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Academic Vocabulary


A

abandon: 1. a lack of control or restraint 2. loss of inhibitions 3. exuberance 4. surrender to one's natural impulses

abandonment: 1. leaving someone, such as a child or a spouse, voluntarily 2. the act of giving something up 3. the act of letting something or someone go

abate: reduce in amount, degree, or intensity; lessen

abbreviate: make (a word, phrase, or text) shorter

abbreviation: 1. a shortened form of a name, phrase or word 2. the act of shortening something

aberrant: different from the right, normal, usual course, expected course or an accepted standard

aberration: a departure from what is right, true, correct, etc., typically an unwelcome one

abeyance: 1. a temporary stoppage or delay of activity 2. suspension

abhor: regard with extreme dislike and hatred

abide: 1. to accept 2. to put up with; to tolerate 3. to conform

ability: 1. the capacity to do something 2. a skill or talent in a specific area

abjure: 1. to officially renounce 2. to formally and publicly announce that one no longer believes in something

abnormal: 1. strange 2. not usual or typical 3. not what is considered to be normal

aboard: 1. on a boat or any sort of vehicle, such as a train or plane 2. into a group; as a participant

abolish: 1. to get rid of in an official way 2. to put an end to 3. to completely destroy

abolition: 1. the act of getting rid of something 2. the act of stopping or cancelling something

abortion: 1. the medical termination of a pregnancy 2. the failure or premature abandonment of a plan or an undertaking

abortive: 1. failed 2. unfinished and therefore unsuccessful 3. imperfect

abridge: 1. to make something shorter while keeping the same meaning 2. to condense 3. to reduce

abrogate: 1. to officially put an end to something, especially a law or another type of formal agreement

abrupt: 1. brusque or curt in behavior or speech 2. unexpected or sudden, most often in an unpleasant or shocking way 3. steep

absence: 1. the state or condition of someone or something not being present or not existing 2. a failure to appear

absent: 1. not present in a certain time or location 2. non-existent 3. missing

absolute: 1. complete, definite or perfect 2. not limited in any way 3. unadulterated

absolutely: 1. completely 2. definitely 3. without exception

absorb: 1. to incorporate something 2. to soak up or suck up something 3. to gradually take something in

absorption: 1. the act or process of taking in or absorbing any substance 2. the state of being mentally engrossed in something; total concentration

abstain: deliberately choose not to do or have something that is enjoyable but that may not be healthy, safe, or morally right 2. refrain from voting

abstract: 1. not concrete; not related to a physical object or real event 2. expressing or showing feelings instead of real objects or people 3. difficult to understand because of its complexity 4. theoretical

absurd: 1. silly or ridiculous, especially in a laughable way 2. illogical or totally untrue 3. difficult or impossible to believe

absurdity: 1. the state or quality of being totally ridiculous or absurd 2. nonsense

abundance: 1. an extremely large quantity of something 2. a quantity that is considered to be more than enough

abundant: 1. great in number 2. available in a large number 3. more than enough; plenty

abuse: 1. misuse of something 2. unfair or hurtful treatment of a person or an animal 3. improper use

academic: 1. related to school or scholarly subjects 2. theoretical; not practical 3. scholarly; good at studying

academy: 1. a professional organization that is created to regulate or spur interest and development in a specific field 2. a school that provides special training in a particular field

accede: 1. to formally take on official duties 2. to agree; to give consent 3. to do what someone else says

accelerate: 1. to speed up 2. to go faster 3. to make something happen or to happen at a quicker rate than normal

acceleration: 1. an increase in speed or rate 2. the ability of something to go faster

access: 1. a way of entering or exiting a place 2. the right or permission to use, approach, or enter something or somewhere 3. the act of approaching

accessible: 1. obtainable 2. easy to enter, speak with, or approach 3. easily influenced

accessory: 1. an object that is added to another in order to make it more useful or attractive 2. a person that helps another person commit a crime, but who does not actually take part in the crime

accident: 1. an unforeseen event that causes harm, damage, injury or even death 2. a sudden and unplanned event

accidental: 1. unexpected 2. not predicted 3. happening by chance

accidentally: 1. by chance 2. unexpectedly 3. by mistake

accommodate: 1. to do a favor or oblige someone 2. to supply 3. to provide space for people to stay or to be 4. to adapt or to make suitable

accommodation: 1. lodgings used for travelers 2. a place to stay or live

accompaniment: 1. something that accompanies something or someone else 2. music that accompanies a singer or the main tune

accompany: 1. to go along with 2. to be associated with 3. to go somewhere with someone


accomplish: 1. to carry something out; to finish something 2. to be successful in doing something 3. to complete or fulfill

accomplishment: 1. fulfillment, success or achievement 2. something that was done successfully

accord: concurrence of opinions or wills

account: 1. an explanation or description of a specific event or situation 2. a narrative 3. the reasons behind a specific event or action

accountant: 1. a person who keeps and prepares financial reports for businesses and individuals

accounting: 1. the practice or process of recording and keeping financial records of individuals or corporations

accrue: 1. to accumulate over a long period of time 2. to increase 3. to grow in a slow way

accumulate: 1. to collect or gather 2. to amass 3. to increase in quantity or amount

accumulation: 1. the act of growing or increasing in amount over an extended period of time 2. agglomeration

accurate: 1. meticulous or giving careful consideration to the details 2. exact 3. free from errors and mistakes

achieve: 1. to accomplish 2. to reach something through hard work 3. to succeed

acknowledge: 1. to recognize or admit that something is true 2. to tell someone you have received something 3. to thank someone for something they have done 4. to show someone that you have recognized them by making a gesture

acquiesce: 1. to agree to something reticently but without protesting

acquire: 1. to obtain 2. to purchase 3. to develop or learn a habit or skill 4. to pinpoint and hold a target or something else through the use of radar or another tracking device

acquisition: 1. the act of getting something or gaining possession of a skill or a good 2. something that one gets or gains possession of

acrid: 1. a strong, bitter or stinging smell which often creates an unpleasant smell in one's throat 2. a bitter or sharp taste

acrimony: sharpness, harshness, or bitterness of nature, temper, manner, or speech

acuity: 1. acuteness or sharpness, especially of thought, vision or perception

acumen: the ability to think clearly, make good judgments and take quick decision in a particular subject, such as business or politics

adamant: 1. refusing to be persuaded, or unwilling to change an opinion or decision in spite of pleas, appeals, or reason; stubbornly unyielding 2. too hard to cut, break, or pierce

adapt: 1. to make changes in order to fit a specific situation or purpose 2. to modify 3. to alter something

adaptation: 1. the act of modifying something so that it better fits one's needs 2. change; adjustment

adept: highly skilled or proficient at doing something; expert

adequate: 1. sufficient to fit the requirements or needs 2. good enough, but not excessively good 3. satisfactory

adjacent: 1. near 2. close to 3. neighboring 4. touching

adjust: 1. to make changes to 2. to settle or adapt to a situation

adjustment: 1. a change or modification that makes something more suitable or accurate for the person or situation 2. an adaptation

administrate: 1. to direct or manage 2. to control 3. to distribute or give out

administration: 1. a person or group that governs or manages a particular organization 2. the act of controlling a particular organization, group or plan

adroit: very clever or skillful in a physical or mental way

adult: 1. a person or animal that is fully developed or fully grown 2. a mature person or animal

adversity: a difficult, unlucky, or unpleasant situation, condition, or event; misfortune; tragedy

advocate: 1. publicly speak, write, plead, recommend, support or argue for a cause, particular policy or way of doing things 2. a person who publicly speaks, writes, pleads, recommends, supports or argues for a cause, particular policy or way of doing things

aesthetic: 1. relating to beauty or the study or appreciation of beauty or good taste 2. nice to look at

affect: 1. to impact someone emotionally or mentally 2. to produce a change in

affected: 1. behaving in an artificial way to impress people 2. emotionally stirred or moved 3. impaired, harmed, or attacked, as by climate or disease 4. artificial and not sincere

aggregate: 1. to collect or bring together 2. to add amounts together

aid: 1. help; assistance 2. a person who helps someone or something 3. a helpful device

alacrity: a cheerful readiness, promptness, or willingness to do something

albeit: 1. although 2. even if 3. notwithstanding

allay: 1. to calm or to lessen negative feelings or pain 2. to pacify 3. to alleviate or relieve

alleviate: 1. to make something more bearable or relieve problems or pain 2. to make something less severe or easier

allocate: divide and give out (something) for a particular purpose

alter: 1. to change or modify 2. to make something different 3. to castrate or spay an animal

alternative: 1. not traditional or usual 2. being a choice; offering a choice 3. existing outside traditional society

altruistic: unselfishly concerned for or devoted to the welfare of others

amalgamate: mix, merge, combine or unite to form one thing

ambiguity: 1. the state of being unclear, inexact and open to more than one possible interpretation 2. doubtfulness

ambiguous: 1. not expressed or understood clearly 2. open to or having several possible meanings or interpretations

amend: 1. to make changes to 2. to improve 3. to alter 4. to remove errors from


amendment: 1. a change that is made to something, such as a law, an agreement or any other document 2. a minor change or addition to something

amiable: pleasant and friendly; good-natured and likable

amicable: characterized by or exhibiting friendliness or goodwill, often despite a difficult situation

amorphous: 1. without a defined shape or form 2. unorganized 3. missing a clear structure

analogous: 1. similar to 2. alike or related in a way that allows analogies to be drawn

analogy: 1. a comparison designed to show that two or more things are similar 2. partial resemblance 3. comparability

analyse: 1. to examine something critically 2. to separate something into its parts in order to examine it or better understand it 3. to psychoanalyze

analysis: 1. the study or examination of something in an attempt to define it or understand it 2. investigation 3. the act of breaking a subject down into parts to study it

anarchy: 1. a lack of government or social control of any sort 2. lawlessness and confusion due to an absence of control or structure

anathema: 1. a malediction or a curse 2. something or someone that is considered to be cursed 3. someone or something that is greatly disliked

anecdote: a short, often funny story, especially about something some happening, usually personal or biographical

animosity: 1. clear negativity or hatred of someone or something 2. strong opposition 3. open hostility

annex: 1. to take control or possession over a piece of land without permission and often by the use of force 2. to add or attach 3.

annual: 1. occurring each year 2. payable on a yearly basis or calculated over a year 3. yearly

anonymous: 1. with no name known or acknowledged 2. made or done by someone unknown 3. having no unusual or interesting features

antagonism: 1. unfriendliness or opposition 2. a strong feeling of dislike or hatred towards someone

antagonist: a person who opposes to, struggles against, or competes with someone or something, especially in combat; adversary; opponent

anthology: 1. a book that contains many different selections, often from various authors 2. a collection of music or different works of art

anthropology: the study of human races, origins, societies, beliefs, cultures, and its physical development

anticipate: 1. to predict or foresee 2. to look forward to something 3. to prepare for something or deal with something before it happens

apparent: 1. clear and able to be seen 2. obvious; evident 3. easily understood

appease: 1. to calm a situation 2. to pacify a situation by giving one's enemies what they demand 3. to soothe

append: 1. to attach something; to affix 2. to add something to a written work such as a letter or a book

appendix: 1. additional material that is found at the end of a book, an essay or another written piece 2. added information

appreciate: 1. to become more valuable or increase in worth 2. to be grateful or thankful for 3. to understand the true meaning of a situation

appreciation: 1. an increase in value 2. the act of recognizing something's quality, worth, validity, merit, etc. 3. an expression of thanks or gratitude 4. judgment

approach: to move nearer

appropriate: 1. to take possession or control of something 2. to steal 3. to set aside or to devote to a specific purpose

approximate: 1. to come close to something 2. to be similar to something 3. to get near

apt: 1. exactly suitable; appropriate 2. likely to do something; having a tendency to do something 3. quick to learn or understand

arbitrary: 1. determined in a random way 2. based on preference rather than logic

arbitrate: officially try to settle a disagreement between opposing or contending parties or sides after hearing the opinions and ideas of both

arcane: known or understood by only a few; secret or mysterious

archaic: 1. antiquated 2. belonging to a time in the past 3. old-fashioned

archives: 1. a group of documents with some sort of historical or informational value 2. the place where these documents are kept

area: 1. a geographical region 2. part of a surface or space 3. a subject or field of study

arid: 1. very dry, especially having insufficient rainfall to support trees or plants 2. lacking in interest, excitement, or meaning

articulate: 1. capable of expressing oneself in a clear and coherent manner 2. clear and well formulated language

aspect: 1. a part or quality of something 2. one part of a situation 3. exposure; the way in which a structure is facing

aspire: long, aim, or seek ambitiously to have or achieve something, especially in your career; desire strongly

assail: physically attack or severely criticize (someone or something) in a violent or angry way

assemble: 1. to put something together by joining its parts 2. to bring people together into one single group

assembly: 1. a gathering of people that takes place because the people share a common goal or interest; a meeting 2. a gathering of teachers and students where information is shared

assess: 1. to estimate or determine the value of something; to appraise 2. to evaluate

assessment: 1. the act of evaluating and judging something 2. one's judgments or observations about a particular subject

assiduous: showing hard work, great care, and attention to detail; diligent

assign: 1. to give or allocate 2. to appoint 3. to designate 4. to attribute

assist: 1. to support or help; to aid

assistance: 1. help or support 2. the act of helping or supporting someone

assume: 1. to believe that something is true without proof 2. to take on a role or responsibility 3. to adopt an idea


assurance: 1. a feeling of confidence in oneself or something else 2. a promise designed to give confidence

assure: 1. to assure someone that something is true, in hopes of getting rid of doubts 2. to confidently promise; to pledge 3. to guarantee 4. to make secure or safe

astute: 1. crafty 2. possessing the ability to correctly judge situations and use one's observations to take advantage of the situation 3. shrewd

asylum: 1. protection, safety, or the right to stay, especially that given by a government to people who has escaped from war or political trouble in their own country 2. an institution for the care of the mentally ill, or of the aged, the poor, etc.

attach: 1. to fasten or join two or more objects 2. to include 3. to add a file to an e-mail

attached: 1. joined or fastened together somehow 2. connected 3. feeling love or attraction for someone

attain: 1. to succeed at something 2. to achieve 3. to reach or arrive at

attitude: 1. a feeling or an opinion; a mental position 2. physical posture 3. a way of acting, thinking or feeling

attribute: 1. a trait or quality 2. a characteristic

augment: 1. to increase something in size, quantity or value 2. to enlarge 3. to enhance

August: impressive; majestic; inspiring awe or admiration

author: 1. the creator of something 2. the person who writes a document 3. the person responsible for an action

authority: 1. power; the ability and right to control 2. the person or group that is in charge of a person, group or region 3. an expert on a specific subject 4. jurisdiction 5. official permission

automate: 1. to mechanize a process, replacing people with machines 2. to operate by automation

available: 1. free and ready to be used; not busy 2. accessible 3. at someone's disposal

avarice: extreme greed to get or keep money or possessions; cupidity

aver: 1. say (something) in a very strong and determined way 2. declare in a positive or confident manner

aware: 1. cognizant; knowing 2. informed about something 3. conscious of something

B

bard: 1. a poet 2. a poet that composes or recites lyric poetry

barrage: 1. a concentrated artillery bombardment to protect one's own advancing or retreating or to stop the advance of enemy troops 2. an artificial barrier across a river or estuary to increase the depth of the water, prevent flooding, facilitate irrigation, etc

befuddle: 1. to completely confuse someone 2. to perplex

behalf: 1. in the interest of 2. on part of 3. supporting 4. representing

beleaguer: 1. to harass or create trouble for 2. to besiege or surround a place, person or group with troops

belittle: 1. to disparage or put down 2. to consider something to be less important or make it seem less important 3. to scorn or disparage

belligerent: inclined or eager to fight or argue; hostile and aggressive

benefit: 1. an advantage 2. a gift or payment from an employer to an employee 3. a payment from an insurance company or social welfare program 4. something intended to help 5. an event designed to raise money for someone or for a cause

benevolent: kind, generous, and helpful; charitable

benign: 1. not harmful 2. displaying kindness or gentleness 3. beneficial

bias: supporting or opposing a particular person or thing in an unfair way, especially in a way considered to be unfair

bigot: 1. a person who is intolerant of views other than his or her own 2. a person with a closed-mind

blatant: 1. obvious, easily detectable, or blunt 2. noisy in a vulgar way 3. obtrusive

bond: 1. the link or connection between people or things 2. a written promise 3. a force that unites or pushes people together 4. a certificate of debt issued by a government or company, promising to pay borrowed money back over a specified period of time

bourgeois: 1. middle class and acting in a way that is consistent with what is expected of the middle class 2. materialistic 3. typical, conventional

brazen: 1. bold and shameless 2. having a loud, usually harsh, resonant sound

breach: 1. an act of breaking or failing to follow a law, rule, trust, faith, promise, agreement, or code of conduct 2. a hole, opening or space in a wall, fence, barrier, or line of defense, especially during a military attack

brief: 1. concise 2. short in duration 3. curt 4. scanty

brusque: a very direct, brief, and unfriendly way in speech or manner

buffet: 1. a table that has food on it, from which diners are expected to choose their own food 2. a meal when diners are expected to choose their own food from a variety of selections 3. a blow or a strike, usually from a hand

bulk: 1. the size or mass of something 2. the largest portion or part of something 3. great in quantity

bulwark: 1. something or someone which protects one from negative, dangerous or unpleasant things or gives support and encouragement in bad situations 2. a wall built for defense

buoyant: 1. able to float 2. cheerful and optimistic

bureaucracy: 1. a large government or administration that is divided into various departments, in which the officials must follow a set of inflexible rules 2. a complicated management system which requires compliance with an annoying set of rules or regulations

burgeon: 1. grow, increase, expand or develop quickly 2. begin to grow or blossom (as buds or branches)

C

cajole: persuade by flattery or promises; wheedle; coax

callous: unkind, cruel, and without sympathy or feeling about the problems or suffering of other people

candid: 1. direct or honest, even in situations when the truth is considered to be uncomfortable or unpleasant; frank; straightforward 2. impartial or unbiased 3. unrehearsed or informal

candor: 1. the quality or state of being honest or frank, especially when the truth is painful or difficult 2. fairness; impartiality

capable: 1. able to do something 2. quite good at a certain task; skilled

capacity: 1. the ability to do something 2. the maximum number of things that a place or object can hold

capricious: suddenly and unexpectedly changing mood or behavior without any good reason; impulsive and unpredictable


catalyst: 1. (Chemistry) a substance that increases the rate of a chemical reaction 2. somebody, something or an event that quickly causes change or action

category: 1. a group of things organized due to the fact that they share a common trait 2. a group or class 3. a division

caustic: 1. capable of burning, corroding, destroying, or eating away by chemical action 2. severely critical or sarcastic, often in a funny or clever way

cease: 1. to stop doing something; to quit 2. to discontinue 3. to come to an end

censure: strong criticism or disapproval of (someone or something), especially in a formal statement

chagrin: a feeling of being very annoyed, disappointed, or embarrassed because of failure, disappointment, or humiliation

challenge: 1. to question or express objection to 2. to test someone 3. to invite someone to take part in a debate or competition; to dare

channel: 1. a route through which water flows or can flow 2. a television or radio station 3. a course of direction through which actions or ideas pass

chapter: 1. a section of a book or a written work 2. a branch of a society or group 3. a stage in a person's life

chart: 1. a drawing or illustration which displays information in an easy to understand way; a graph 2. a detailed map used for navigation of the sea or air

chide: 1. express mild disapproval of (someone) 2. scold mildly so as to correct or improve; reprimand

circumscribe: 1. draw a line around; encircle 2. restrict something such as power, rights, or opportunities within limits

circumspect: 1. prudent or careful about taking risks 2. cautious and wary about the outcome of an action

circumstance: 1. the conditions surrounding an event 2. a factor which influences something

circumvent: 1. surround or circle around (an enemy, for example); enclose or entrap 2. avoid (defeat, failure, unpleasantness, etc.), especially cleverly or illegally 3. go around or bypass

cite: 1. to use information or exact words from another source; to quote 2. to use as an example

civil: 1. not related to the church or military, but rather the ordinary people of a country 2. secular 3. polite or courteous

clandestine: kept or done secretly and often illegal

clarify: 1. to make something clearer or easier to understand 2. to remove ambiguity

clarity: 1. clearness of expression or thought 2. the ability to be understood 3. the ability to think in a clear way

classic: 1. typical; traditional; famous 2. extraordinarily good 3. timeless; considered to be good or exceptional over a long period of time

classical: 1. relating to ancient cultures 2. respecting tradition or the original way of doing things 3. traditional

clause: 1. a provision or stipulation in a contract or another formal document 2. a phrase containing a subject and a verb that is part of a larger sentence

clientele: 1. the specific group of customers which patronize a certain establishment or service provider; customer base

coalesce: 1. grow together or into one body 2. unite or merge into a single body, group, or mass

code: 1. a rule or law which governs an organization or a political region 2. a set of words or images which are used to communicate a message in a secret way or in an abbreviated form

coerce: 1. to convince someone to do something by threatening them or using force 2. to use force to get something

coercion: 1. persuasion through threats or force 2. using force to convince someone to do something

coherence: 1. a logical ordering of things 2. consistency 3. the state of being logical

coherent: 1. consistent or logical 2. understandable 3. capable of explaining one's thoughts or ideas in a way that is easily understood 4. unified; sticking together

coincide: 1. to happen at the same time 2. to be present at the same time and place 3. to agree with or be in agreement

collaborate: 1. work together, especially in a joint intellectual effort 2. cooperate with an enemy who has invaded your country during a war

collapse: 1. to cave in due to pressure or lack of support 2. to fall down 3. to break down 4. to fold into a smaller or more compact shape, allowing something to be more easily stored

colleague: 1. a coworker 2. someone you work with in the same profession or organization

colloquial: 1. not formal 2. familiar and conversational 3. informal

commence: 1. to start; to begin 2. to commence 3. to originate

comment: 1. to say something 2. to make a remark 3. to explain something through a verbal or written remark

commission: 1. a fee or payment for goods or services rendered 2. a request to create a specific work for someone 3. a group which studies a certain issue

commit: to do something

commitment: 1. one's promise or willingness to do something 2. an obligation, engagement, pledge or understanding

commodity: 1. a product or good that can be bought and sold 2. something useful or of value

communicate: 1. to transmit something, such as energy or an illness 2. to transmit information to others through written, verbal or non verbal words or signals

communication: 1. the act of transmitting information from one person to another 2. the message that is transmitted

community: 1. a group of people living in the same area or region 2. a group of people who share common interests 3. the greater public

compatible: 1. able to exist in harmony 2. well-suited 3. capable of being mixed

compensate: 1. to pay someone for something that has been lost, damaged, or taken away 2. to make up for something negative 3. to pay someone for their services

compensation: 1. a reward or a payment that is given in exchange for some sort of negative incident

compile: 1. to gather things together 2. to put things together in a logical or orderly form

complacency: a feeling of contentment or self-satisfaction with your own abilities or situation that prevents you from trying harder, often while unaware of some potential danger, defect, or the like

complement: 1. to go well with something 2. to make perfect; to complete


complex: 1. complicated and not easy to understand 2. involving or made from many different parts

component: 1. one specific part of something 2. an ingredient or element

compound: 1. to increase 2. to combine 3. to make something worse 4. to pay interest

comprehensive: 1. all-encompassing 2. thorough 3. extensive 4. dealing with most or all aspects of a certain issue

comprise: 1. to be made up of 2. to be composed of 3. to include; to contain

compromise: 1. a settlement of differences by mutual concessions 2. reduce the quality, value, or degree of something 3. endanger the interests or reputation of

compute: 1. to calculate 2. to determine by using a calculator or computer

conceive: 1. to draw up or think up a plan 2. to get pregnant 3. to invent something

concentrate: 1. to focus on something 2. to strengthen something 3. to bring things or people together in a common location

concept: 1. an idea or a notion 2. a plan 3. an experimental model for a future product

concern: A matter of interest or importance

concise: 1. expressed in few words 2. clear and succinct 3. brief yet clear

conclude: 1. to finish 2. to terminate or cause something to come to an end 3. to deduce or to infer based on what one has seen or heard

concomitant: 1. something that is connected to something else, often occurring at the same time 2. something associated with another thing

concur: agree with someone or something

concurrent: 1. contemporary 2. happening or existing at the same time 3. simultaneous

conditional: imposing, containing, subject to, or depending on a condition or conditions

conduct: to lead or guide

confer: 1. to grant something, like a title, to someone 2. to discuss or exchange opinions

conference: 1. a meeting of people who share a similar interest attend a variety of talks or sessions about a specific subject or topic 2. a meeting

confidant: 1. a person that one entrusts with their secrets 2. a person one can confide in and discuss personal matters with

confine: 1. to limit or restrict 2. to forcibly keep someone or something in a certain place; to imprison

confirm: 1. to check 2. to verify 3. to strengthen 4. to reinforce

confirmed: 1. firmly settled in a habit 2. established 3. unlikely to change

conflict: 1. a fight or a disagreement between two or more parties 2. a struggle 3. an incompatibility

conform: 1. to meet (standards) 2. to comply with 3. to be similar to 4. to behave in a way that is expected and acceptable

conformity: 1. agreement or compliance with a particular subject or issue 2. behavior that displays compliance with socially accepted rules or norms

confound: 1. to surprise or confuse someone 2. to mix something up 3. to refute 4. to bewilder

connive: 1. to secretly plan or work together with another person in order to do something illegal 2. to not do anything about illegal behavior you know about, showing one's silent compliance with the issue

conscientious: 1. controlled by or done according to, what one knows is right 2. working hard and careful to do things well

consensus: 1. majority opinion 2. an opinion or decision reached by all, or nearly all, members of a group 3. a general agreement

consent: 1. to allow or agree with 2. to grant permission 3. to approve

consequent: 1. resulting 2. following 3. progressing logically

consider: to think carefully

considerable: 1. quite large; substantial 2. worthy of recognition or consideration 3. noteworthy

consist: 1. to be composed of 2. to be inherent 3. to be compatible

consistent: 1. regular 2. not changing over time 3. constantly acting or behaving the same way

conspicuous: 1. obvious; easily noticed 2. attracting attention, especially because it is strange or unusual

constant: 1. unchanging 2. firm or resolute 3. persistent; continuing over a long period of time 4. loyal

consternation: a feeling of worry, shock, or confusion, often caused when something unexpected happens

constitute: 1. to formally set up or establish 2. to appoint someone to a position 3. to be the same as or equivalent to

constitutional: 1. permitted by the constitution of a country, group or business 2. related to the constitution of a country, group or business

constrain: 1. to keep back; to confine 2. to restrain; to limit 3. to force; to oblige

construct: 1. to create or to form 2. to build; to put pieces together to form a whole object 3. to combine smaller pieces to develop something new

construction: 1. the act or business of building things, especially structures

consult: 1. to get advice from someone or something; to ask someone their opinion 2. to consider; to take into account

consume: 1. to eat 2. to use; to use up 3. to totally destroy

consumer: 1. a person who purchases goods or services

contact: 1. to communicate with someone over the phone or by writing a letter, e-mail or text message

contemporary: 1. from or existing in the same time period 2. modern


contempt: 1. a feeling that someone or something is unimportant and deserves no respect 2. disregard for something that is usually respected or feared 3. open disrespect or willful disobedience of the authority of a court of law or legislative body

contentious: 1. tending to argue or quarrel; quarrelsome 2. causing, involving, or characterized by argument or controversy

context: 1. the circumstances surrounding something 2. the words before and after something that help explain what it means 3. the circumstances or situation in which something happens, which help to explain it

contract: 1. to get smaller; to shrink 2. to make smaller 3. to hire someone to work under a contract 4. to get

contradict: 1. to make a statement that goes against what has been expressed by another 2. to deny 3. to disagree with something

contradiction: 1. a difference between two or more messages or statements which shows that one of the statements must be wrong 2. an inconsistency

contrary: 1. opposite or completely different 2. obstinate 3. unfavorable

contrast: 1. the act of finding differences between two or more things 2. a difference between two or more things

contribute: 1. to write for a newspaper or a magazine 2. to give goods, money or time and effort to a person or group in order to help them

contribution: 1. something one gives or does in order to help reach a shared achievement 2. a donation 3. a specific tax payment

controversy: 1. a disagreement or dispute over a specific subject about which people have differing opinions 2. a heated discussion or argument

convene: 1. to bring people together for a formal or official purpose such as a meeting 2. to gather

convention: 1. a formal political agreement 2. a gathering or meeting of people or professionals with a shared interest 3. a social custom

conventional: 1. traditional 2. based on what is considered to be traditional or typical 3. common 4. related to or based on a convention or an agreement

converse: 1. to talk with a person or a group of people 2. to have a conversation

conversely: 1. reciprocally 2. in a contrary manner

convert: 1. to change something; to transform 2. to undergo a change 3. to change to another religion

convince: 1. to make someone believe what you are saying; to persuade

convinced: 1. very sure 2. persuaded 3. certain

convivial: 1. (of an atmosphere or event) friendly, lively, and making you feel happy and welcome; festive 2. (of a person) cheerful and friendly; jovial 3. fond of eating, drinking, and good company; sociable; jovial

cooperate: 1. to work together with one or more other people in order to reach a shared or mutually beneficial goal

cooperative: 1. done with others 2. willing to work with others

coordinate: 1. to harmonize 2. to make two or more things work well or efficiently together 3. to match

coordination: 1. the act of making various parts work together in one organized or harmonious way

copious: large in quantity or number; affording ample supply; abundant; plentiful

core: 1. the center of something 2. the most important or essential part of something

corporal: of or relating to the body; bodily; physical

corporate: 1. belonging or pertaining to a large company or corporation 2. common or shared between people or a group of people

corporeal: 1. of or relating to a person's body and not to spiritual or emotional states 2. of a material nature; tangible

corpulent: 1. overweight 2. fat 3. physically large

correspond: 1. to communicate through messages, letters or e-mails 2. to be related to or quite similar to

corresponding: 1. related to 2. comparable 3. matching 4. directly related

corroborate: strengthen, confirm or give support to (a statement, theory, etc.) by providing information or evidence that agrees with them

cosmopolitan: 1. common to or representative of all or many different countries and cultures 2. containing or having experience of many different countries and cultures 3. including people from many different countries 4. free from local or national habits or prejudice

counterfeit: 1. to forge a copy of something, often for illegal or dishonest reasons 2. to create a high-quality copy of something with the intention of defrauding someone

couple: 1. two people who are romantically involved 2. two similar or equal things

covert: 1. secretive or not openly shown 2. hidden; concealed 3. veiled

create: 1. to invent something; to develop something new 2. to cause or bring about

credible: 1. trustworthy 2. easy to believe or convincing 3. reliable

credit: 1. money that is given to someone with the understanding that it will be paid back with interest 2. recognition or praise

credulous: 1. gullible or easily deceived 2. overly willing to believe what one sees or hears 3. easily tricked or convinced

criteria: 1. the standards or rules on which something is judged or based

crucial: 1. of the utmost importance 2. extremely important 3. decisive

cryptic: 1. mysterious 2. possessing a hidden meaning 3. written or said using a special code or cypher

culpable: deserving blame or censure

culture: 1. behaviors, beliefs, and standards that are shared between one large group of people or a society 2. art, such as music, literature, dance, theater, etc.

cumulative: 1. increasing due to the constant addition of other elements 2. gradually increasing 3. snowballing

cupidity: 1. avarice 2. a strong or excessive desire for possessions or wealth

currency: 1. money; any other medium of exchange

cursory: quick and probably not detailed


curtail: 1. to reduce or shorten something 2. to establish a limit on something 3. to abridge

cycle: 1. an extended period of time 2. a bi- or tri- cycle 3. a series of events which repeat over time

cynical: 1. displaying a belief that people only act in self-interested ways 2. pessimistic or skeptical 3. distrustful of humans or human nature 4. contemptuous or condescending

D

data: 1. information, facts or figures about a specific subject that is often used to make a decision 2. information used by a computer

dauntless: showing fearlessness and determination

dearth: a lack of something or an inadequate supply

debacle: 1. a complete collapse or failure, often in an embarrassing way 2. a sudden, disastrous collapse, downfall, or defeat

debase: 1. to degrade 2. to adulterate 3. to reduce in quality or value 4. to humiliate

debate: 1. a civil or controlled argument between two or more people or groups with opposing viewpoints 2. a formal discussion before a vote 3. discussion

decade: 1. a period of ten years 2. any series or group of ten

decimate: 1. destroy, kill, or remove a large number or proportion of (a group) 2. reduce, damage, or destroy the strength or effectiveness of something severely 3. select by lot and kill every tenth one of

decline: 1. a fall in the number of something; a reduction 2. the act of reducing in number 3. a downward slope

decoy: 1. an object used as a decoy or to bait people or animals 2. something used to lure people or animals to trick them into a dangerous situation

decry: 1. to openly express displeasure or disagreement with 2. to condemn

deduce: 1. to reach a conclusion based on the facts available 2. to infer

deference: respectful submission to someone or something

deferential: 1. considerate 2. respectful towards one's elders or superiors 3. polite

defile: 1. to spoil something by making it less pure; to corrupt 2. to pollute or make something dirty

define: 1. to explain exactly what something means 2. to describe what a word means 3. to clarify 4. to limit

definite: 1. exact 2. clear 3. undeniable 4. certain and unlikely to change

definition: 1. a clear outline of something 2. the meaning of a word or phrase

degradation: 1. the act or process of degrading such as in rank, status, or condition 2. treat someone or something poorly and without respect; humiliation

deleterious: 1. damaging or harmful 2. injurious to health

deliberate: 1. to carefully debate or think about something serious 2. to thoughtfully weigh the available options

delineate: 1. describe or portray (something) clearly and precisely 2. draw or trace the outline of; sketch or trace in outline

demagogue: a person, especially an orator or political leader, who gains power and popularity by appealing to emotion, passions, prejudice, etc. rather than by using rational argument in order to win them over quickly and so gain power

demonstrate: 1. to deliberately show or prove 2. to make clear

demonstrative: 1. freely and openly showing one's emotions, attitudes, etc., especially of love or affection 2. serving as convincing evidence or conclusive proof of something

demure: (especially of a woman or her behavior) reserved, modest, shy, and well behaved

denote: 1. to be a name or symbol for 2. to indicate 3. to mean; to symbolize

denounce: 1. to condemn or accuse something or someone, often in a formal manner 2. to strongly and publicly criticize someone or something

deny: 1. to say that something is not true 2. to claim one is not guilty of something; to not admit 3. to not let someone have something

depict: 1. show (someone or something) in a picture, drawing, painting, photograph, etc. 2. describe (someone or something) using words, a story, etc.

deplete: 1. to cause a great reduction in the fullness or size of 2. to use up 3. to decrease the number of something

deplore: 1. to believe something is wrong or bad 2. to lament; to regret 3. to feel great sadness about

depravity: behavior that is immoral or evil; wickedness

deprecate: 1. criticize or express disapproval of (someone or something) 2. depreciate; belittle

depreciation: 1. decrease in value due to age, wear, decay, market conditions, etc. 2. a decrease in the purchasing or exchange value of money 3. an instance of disparaging or belittlement

depress: 1. to press or force down 2. to make someone feel quite sad 3. to weaken 4. to lower the amount of something

depression: 1. extreme sadness 2. a dip in a surface 3. a severe recession in an economy

deride: speak of or write about (someone or something) in a way that shows you think they are stupid, unimportant, or useless; make fun of; ridicule

derivative: 1. developed from, based on, influenced by, or copied something else; derived 2. copied or adapted from others; not original; secondary

derive: 1. to get something from a source 2. to deduce 3. to show or trace the origin of

descry: 1. see (something unclear or distant) by looking carefully 2. discover by looking carefully

design: 1. a sketch or a plan that shows what something will be like when it is produced or constructed 2. a pattern or plan

desist: 1. to cease or to stop 2. to abstain from doing something

despite: 1. hatred or malice 2. injury

despondent: very sad and with no enthusiasm from loss of hope or courage; dejected

despot: 1. a ruler or other person with absolute, unlimited power, typically one who uses that power in cruel and unfair ways; autocrat 2. any tyrant or oppressor

destitute: 1. extremely poor and lacking money, food, a home, or possessions 2. (often followed by of) destitute of: deprived of, devoid of, or lacking


detect: 1. to note or to feel something 2. to discover or catch 3. to note the presence of

deter: 1. to discourage or keep someone from doing something 2. to make someone decide not to do something by making them fear the consequences or repercussions

deteriorate: 1. to get or become worse 2. to depreciate 3. to disintegrate over time

deterrent: something that discourages; tending to deter

detrimental: 1. causing damage or injury 2. harmful

deviate: 1. to stray from the established course or standards 2. to digress

device: 1. a contraption used to perform specific tasks 2. an explosive, like a bomb 3. a method used to do something

devote: 1. to dedicate time or resources to something 2. to set apart

dexterous: 1. skillful in the use of one's hands 2. possessing great mental skill; clever

diatribe: an angry, bitter, and sharply abusive speech or piece of writing that strongly criticizes, denounces, or attacks against someone or something

differentiate: 1. to determine or recognize the difference between two or more things; to distinguish 2. to make one thing unlike another

diffuse: 1. pour out and cause to spread freely, as a fluid 2. spread or scatter over a wide area widely or thinly; disseminate; dispersed; not concentrated in one area 3. spread among a large group of people 4. cause (light) to spread evenly to reduce glare

dilemma: 1. a serious problem 2. a situation in which a difficult decision must be made

diligent: steady, hard-working, and careful in one's work or duties; industrious; painstaking

dimension: 1. a property or way of measuring space 2. a part or aspect of something larger

diminish: 1. to reduce or make smaller 2. to become smaller or less

diminutive: extremely or unusually short or small in size; much smaller than ordinary or average; very small; little; tiny

dire: 1. causing or involving great fear or suffering; dreadful; terrible 2. warning of or indicating dreadful or terrible future (trouble, disaster, misfortune, etc.) 3. extremely serious or urgent; requiring immediate action

discern: 1. see, recognize, find out, or understand something that is far away or not very clear 2. perceive or recognize (someone or something) with difficulty by the sight or some other sense 3. come to know, recognize, or distinguish mentally

discord: 1. disagreement among people or things 2. dispute or strife 3. a lack of harmony

discount: a reduction in the usual price of something

discrepancy: 1. a difference or variation between things that should be identical 2. inconsistency 3. disagreement

discrete: 1. distinct 2. separate 3. not continuous

discretion: 1. the ability to judge people or situations wisely and make the right choices 2. the ability to behave in a way that does not cause offense

discriminate: 1. to treat someone or a group of people differently due to their origin, race, sex or other trait 2. to distinguish or see the difference between things

disdain: the feeling of not liking someone or something and thinking that they are not important and do not deserve any interest, respect, notice, response, etc.

disparage: 1. speak of in a slighting or disrespectful way; belittle 2. lower in rank or reputation

disparity: 1. a large difference between two or more things 2. inequality 3. incongruity

dispel: 1. make (a doubt, fear, belief, feeling, or idea) go away or end, usually by proving them wrong or unnecessary 2. drive away or off in various directions; disperse; dissipate

displace: 1. to force someone or something out of its proper place or position 2. to take over for 3. to remove

displacement: 1. the act of removing someone or something from the place it held or lived previously

display: 1. to show or present 2. to demonstrate 3. to reveal

dispose: 1. to get rid of or throw away 2. to make someone feel a certain way 3. to arrange

disseminate: 1. spread (something, especially news, information, ideas, etc.) widely 2. scatter widely, as in sowing seed

distinct: 1. different or separate 2. unmistakable; obvious

distinction: 1. honor or excellence 2. something that makes a person or a thing different from the rest

distort: 1. to misrepresent or give false information 2. to change something so that it is no longer the way it originally was

distribute: 1. to give out or hand out 2. to spread something out over a surface 3. to deliver products

distribution: 1. the act of giving something out to people 2. the way in which something is distributed or spread out over an area

diurnal: 1. daily; happening every day 2. done during the daytime or related to daytime

divergent: 1. tending to split and move out in different directions from a single point; diverging 2. be or become different

diverse: 1. possessing various characteristics 2. distinct 3. diversified

diversity: 1. difference or variety 2. the state of having people from different races and cultures gathered together in one space or organization

divert: 1. to distract 2. to make something move in a different direction or on a different course 3. to use for a different purpose than the original 4. to amuse or entertain

docile: 1. submissive 2. easy to handle, manage or teach 3. compliant

doctrine: 1. a belief or set of beliefs that are taught and accepted by a religious, political, scientific, or other group; dogma 2. a statement of official government policy, especially in foreign or military affairs

document: 1. to record something on paper or in digital format 2. to provide written evidence

dogmatic: an authoritative, arrogant assertion of unproved or unprovable principles as if they are certainly correct and cannot be doubted

domain: 1. territory 2. field of activity or study 3. a set or group of websites that share the same suffix such as .net .org etc.

domestic: 1. related to house, home or family 2. from one's own country