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Advanced Vocabulary for Letter Writing

advanced vocabulary, words, collocation, phrase with meaning and examples for ielts letter writing to achieve band 9

  1. Inevitable: something that is certain to happen, unavoidable Example: It was inevitable that the company would face financial difficulties given the current economic situation.

  2. Mitigate: to make something less severe, harmful or painful Example: Measures have been taken to mitigate the impact of the drought on the local farming community.

  3. Subsequently: happening or coming after something else Example: The report highlighted the problems with the product and subsequently, sales declined.

  4. Invariably: always, without exception Example: The team invariably performs well under pressure.

  5. Disseminate: to spread information, knowledge or ideas to a large number of people Example: The government is working to disseminate information about the benefits of renewable energy.

  6. Pervasive: widespread, existing or present everywhere Example: The pervasive use of social media has changed the way people communicate with each other.

  7. Alleviate: to make something less severe, reduce or ease the pain or suffering Example: The new medication has been shown to alleviate the symptoms of the disease.

  8. Evidently: clearly, obviously, plainly Example: The company's financial reports evidently showed a decline in profits over the past year.

  9. Facilitate: to make something easier or  convenient, to help or assist in the process Example: The new software was designed to facilitate communication between different departments.

  10. Invariably: always, without exception Example: The team invariably performs well under pressure.

  11. Ostensibly: apparently, seemingly, apparently true but not necessarily so Example: The company's decision to lay off workers was ostensibly due to budget cuts, but there may have been other reasons.

  12. Pragmatic: practical, sensible, realistic Example: The company took a pragmatic approach to the problem and found a solution that worked for everyone.

  13. Aforementioned: previously mentioned, already referred to Example: The aforementioned proposal has been approved by the board of directors.

  14. Incongruous: not in harmony or keeping with the surroundings or other aspects of something, out of place Example: The modern architecture of the building seemed incongruous in the historic district.

  15. Exacerbate: to make something worse, more severe or more intense Example: The lack of rainfall will exacerbate the water shortage in the area.

  16. Disparate: fundamentally different or distinct in quality or kind Example: The two companies had disparate approaches to marketing their products.

  17. Superfluous: unnecessary, extra, surplus to requirements Example: The report contained a lot of superfluous information that could have been omitted.

  18. Ubiquitous: present or found everywhere, widespread Example: The use of smartphones has become ubiquitous in modern society.

  19. Reciprocate: to respond to a gesture or action by making a corresponding one, to give back in return Example: The company promised to reciprocate the loyalty shown by its customers.

  20. Idiosyncrasy: a unique or peculiar habit or characteristic Example: His idiosyncrasy of always wearing a hat was a source of amusement to his colleagues.



  1. Acquiesce: to accept or agree to something without objection Example: Despite her reservations, she eventually acquiesced to his plan.

  2. Ameliorate: to make something better, improve Example: The new regulations aim to ameliorate the situation for workers in the industry.

  3. Anomaly: something that deviates from what is expected or normal Example: The unusually high temperatures in the region were seen as an anomaly by meteorologists.

  4. Antithesis: the direct opposite of something Example: The author used the character of the villain as the antithesis of the hero.

  5. Apathy: lack of interest or concern, indifference Example: The students' apathy towards their studies was a cause for concern for their teachers.

  6. Arbitrary: based on random choice or personal whim, rather than reason or system Example: The company's decision to lay off certain employees seemed arbitrary and unfair.

  7. Arcane: understood by few, mysterious or obscure Example: The legal jargon used in the contract was arcane and difficult to understand.

  8. Assiduous: showing great care, attention and effort Example: The lawyer's assiduous preparation helped him win the case.

  9. Autonomy: the right or condition of self-government, independence Example: The region was granted autonomy from the central government.

  10. Avarice: extreme greed for wealth or material gain Example: The CEO's avarice led to unethical business practices and a decline in company morale.

  11. Bellicose: inclined or eager to fight, aggressive or hostile Example: The politician's bellicose rhetoric increased tensions between the two countries.

  12. Benevolent: well-meaning and kindly, characterized by goodwill Example: The charity's benevolent actions helped many people in need.

  13. Cacophony: a harsh, discordant mixture of sounds Example: The construction site was filled with a cacophony of noise.

  14. Capitulate: to surrender, give up resistance, yield Example: The rebels eventually capitulated and laid down their arms.

  15. Cathartic: providing emotional release, therapeutic Example: Writing in a journal can be a cathartic way to deal with stress and anxiety.

  16. Cogent: clear, logical and convincing, compelling Example: The lawyer presented a cogent argument for his client's innocence.

  17. Conjecture: an opinion or conclusion formed on the basis of incomplete information, speculation Example: The author's theory about the meaning of the novel's ending was pure conjecture.

  18. Convoluted: complex and difficult to follow, intricate Example: The instructions for assembling the furniture were convoluted and confusing.

  19. Credence: belief or acceptance of something as true, credibility Example: The new evidence gave credence to the witness's testimony.

  20. Cryptic: having a meaning that is mysterious or obscure, enigmatic Example: The message left on her phone was cryptic and difficult to understand.

  21. Dearth: a scarcity or lack of something, shortage Example: The drought caused a dearth of crops and food supplies.

  22. Decadence: moral or cultural decline, decay, self-indulgence Example: The city's reputation for decadence and excess drew many tourists.

  23. Demagogue: a leader who appeals to people's emotions and prejudices, rather than reason or truth, a rabble-rouser Example: The politician was accused of being a demagogue who preyed on people's fears.

  24. Denigrate: to criticize unfairly, disparage Example: The columnist's article denigrated the work of a respected scientist.

  1. Deride: to ridicule or mock, make fun of Example: The comedian's routine often derided politicians and public figures.

  2. Despot: a ruler who exercises absolute power, often in a cruel or oppressive way Example: The despot's reign was characterized by widespread human rights abuses.

  3. Diatribe: a forceful and bitter verbal attack or criticism Example: The politician's speech was a diatribe against his opponents.

  4. Diligent: hard-working and careful, industrious Example: The student's diligent studying paid off with excellent grades.

  5. Disparate: essentially different in kind, not allowing comparison Example: The two paintings were so disparate in style and subject matter that it was hard to believe they were created by the same artist.

  6. Dissonance: a lack of harmony or agreement, a discordant sound Example: The dissonance between the two musicians' playing was distracting to the audience.

  7. Ebullient: cheerful and full of energy, enthusiastic Example: The team's ebullient spirit carried them to victory.

  8. Eclectic: deriving ideas, styles, or tastes from a broad and diverse range of sources Example: The restaurant's menu was eclectic, featuring dishes from a variety of cuisines.

  9. Egregious: outstandingly bad or shocking, flagrant Example: The company's treatment of its workers was egregious and drew public outcry.

  10. Eloquent: fluent or persuasive in speaking or writing, articulate Example: The speaker's eloquent words inspired the audience.

  11. Empathy: the ability to understand and share the feelings of others Example: The therapist's empathy helped her connect with her clients and facilitate their healing.

  12. Enigmatic: difficult to understand, mysterious Example: The artist's enigmatic paintings left many viewers puzzled.

  13. Epitome: a perfect example of something, the embodiment of a quality or characteristic Example: The athlete was considered the epitome of dedication and hard work.

  14. Equanimity: calmness and composure, especially in difficult situations Example: The leader's equanimity in times of crisis inspired confidence in his followers.

  15. Esoteric: intended for or likely to be understood by only a small number of people with a specialized knowledge or interest Example: The scientific paper's esoteric language made it inaccessible to the average reader.

  16. Euphemism: a mild or indirect word or expression used in place of one considered to be too harsh or blunt Example: The obituary used the euphemism "passed away" instead of the more direct "died."

  17. Evanescent: soon passing out of sight, memory, or existence, fleeting Example: The beauty of the sunset was evanescent, disappearing quickly behind the horizon.

  18. Exacerbate: to make a problem, bad situation, or negative feeling worse Example: The CEO's decision to lay off workers during a pandemic only served to exacerbate the economic crisis.

  19. Exculpate: to clear from blame, exonerate Example: The evidence presented in court exculpated the defendant and proved his innocence.

  20. Exemplary: serving as a desirable model, commendable, praiseworthy Example: The student's exemplary behavior and academic performance earned her a scholarship.

  21. Extol: to praise highly, laud Example: The coach extolled the team's hard work and dedication during their championship run.

  22. Facetious: treating serious issues with inappropriate humor, flippant Example: The comedian's facetious remarks about a recent tragedy were met with criticism.

  23. Fallacious: based on a mistaken belief, misleading

  1. Fastidious: very attentive to detail, meticulous, hard to please Example: The editor was fastidious in her attention to grammar and syntax.

  2. Fluctuate: to rise and fall irregularly in number or amount, vary Example: The stock market's value fluctuated wildly in response to economic news.

  3. Fortuitous: happening by chance or luck, fortunate Example: The singer's chance encounter with a music producer proved fortuitous and launched her career.

  4. Frivolous: not having any serious purpose or value, trivial Example: The lawsuit was dismissed as frivolous, without merit.

  5. Garrulous: excessively talkative, especially on trivial matters Example: The old man's garrulous ramblings were a source of annoyance to his family.

  6. Gregarious: fond of company, sociable Example: The party was a hit with the gregarious crowd, who enjoyed mingling and socializing.

  7. Harbinger: a person or thing that signals or foreshadows something to come Example: The first drops of rain were a harbinger of the storm to come.

  8. Hegemony: leadership or dominance, especially by one country or social group over others Example: The country's economic hegemony gave it significant influence over global trade.

  9. Iconoclast: a person who challenges or criticizes established beliefs or customs, a rebel Example: The artist was an iconoclast, whose provocative work challenged societal norms.

  10. Idiosyncrasy: a unique or peculiar behavior or characteristic, a quirk Example: The writer's idiosyncratic style and use of language made his work stand out.

  11. Ignominious: deserving or causing public disgrace or shame Example: The politician's ignominious resignation followed a scandal involving corruption.

  12. Impetus: the force or energy that makes something happen or happen more quickly, motivation Example: The team's recent successes provided the impetus for the coach to continue pushing them to do better.

  13. Impute: to attribute or ascribe a quality or responsibility to someone or something Example: The success of the project was imputed to the hard work and dedication of the team.

  14. Inane: lacking significance, silly, foolish Example: The comedian's jokes were often criticized as inane and unfunny.

  15. Incessant: continuing without interruption, unceasing Example: The sound of the nearby construction was incessant, making it difficult to concentrate.

  16. Incisive: penetrating, sharp, clear-thinking Example: The journalist's incisive questions revealed important information about the scandal.

  17. Incongruous: not in harmony or keeping with the surroundings or other aspects of something, inappropriate Example: The garish decorations were incongruous with the elegant surroundings of the restaurant.

  18. Indolent: lazy, avoiding work or physical activity Example: The student's indolent attitude towards studying resulted in poor grades.

  19. Ineffable: too great or extreme to be expressed or described in words, indescribable Example: The beauty of the sunset was ineffable, beyond words.

  20. Inexorable: impossible to stop or prevent, relentless Example: The inexorable passage of time is a universal truth.

  21. Infinitesimal: extremely small, negligible Example: The difference in the two measurements was infinitesimal and had no significant impact on the results.

  22. Ingenuous: innocent and unsuspecting, naïve Example: The young girl's ingenuous nature made her an easy target for the con artist.

  23. Inscrutable: impossible to understand or interpret, mysterious Example: The politician's true motives were incredibly inscrutable, leaving many wondering about his true intentions.

  1. Insidious: working or spreading harmfully in a gradual or subtle way, deceptive Example: The insidious influence of social media on mental health is a growing concern.

  2. Insipid: lacking flavor or interest, dull, boring Example: The food at the restaurant was insipid and uninspired.

  3. Intrepid: fearless, adventurous, brave Example: The explorer was known for his intrepid spirit, always eager to take on new challenges.

  4. Inundate: to overwhelm with something, flood Example: The office was inundated with paperwork, making it difficult to keep up.

  5. Inveigle: to persuade or entice someone to do something by flattery or deception, coax Example: The salesperson inveigled the customer into buying a product they didn't really need.

  6. Juxtapose: to place two things side by side for the purpose of comparison or contrast Example: The artist's latest work juxtaposed images of beauty with those of destruction, creating a powerful commentary on society.

  7. Languid: lacking energy or enthusiasm, slow, relaxed Example: The hot weather made everyone feel languid and unmotivated.

  8. Laconic: using few words, concise, terse Example: The boss's laconic instructions left the team confused about what was expected of them.

  9. Lethargic: lacking energy or enthusiasm, sluggish, lazy Example: The student felt lethargic after staying up late to study for exams.

  1. Loquacious: tending to talk a lot, talkative Example: The loquacious salesman talked the customer's ear off, trying to convince them to buy a product.

  2. Magnanimous: generous and forgiving, unselfish Example: The athlete showed magnanimous sportsmanship by congratulating their opponent on their win.

  3. Malevolent: having or showing a desire to harm others, evil Example: The villain's malevolent actions caused chaos and destruction.

  4. Malleable: capable of being shaped or molded, adaptable Example: The malleable material was easy to work with and could be formed into various shapes.

  5. Maverick: a person who thinks and acts in an independent or unconventional way, nonconformist Example: The artist was a maverick, known for their innovative and unconventional approach to their work.

  6. Meander: to follow a winding and indirect course, wander aimlessly Example: The river meandered through the countryside, providing a scenic view for hikers.

  7. Mellifluous: sweet and pleasant sounding, melodious Example: The singer's mellifluous voice was a joy to listen to.

  8. Mercurial: subject to sudden or unpredictable changes in mood or mind, volatile Example: The boss's mercurial behavior made it difficult for their employees to know how to approach them.

  9. Metaphorically: used in a way that suggests a metaphor, symbolically Example: The artist used metaphorically charged images to convey a deeper meaning in their work.

  10. Meticulous: showing great attention to detail, precise, thorough Example: The architect's meticulous planning resulted in a flawless design.

  11. Misanthrope: a person who dislikes humankind and avoids human society, cynic Example: The misanthrope withdrew from society, finding solace in solitude.

  12. Misogynist: a person who dislikes, despises, or is strongly prejudiced against women, sexist Example: The politician's misogynistic comments sparked outrage and condemnation.

  13. Mitigate: to make less severe or intense, alleviate Example: The company implemented policies to mitigate the effects of workplace stress on its employees.

  14. Modicum: a small amount of something, a little bit Example: The artist had a modicum of talent, but lacked the dedication to fully develop their skills.

  15. Morose: gloomy, sullen, ill-tempered Example: The morose atmosphere of the funeral reflected the sadness and loss of the occasion.

  16. Myriad: a countless or extremely large number, multitude Example: The museum had a myriad of exhibits, showcasing a diverse range of art and artifacts.

  17. Nefarious: wicked or criminal, evil Example: The nefarious activities of the criminal organization were finally exposed by law enforcement.

  18. Nihilistic: rejecting all religious and moral principles, believing life is meaningless, pessimistic Example: The nihilistic philosophy of the character in the book reflected a dark and despairing worldview.

  19. Nominal: existing in name only, not actual, symbolic Example: The salary increase was nominal, barely enough to cover the cost of living.

  20. Nostalgic: feeling a sentimental longing for a past time or place, wistful Example: The old photograph brought back nostalgic memories of a happy childhood.

  21. Novice: a person new to or inexperienced in a field or situation, beginner Example: The novice skier took lessons to learn the basics before hitting the slopes.

  1. Nuance: a subtle difference or distinction, shade of meaning Example: The actor's performance was nuanced, conveying a range of emotions through subtle gestures and expressions.

  2. Obfuscate: to make something unclear or difficult to understand, confuse Example: The politician obfuscated the truth, making it difficult for the public to know what was really going on.

  3. Oblivious: unaware or unconcerned about what is happening around one, ignorant Example: The distracted driver was oblivious to the pedestrians crossing the street.

  4. Obtuse: slow to understand or perceive, dull-witted Example: The student's obtuse response to the question revealed a lack of understanding of the material.

  5. Omnipotent: having unlimited power or authority, all-powerful Example: The deity in the myth was described as an omnipotent force that controlled the universe.

  6. Onerous: involving a great deal of effort or difficulty, burdensome Example: The onerous task of writing a thesis required months of research and writing.

  7. Opaque: not able to be seen through, not transparent, unclear Example: The fog was so opaque that it was difficult to see more than a few feet ahead.

  8. Opulent: ostentatiously rich and luxurious, lavish Example: The opulent palace was decorated with gold and precious stones, showcasing the wealth and power of its owners.

  9. Orthodox: conforming to traditional or established beliefs or practices, conventional Example: The Orthodox Church adheres to traditional practices and beliefs that have been passed down through generations.

  10. Ostensible: stated or appearing to be true, but not necessarily so, supposed Example: The ostensible reason for the company's layoffs was budget cuts, but many suspected there was more to the story.

  11. Panacea: a solution or remedy for all problems, cure-all Example: The politician promised that his plan would be a panacea for the country's economic woes.

  12. Paradoxical: seemingly contradictory but nonetheless true, ironic Example: The paradoxical statement "less is more" suggests that simplicity can be more effective than complexity.

  13. Pariah: a social outcast, someone who is rejected or despised by society, exile Example: The artist was considered a pariah by the art establishment, who dismissed her work as unconventional and unappealing.

  14. Pensive: engaged in deep or serious thought, contemplative Example: The pensive expression on the philosopher's face suggested that he was grappling with complex ideas.

  15. Perfunctory: done without care or interest, cursory Example: The employee's perfunctory response to the customer's complaint only made the situation worse.

  16. Perspicacious: having a keen insight or understanding, perceptive Example: The perspicacious detective was able to solve the case by noticing a small detail that others had overlooked.

  17. Petulant: childishly sulky or bad-tempered, moody Example: The petulant teenager slammed the door and shouted at his parents when they told him he couldn't go out with his friends.

  18. Philistine: a person who is indifferent to culture and the arts, uncultured Example: The businessman was often criticized for his philistine attitude towards the arts, dismissing them as frivolous and unimportant.

  19. Pious: devoutly religious, righteous Example: The pious nun devoted her life to prayer and service to her community.

  20. Plausible: seeming reasonable or probable, believable Example: The scientist presented a plausible theory that explained the unusual phenomena observed in the experiment.

  1. Pompous: self-important, arrogant, grandiose Example: The professor's pompous tone and pretentious language made it difficult for his students to engage with his lectures.

  2. Precarious: not securely held or in position, dangerously unstable, uncertain Example: The construction worker was in a precarious position, balancing on a narrow ledge high above the ground.

  3. Precipitous: dangerously high or steep, sudden and dramatic, abrupt Example: The hiker had to be careful not to slip on the precipitous slope, which dropped sharply down to the valley below.

  4. Pristine: in its original condition, unspoiled, immaculate Example: The beach was pristine, with crystal-clear water and pure white sand.

  5. Proclivity: a tendency to choose or do something regularly, inclination Example: The artist had a proclivity for bold colors and abstract forms in her work.

  6. Prodigal: wastefully extravagant, recklessly spending money, lavish Example: The prodigal son spent all his inheritance on frivolous luxuries, leaving him destitute and alone.

  7. Profuse: abundant, lavish, excessive Example: The chef garnished the dish with profuse amounts of herbs and spices, giving it a rich and complex flavor.

  8. Prolific: producing many works, products, or offspring, fruitful Example: The author was a prolific writer, publishing dozens of books and articles over the course of her career.

  9. Propitious: indicating a good chance of success, favorable Example: The propitious weather conditions were perfect for a successful harvest.

  10. Pungent: having a sharp, strong smell or taste, spicy Example: The pungent aroma of garlic and onions filled the kitchen as the chef prepared the dish.

  1. Quaint: charmingly old-fashioned, picturesque Example: The small town's quaint architecture and cobblestone streets made it a popular tourist destination.

  2. Quandary: a state of uncertainty or confusion, dilemma Example: The CEO was in a quandary about whether to invest in new technology or stick with the tried and true methods.

  3. Quell: to put an end to, suppress, calm Example: The police were able to quell the riot using tear gas and forceful measures.

  4. Querulous: complaining in a whiny or petulant manner, grumbling Example: The querulous child wouldn't stop complaining about the lack of toys in the waiting room.

  5. Quixotic: idealistic but impractical, unrealistic Example: The politician's quixotic promises of world peace were met with skepticism by the public.

  6. Rancorous: bitter, resentful, hostile Example: The rancorous feud between the two families lasted for generations, with neither side willing to back down.

  7. Rapacious: aggressively greedy, grasping, insatiable Example: The rapacious businessman cared only about making money, with little regard for the well-being of his employees.

  8. Rapturous: ecstatic, blissful, overjoyed Example: The audience gave a rapturous standing ovation to the talented young musician.

  9. Rectify: to make something right, correct, amend Example: The manager promised to rectify the mistake and make things right with the dissatisfied customer.

  10. Redolent: evocative, suggestive, reminiscent Example: The redolent scent of pine trees and wood smoke reminded the traveler of his childhood in the countryside.

  1. Redoubtable: formidable, intimidating, impressive Example: The redoubtable boxer had never been defeated in the ring, earning him a reputation as one of the greatest fighters of all time.

  2. Refute: to prove to be false, deny, disprove Example: The scientist was able to refute the popular theory with evidence from his experiments.

  3. Regale: to entertain or amuse someone with stories or events, entertain Example: The host regaled her guests with anecdotes from her travels around the world.

  4. Relegate: to consign to an inferior or less important position, demote Example: The employee was relegated to a lower position after failing to meet the company's performance standards.

  5. Relinquish: to give up or let go of something, surrender Example: The athlete was forced to relinquish his title after failing a drug test.

  6. Remiss: negligent, careless, failing to fulfill one's duty Example: The teacher was remiss in not grading her students' assignments for weeks, causing them to fall behind in their studies.

  7. Repudiate: to reject or disown something or someone, renounce Example: The politician repudiated the controversial statements made by his campaign manager.

  8. Resilient: able to withstand or recover quickly from difficult conditions, tough Example: The people of the city showed their resilient spirit by rebuilding after the devastating earthquake.

  9. Resolute: determined, unwavering, firm in purpose Example: The young athlete was resolute in his goal of becoming an Olympic champion, training tirelessly every day.

  10. Resplendent: shining brightly, dazzling, radiant Example: The bride looked resplendent in her glittering wedding gown and diamond jewelry.

  1. Reticent: reserved, uncommunicative, reluctant to speak Example: The normally reticent student surprised everyone by giving an eloquent speech at the school assembly.

  2. Retrograde: moving backward, declining, regressing Example: The company's retrograde policies and outdated technology caused it to fall behind its competitors.

  3. Reverent: showing deep respect or admiration, worshipful Example: The congregation was reverent during the church service, bowing their heads in prayer and singing hymns.

  4. Rhetoric: the art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing, language designed to impress or persuade Example: The politician's speech was full of empty rhetoric and promises, without any concrete plans for action.

  5. Ribald: vulgar, indecent, humorous in a rude way Example: The comedian's ribald jokes offended some of the more conservative members of the audience.

  6. Rife: widespread, common, prevalent Example: The city was rife with crime and corruption, making it a dangerous place to live.

  7. Sagacious: wise, insightful, shrewd Example: The sagacious old man had a wealth of knowledge and experience, making him a sought-after advisor.

  8. Salient: prominent, noticeable, conspicuous Example: The most salient feature of the skyline was the towering skyscraper in the center of the city.

  9. Sanguine: optimistic, confident, cheerful Example: Despite the setbacks, the team remained sanguine about their chances of winning the championship.

  10. Sardonic: mocking, sarcastic, cynical Example: The writer's sardonic wit and biting commentary made him a favorite among critics.

  1. Scrupulous: conscientious, careful, thorough Example: The lawyer was known for his scrupulous attention to detail, ensuring that no detail was overlooked in his cases.

  2. Seditious: inciting rebellion or resistance against the government or authority, subversive Example: The seditious speech made by the activist was met with condemnation by the authorities.

  3. Seminal: original, influential, groundbreaking Example: The scientist's seminal research laid the foundation for the field of genetics.

  4. Serendipitous: occurring by chance, lucky, fortuitous Example: The discovery of the new planet was a serendipitous occurrence, as the astronomer was not even looking for it.

  5. Squalid: dirty, sordid, squalid Example: The homeless people lived in squalid conditions, with no access to basic sanitation or clean water.

  6. Staid: sedate, dignified, serious Example: The professor's staid demeanor and formal attire gave him an air of authority in the classroom.

  7. Stolid: unemotional, impassive, showing little emotion Example: The detective's stolid expression gave nothing away, even as he uncovered the shocking truth about the crime.

  8. Sublime: impressive, awe-inspiring, magnificent Example: The view from the mountaintop was sublime, with the sun setting over the horizon and the valleys stretching out below.

  9. Succinct: brief, concise, to the point Example: The journalist's succinct article covered all the key points of the story in just a few paragraphs.

  10. Supercilious: arrogant, haughty, condescending Example: The supercilious millionaire looked down on anyone who was not as wealthy or successful as he was.

  1. Supine: lying on one's back, inactive, passive Example: The patient remained supine in the hospital bed, recovering from the surgery.

  2. Sycophantic: fawning, obsequious, overly flattering Example: The sycophantic employee constantly praised the boss in an attempt to gain favor.

  3. Syncretic: blending different cultures or beliefs, eclectic Example: The syncretic music of the region combined traditional African and European styles, creating a unique sound.

  4. Taciturn: quiet, reserved, uncommunicative Example: The taciturn artist preferred to let his work speak for itself, rather than giving interviews or explaining his art.

  5. Tantamount: equivalent, equal in value or effect Example: The CEO's decision to cut costs was tantamount to laying off half the company's employees.

  6. Tenuous: weak, fragile, thin, uncertain Example: The relationship between the two countries was tenuous, with a history of conflict and distrust.

  7. Terse: brief, concise, curt Example: The manager's terse email gave clear instructions but left no room for discussion.

  8. Timorous: timid, fearful, shy Example: The timorous child clung to her mother's leg, afraid to speak to the strangers in the room.

  9. Torpid: sluggish, inactive, lethargic Example: The torpid sloth spent most of its day sleeping in the trees, moving only when necessary to find food.

  10. Trite: overused, lacking originality or freshness, cliché Example: The writer's trite use of common expressions made her work seem unoriginal and uninspired.

  1. Truculent: aggressively defiant, belligerent, hostile Example: The truculent customer shouted and threatened the salesperson when he didn't get the refund he wanted.

  2. Ubiquitous: present everywhere, widespread Example: In today's world, smartphones have become ubiquitous, with nearly everyone owning one.

  3. Unctuous: excessively flattering or insincere, oily, smug Example: The politician's unctuous behavior made many people suspicious of his motives.

  4. Vacuous: lacking intelligence, empty, vapid Example: The vacuous celebrity seemed to have no opinions of her own and was famous for being famous.

  5. Vehement: passionate, intense, forceful Example: The actor gave a vehement performance, pouring all his energy into the role.

  6. Venal: corrupt, bribable, morally compromised Example: The venal police officer was caught accepting bribes from drug dealers.

  7. Verbose: wordy, long-winded, using too many words Example: The lawyer's verbose arguments made it difficult to follow her train of thought.

  8. Vexatious: annoying, frustrating, causing irritation Example: The neighbor's vexatious habit of playing loud music late at night kept the whole building awake.

  9. Vicarious: experienced through someone else, indirect Example: The traveler lived vicariously through the stories of his friends who had visited exotic places.

  10. Visceral: instinctive, emotional, deeply felt Example: The visceral reaction to the tragic news showed how much the community cared for the victim.

  1. Vitriolic: bitter, caustic, harsh Example: The politician's vitriolic speech attacking his opponent did more harm to his own reputation than to his opponent's.

  2. Vivacious: lively, energetic, high-spirited Example: The vivacious host of the party kept the guests entertained and engaged throughout the night.

  3. Wanton: malicious, cruel, reckless Example: The wanton destruction of the natural environment by the mining company was a tragedy for the local community.

  4. Whimsical: playful, fanciful, quirky Example: The whimsical artist's sculptures were always fun and surprising, incorporating unexpected elements.

  5. Wistful: longing, yearning, sad Example: The wistful expression on the old man's face suggested that he was lost in memories of a time long past.

  6. Zealous: enthusiastic, passionate, dedicated Example: The zealous young activist devoted all his time and energy to fighting for environmental justice.

  7. Zeitgeist: the spirit of the times, cultural or intellectual climate of a particular era Example: The music of the 1960s was deeply influenced by the zeitgeist of the era, with songs reflecting the social and political upheavals of the time.

  8. Zenith: the highest point, culmination, apex Example: The athlete's performance at the Olympics was the zenith of his career, the result of years of hard work and dedication.

  9. Zephyr: a gentle breeze, soft wind Example: The zephyr blowing through the open window brought the scent of flowers and the promise of spring.

  10. Zoetic: pertaining to life, living, vital Example: The zoetic energy of the dance performance filled the audience with a sense of joy and vitality.


  1. Zestful: full of energy, enthusiasm, or excitement Example: The zestful crowd cheered as the football team scored the winning touchdown.

  2. Abstemious: moderate in appetite, self-disciplined, not indulgent Example: The abstemious eater avoided desserts and fatty foods in order to maintain a healthy diet.

  3. Acerbic: sharp or biting in tone or taste, caustic, sarcastic Example: The acerbic critic's review of the movie was scathing, highlighting all its flaws and weaknesses.

  4. Adroit: skillful, clever, dexterous Example: The adroit pianist played the difficult piece with ease, leaving the audience spellbound.

  5. Aesthetic: relating to beauty or the appreciation of beauty, artistic Example: The designer's aesthetic sense was evident in the elegant simplicity of the dress.

  6. Altruistic: unselfish, concerned with the welfare of others, charitable Example: The altruistic volunteer spent her weekends helping the homeless in the city.

  7. Amiable: friendly, affable, good-natured Example: The amiable waiter greeted the customers with a smile and made them feel welcome.

  8. Anachronistic: belonging to a different time period, outdated, old-fashioned Example: The use of horse-drawn carriages in the modern city seemed anachronistic and out of place.

  9. Antithesis: the direct opposite, contrast, contradiction Example: The antithesis of love is hate, and the antithesis of good is evil.

  10. Aphorism: a short, pithy statement expressing a truth or general observation, maxim Example: "All that glitters is not gold" is an aphorism that cautions against judging things by their appearance alone.


  1. Apotheosis: the highest point in the development of something, pinnacle, culmination Example: The novel is considered the apotheosis of the author's literary career, representing the height of his creativity.

  2. Archaic: ancient, outmoded, no longer in use Example: The use of quill pens is archaic, having been replaced by modern writing implements.

  3. Arcane: mysterious, obscure, secret Example: The arcane rituals of the ancient tribe were shrouded in mystery and secrecy.

  4. Ascetic: practicing strict self-denial as a measure of personal and especially spiritual discipline, austere Example: The ascetic monk lived a life of poverty and self-denial in order to achieve spiritual enlightenment.

  5. Asinine: foolish, silly, stupid Example: The asinine comment made by the politician caused an uproar and damaged his reputation.

  6. Assiduous: diligent, hardworking, persistent Example: The assiduous student spent long hours in the library, studying for her exams.

  7. Astringent: harsh, severe, strict Example: The astringent discipline imposed by the coach helped the team achieve their best performance.

  8. Atavistic: relating to or exhibiting characteristics of an ancestral type, primitive, regressive Example: The atavistic behavior of the wild animal was a reminder of its ancient origins.

  9. Augment: to make larger, increase, add to Example: The company plans to augment its workforce in order to meet the increasing demand for its products.

  10. Auspicious: favorable, promising, fortunate Example: The auspicious start of the new year was marked by good weather and a sense of optimism.



  1. Avaricious: greedy, covetous, materialistic Example: The avaricious businessman was always looking for ways to increase his wealth, often at the expense of others.

  2. Avuncular: kind, friendly, like an uncle Example: The avuncular professor was always available to offer advice and guidance to his students.

  3. Bellicose: aggressive, warlike, belligerent Example: The bellicose nation threatened to use military force to resolve the territorial dispute.

  4. Benign: gentle, kindly, favorable, not harmful Example: The benign tumor was unlikely to cause any serious health problems.

  5. Bibliophile: a lover of books, book collector Example: The bibliophile spent most of his free time browsing in bookstores and adding to his collection.

  6. Bombastic: grandiose, pompous, pretentious Example: The politician's bombastic speech was full of grandiose promises but lacked substance.

  7. Boorish: rude, insensitive, uncivilized Example: The boorish behavior of the party guest was a source of embarrassment to his hosts.

  8. Bucolic: relating to the countryside, rustic, pastoral Example: The bucolic scenery of the countryside was a welcome change from the hustle and bustle of the city.

  9. Cacophony: harsh, unpleasant sounds, discordant noise Example: The cacophony of car horns and sirens made it difficult to concentrate in the busy city.

  10. Callow: immature, inexperienced, naive Example: The callow youth was unprepared for the challenges of adult life.

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