restoring habitats can support the regeneration of bat populations.

10.   Mutually beneficial relationship: A relationship where both parties benefit from each other. Example: The presence of bats provides a mutually beneficial relationship for farmers and conservationists.

11.   Sacred caves: Caves that are considered holy or spiritually significant. Example: Bats are associated with sacred caves and hold cultural significance.

12.   Stakes: The importance or significance of something. Example: In Madagascar, the stakes are high for both farmers and conservationists.

13.   Maximizing: Making the most of or optimizing something. Example: Maximizing bat populations can help improve crop yields.

14.   Quantify: To measure or determine the quantity or extent of something. Example: Further research is needed to quantify the impact of bats on crop productivity.

15.   Regeneration: The process of renewal or regrowth. Example: With proper support, ecosystems have the potential for regeneration.


Passage-3


1.       Deforestation: The process of cutting down or removing trees from a forested area. Example: The rapid deforestation in Madagascar is causing habitat loss for many species.

2.       Echolocation: The ability of certain animals, like bats, to navigate and locate objects by emitting sound waves and listening to their echoes. Example: Bats use echolocation to locate and capture their insect prey.

3.       DNA barcoding: A technique used to identify and classify organisms based on their unique DNA sequences. Example: The scientists used DNA barcoding to analyze the droppings of bats and identify their diet.

4.       Infestations: The presence or invasion of a large number of pests or organisms that cause harm. Example: The rice fields were plagued by infestations of insects that damaged the crops.

5.       Conservationists: People who advocate for the protection and preservation of the environment and its natural resources. Example: The conservationists are working to save the endangered bat species in Madagascar.

6.       Run-off: The flow of water or other liquids over the surface of the land, typically after rainfall. Example: The absence of proper drainage led to excessive run-off in the rice fields.

7.       Protein: A vital nutrient that is necessary for the growth and repair of cells in the body. Example: Bats are a valuable source of protein for local communities during times of scarcity.

8.       Malaria: A serious infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes, causing high fever and often leading to severe illness or death. Example: Bats help control mosquito populations, reducing the risk of malaria transmission.

9.       Roost: A place where birds or bats rest or settle, typically in trees or caves. Example: The bats return to their roost in the cave at sunrise after a night of feeding.

10.   Droppings: Excrement or waste material expelled by animals. Example: The scientists collected bat droppings to study their diet and feeding patterns.

11.   Habitat modification: Changes made to the natural environment, often due to human activities. Example: The bats adapt to habitat modification by foraging in rice fields instead of forests.

12.   Man-made ecosystems: Environments or habitats created by human activities. Example: Rice fields are examples of man-made ecosystems that provide food and shelter for bats.

13.   Stakeholders: Individuals or groups who have an interest or concern in a particular issue or project. Example: The meeting brought together various stakeholders to discuss conservation strategies.

14.   Financial pressure: Stress or burden caused by economic challenges or financial constraints. Example: Bats' pest control services can alleviate the financial pressure on rice farmers.

15.   Promote: To encourage or support the growth, development, or success of something. Example: Farmers can promote bat populations by providing suitable roosting habitats.




Passage -4 Timur Gareyev – Blindfold Chess Champion




1.       Prowess: Exceptional skill or ability. Example: Timur Gareyev's chess prowess is admired by many.

2.       Rarefied: Exclusive or elite. Example: Timur Gareyev stands out in the rarefied world of blindfold chess.

3.       Marathon: A long and demanding event or activity. Example: Gareyev played 33 games in his head during a 10-hour chess marathon.

4.       Grandmaster: The highest title awarded in chess. Example: Timur Gareyev became Asia's youngest ever grandmaster at the age of 16.

5.       Uninitiated: People who are not familiar with or knowledgeable about something. Example: To the uninitiated, blindfold chess may seem superhuman.

6.       Simultaneous: Happening or done at the same time. Example: Gareyev played multiple games simultaneously in his mind.

7.       Feats: Impressive achievements or accomplishments. Example: Researchers are interested in understanding how Gareyev and others can perform such mental feats.

8.       Memory lab: A research facility studying memory and cognition. Example: Jesse Rissman runs a memory lab at UCLA.

9.       Obsessed: Having a strong and persistent interest or fascination. Example: Gareyev became obsessed with chess and participated in numerous competitions.

10.   Superhuman: Having abilities or qualities beyond what is considered normal for humans. Example: Blindfold chess may require superhuman skills.

11.   Retrieved: Recalled or brought back. Example: Gareyev must retrieve the positions of chess pieces from his memory during blindfold chess.

12.   Patchy: Incomplete or inconsistent. Example: When tired, Gareyev's recall of chess positions can be patchy.

13.   Supremely gifted: Exceptionally talented or skilled. Example: Gareyev is supremely gifted in playing chess blindfolded.

14.   Scans: Medical images produced by scanning the brain. Example: Brain scans were conducted to study Gareyev's brain activity.

15.   Tentative: Not yet final or conclusive; uncertain. Example: The results of the brain scans are tentative and require further analysis.

16.   Allocate: Distribute or assign. Example: The frontoparietal control network helps to allocate attention during complex tasks.

17.   Obsession: A strong and consuming interest or passion. Example: Blindfold chess has become Gareyev's obsession.

18.   Claim: Assert or demand as one's right. Example: Gareyev hopes to claim the world record title for playing blindfold chess.

19.   Percentage: A proportion or part of a whole expressed in relation to 100. Example: Gareyev aims to win 80% of the blindfold games.

20.   Dedicate: Devote or commit oneself to something. Example: Blindfold chess is the one thing Gareyev can fully dedicate himself to.

1.       Challengers: People who compete against someone else in a contest or competition. Example: Timur Gareyev will take on nearly 50 challengers in blindfold chess.

2.       Memory tests: Assessments or evaluations that measure a person's ability to remember information. Example: Gareyev underwent memory tests to assess his memory abilities.

3.       Communication: The exchange or sharing of information between different parts or areas. Example: The brain scans revealed greater communication between various regions of Gareyev's brain.

4.       Frontoparietal control network: A group of brain regions involved in attention, rule-keeping, and decision-making. Example: The frontoparietal control network helps Gareyev allocate attention and keep rules in mind during chess.

5.       Visual images: Mental representations or pictures of things that can be seen. Example: Gareyev's brain scans suggest that the areas processing visual images may be highly connected to other brain regions.

6.       Powerful: Having a strong or significant impact or influence. Example: Gareyev's visual network may be more powerful than usual, according to the brain scans.

7.       Crowned: Given a title or honor, usually after achieving a notable accomplishment. Example: At 16 years old, Gareyev was crowned Asia's youngest chess grandmaster.

8.       Unpublished: Not yet made available or released to the public. Example: The results of the brain scans are unpublished and still being analyzed.

9.       Exhaustion: Extreme tiredness or fatigue. Example: Towards the end of the blindfold chess games, Gareyev experiences exhaustion.

10.   Analyses: The examination and study of something in detail. Example: The analyses of the brain scans may provide valuable insights into Gareyev's abilities.

1.       Rarefied: Limited to a select group, specialized, or elevated in nature. Example: Timur Gareyev stands out in the rarefied world of blindfold chess due to his exceptional skills.

2.       Feats: Impressive or remarkable achievements or actions. Example: Gareyev's ability to play multiple chess games blindfolded is considered a remarkable feat.

3.       Tutored: Taught or guided by a tutor or mentor. Example: Gareyev was tutored by his grandfather in playing chess when he was six years old.

4.       Obsessed: Having an intense or overwhelming interest in something. Example: Gareyev became obsessed with chess competitions and devoted himself to the game.

5.       Grandmaster: The highest title awarded in chess, indicating exceptional skill and expertise. Example: At the age of 16, Gareyev became Asia's youngest ever chess grandmaster.

6.       Simultaneously: Happening or done at the same time. Example: Gareyev played 33 chess games simultaneously in his head during a 10-hour chess marathon.

7.       Supremely: To an exceptional or highest degree. Example: Apart from playing chess, Gareyev does not show exceptional abilities in other areas, according to the tests.

8.       Allocating: Distributing or assigning resources, attention, or time. Example: The frontoparietal control network helps Gareyev in allocating his attention and keeping rules in mind.

9.       Patchy: Inconsistent or uneven, with gaps or inconsistencies. Example: When Gareyev is tired, his recall of chess moves can become patchy or incomplete.

10.   Obsession: A strong and compulsive interest or preoccupation with something. Example: Gareyev finds his obsession with blindfold chess to be the most important aspect of his life.

1.       Memory lab: A research facility where studies and experiments related to memory are conducted. Example: Jesse Rissman runs a memory lab at UCLA, where they study and analyze memory-related abilities.

2.       Tentative: Not definite or final; subject to change or further confirmation. Example: The results of the brain scans are still tentative and need further analysis before drawing conclusions.

3.       Frontoparietal control network: A network of brain regions involved in allocating attention, maintaining rules, and decision-making. Example: Gareyev's brain scans showed greater connectivity within the frontoparietal control network, which is essential for complex tasks.

4.       Visual network: The interconnected brain regions responsible for processing visual information. Example: The scans suggest that Gareyev's visual network may have stronger connections to other brain regions, potentially enhancing his visual processing abilities.

5.       Finalized: Completed, finished, or brought to a final stage. Example: The analyses of the brain scans are not finalized yet, but they provide initial insights into Gareyev's exceptional ability.

6.       Winning percentage: The ratio of wins to total games played, used to measure success in competitions. Example: Gareyev doesn't worry too much about his winning percentage during blindfold chess; his focus is on enjoying the game and having a dedicated pursuit.

7.       Dedicate: To devote time, effort, or oneself to a particular activity or purpose. Example: Gareyev finds fulfillment in blindfold chess because it is the one thing he can fully dedicate himself to.


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